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Table of Content

    20 March 2023, Volume 59 Issue 2
    Instruction Extension Ensuring Time Constraints in Real Time Processor
    ZHAO Xiujia, LI Lei, LIU Xianhua
    2023, 59(2):  179-188.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.013
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    Hardware software cooperation is one of the effective methods for the design of mixed criticality system, which realize resource isolation by necessary hardware semantics, and ensure that different critical tasks meet time constraints based on efficient thread scheduling. Based on a fine-grained multithreaded processor FlexPRET, this paper designs and implements some temporal instruction extensions, and realizes relevant supports in the processor and compiler respectively, so that the program can describe the timing constraint semantics of the worst-case execution time. Experiments show that the extended instructions can provide users with more accurate timing control.
    Response of Karst Carbon Sink to Climate Change and Rocky Desertification Control Measures in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    TANG Yingying, WU Xiuqin
    2023, 59(2):  189-196.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.110
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    In order to explore the changing trend and response mechanism of karst carbon sinks under the background of climate change and rocky desertification control engineering, this paper estimates the temporal and spatial pattern of karst carbon sinks in Guangxi from 2005 to 2020 based on Guangxi lithologic geological data and meteorological data, and further The effects of climate change and rocky desertification control on karst carbon sinks are analyzed. The results show that from 2005 to 2020, the temporal and spatial differences of karst carbon sinks in Guangxi are significant, showing a trend of stable fluctuation and rising with an average annual increase of 8.1%. Precipitation has the most significant impact on the changes of karst carbon sinks while temperature and evapotranspiration have little effect. The responses to the control measures are different. As the most common control measures for rocky desertification, closing the mountain for management and protection has the most significant role in promoting carbon sequestration and increasing sinking with an average annual growth contribution rate of about 28%. 
    A Transformer-Based Model for Short-Term Landslide Displacement Prediction
    TIAN Yuan, PANG Xiao, ZHAO Wenyi, CHANG Xiaoyin, CHENG Chuyun, ZOU Pei, CAO Xiaocheng
    2023, 59(2):  197-210.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.106
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    A Transformer-based short-term landslide displacement prediction model is proposed by combining temporal convolutional network (TCN) with a Transformer decoder. This model takes the preprocessed displacement and rainfall sequences as input and outputs the displacement predictions for the next three days in a time-series autoregressive manner. The experimental results show that the model achieves higher prediction accuracy than support vector machine (SVM) and long short-term memory (LSTM), and performs particularly well during predicting rapid deformation periods. At the same time, through the analysis of the attention mechanism of the model, it is found that the model focuses on the peak of displacements and heavy rainfalls, indicating that the model is reasonably reliable.
    Virtual Field Scene Construction Method Based on Panoramic Photo Inpainting
    CHANG Lai-Ho, CHEN Bin
    2023, 59(2):  211-220.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.109
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    A fast construction method of field virtual environment based on panoramic image is proposed. Through the processing of panoramic image, such as contour recognition, depth estimation and photo inpainting, the image-based scene information is obtained. The corresponding panoramic image is rendered according to the user’s position, so as to obtain an immersive field virtual environment supporting 6-DOF roaming in a limited range; The practicability of this method is verified by the user's subjective feeling and objective index of image quality. The results show that the proposed method has a more convenient way of use and better application effect, and may be used in virtual field geological practice teaching.
    Spore Assemblage from the Upper Devonian Wutong Formation in Xinhang, Anhui
    GAO Xue, JI Xingkai, ZHOU Yi, YANG Jiangnan, WANG Deming
    2023, 59(2):  221-230.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.119
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    Spores of 36 genera, 56 species and some indeterminate species are recognized from 8 layers of Wutong Formation at Jianchuan Section, Xinhang County, Guangde City, Anhui Province. A spore assemblage can be established, that is Apiculiretusispora hunanensis-Cymbosporites chinensis (HC) Assemblage. By comparing the main components of HC Assemblage with spore assemblages in South China, Tibet of China and Western Europe, HC Assemblage is assigned to the late Famennian of the Late Devonian and corresponds to the strata except the uppermost part of the Leigutai Member of the Wutong Formation. The overall characteristics of HC Assemblage are close to contemporaneous assemblages of South China but different from those of Tibet of China and Western Europe.
    Outpainting Reconstruction of Sandstone Thin-Section Image Based on Generative Adversarial Network
    ZHOU Rong, WU Chaodong, ZHANG Yanan
    2023, 59(2):  231-241.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.108
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    A generative adversarial network (GAN) model is applied to the outpainting reconstruction on the micro grain and pore structure of sandstone thin-section image, and the semantics of the predicted image is analyzed in the model. The findings demonstrate that the model can predict a lager view of sandstone microstructure, which is 2.25 times the size of the original vision, and has good performance for different types of rock image semantics. The predicted image semantics, such as surface texture of different grains, grain morphology and complex contact relationship between multiple grains are consistent with the real results. However, in the task of outpainting reconstruction on microscopic special phenomenon in rock thin-section, the model lacks sensitivity to special phenomenon. In the task of reconstruction on pore structure, the prediction error of micropore distribution is larger than that of common pore spaces such as intergranular pores, fractures and dissolution pores. The prediction performance of reconstruction results of different pore spaces may be related to pore features (such as pore size and connectivity).
    Evaluation Method of Watershed Water Environment Carrying Capacity under Climate Change Scenarios
    ZHANG Yang, FU Zhenghui, ZHANG Yaran, GUO Huaicheng, JIANG Xia, WANG Shuhang
    2023, 59(2):  242-250.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.012
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    The Huangshui River Basin in Qinghai Province was selected as the research case. Considering the close relationship between climate change and hydrological cycle of the basin and the severe impact on the water environment system, the evaluation method system of water environment carrying capacity of the basin under the impact of climate change was constructed. The matching of time and space scales was carried out from the perspective of systematicness and integrity, so as to accurately evaluate the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle of the basin scale and carry out the calculation of water environment carrying capacity. Finally, the assessment and analysis of the dynamic change of the basin water environmental carrying capacity under the influence of climate change was established. The research results show that climate warming would lead to a decline in the water environmental carrying capacity of the Huangshui River Basin, but with the passage of time, the water environmental carrying capacity under the future climate change scenario would generally improve.
    Bearing Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Down-Sampling in Frequency Domain and CNN
    ZHOU Xiangyu, MAO Shanjun, LI Mei
    2023, 59(2):  251-260.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.098
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    In the industrial field, the original fault signals collected during the operation of the equipment have the characteristics of strong noise and multiple working conditions. Most of previous data-driven fault diagnosis methods for bearings have relatively weak anti-noise ability and generalization ability. To solve these problems, a novel bearing fault diagnosis method based on down-sampling in frequency domain and convolutional neural network (CNN), called Ds-CNN, is proposed. Down-sampling in frequency domain consists of maximum down-sampling with bias and noise transverse truncation, which can realize data augmentation, reduce the difference between samples in frequency domain, and reduce the influence of noise on signals in frequency domain. The CNN model based on frequency domain signals can automatically extract fault features from signals after down-sampling and complete the identification and classification of bearing faults. The results of the experiment show that Ds-CNN has higher recognition accuracy than common models under strong noise environment and multiple working conditions. 
    Spatial Query Optimization Methods by Integrating Blockchain and Database
    GUI Zhiming, SUN Zhongxiang, HUANG Zhou
    2023, 59(2):  261-270.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.120
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    The combination of spatial data and blockchain can provide decentralized, secure and trustworthy technical support for spatial data management, but there are currently problems such as low query rate, single type of query, and detachment from blockchain system. According to this problem, combined with the characteristics of high performance and rich function types of spatial database, a spatial query optimization method by integrating blockchain and database is proposed. The method integrates Hyperledger Fabric with spatial database, and differs from the traditional off-chain query method by proposing a blockchain-integrated spatial database method, embedding efficient spatial operation functions in smart contracts, and deploying the database in a distributed manner, so as to retain the original distributed query characteristics of the blockchain. In terms of tamper-proof, a hash-and-salt secure storage mechanism and double verification mechanism are used to strengthen the security. The experimental results show that the method has excellent performance and security.
    Spatial Characteristics and Zoning Optimization of Rural Residential Muti-functions in Hilly Areas of South Yangtze Basin
    PU Jinfang, LIU Shasha, WEN Liangyou, GAO Yang, WANG Shu
    2023, 59(2):  271-280.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.011
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    Taking Wannian County of Jiangxi Province as the research area, constructing the evaluation index system of rural residential multi-functions, using the methods of full arrangement polygon comprehensive graphic method, Spearman correlation analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and explicit comparative advantage weight index, this paper analyzes the spatial characteristics of rural residential multi-functions and carries out comprehensive functional zoning. The results show that 1) Wannian County presents the characteristics of “living function and production function are the main, followed by ecological function”, which is spatially heterogeneous. 2) There is a complex interaction between the multi-functions of rural residential areas, especially the synergistic relationship between living function and production function. 3) Based on the method of “zoning + revision”, Wannian County is divided into I, II, III, IV and V regions under the different goal orientations of coordinated development, function leading and green revitalization. Considering the interaction between functions based on the leading functions of rural residential areas, the delimitation of comprehensive functional areas is an effective way to optimize rural areas, which is of great significance to rural sustainable development. 
    Emission Characteristics of Intermediate-Volatility Organic Compounds in Petrochemical Industrial Area
    ZHANG Feng, LU Sihua, LI Congyi, SHAO Min, LI Yue, LÜ Daqi, LI Xin, LIU Ying
    2023, 59(2):  281-289.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.123
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    A typical petrochemical industrial area was selected as the research object, and particulate phase and gas phase samples of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) were collected in the air of the plant area in summer (July and August in 2021) to explore the pollution characteristics of IVOCs emission from petrochemical industrial sources and estimate their corresponding SOA (secondary organic aerosols) formation potential. The results show that, 1) the average concentration of IVOCs particle phase in typical petrochemical area is 4.22±1.54 μg/m3, and the average concentration of IVOCs gas phase is 108.87±78.93 μg/m3. The average concentration of IVOCs during the day is higher than that at night both in the gas phase and in the particle phase. 2) The n-alkanes in gas phase are concentrated from C12 to C22, while the n-alkanes in particle phase are concentrated from C22 to C35. The gas phase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is concentrated in naphthalene and phenanthrene, and the particle phase is concentrated in fluorene. 3) The IVOCs in the petrochemical industrial zone are quantitatively disassembled. The concentration is mainly concentrated in the interval B18–B21. The mass concentration sum of these four zones accounts for 60.41% of the total mass of IVOCs.
    Seasonal Variation and Drivers of Zooplankton Community in Reservoirs of Chaobai River Basin
    ZHANG Qun, XU Xuming, CHEN Qian
    2023, 59(2):  290-300.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.006
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    To reveal the seasonal variations of zooplankton community and their drivers in reservoirs of the Chaobai River basin, 12 reservoir monitoring stations were deployed in September (autumn) and December (winter) of 2020, and March (spring) and June (summer) of 2021, respectively. Totally 90 zooplankton species belonging to 67 genera were identified in the four seasons, with the highest richness in summer and the lowest in spring. The mean abundance (231.5 ind./L) and biomass (0.199 mg/L) of zooplankton peaked in summer, while they were merely 60.8 ind./L and 0.075 mg/L in spring, respectively. Significant seasonal differences were observed in the structure of zooplankton community. Rotifers contributed the largest proportion of richness and abundance in autumn and summer, but the zooplankton in winter and spring were mainly dominated by protozoa. Strobilidium sp. was the most abundant species occurred in the four seasons of the reservoirs. Correlation analysis showed that the Shannon-Wiener diversity index of zooplankton was positively related with nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon, while the richness was strongly associated with nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Canonical correspondence analysis exhibited that dissolved oxygen, water temperature, nitrite nitrogen, total organic carbon and conductivity were crucial in driving the seasonal distribution of zooplankton community. This study further provided supplementary data for the assessment of ecosystem health in reservoirs of the Chaobai River basin. 
    Composition and Distribution Characteristics of Potential Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Hanjiang River
    LI Zhilong, SUN Liyu, SHANG Yunyi, ZHAO Ni, XUE Zehuan, LIU Tang
    2023, 59(2):  301-308.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.003
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    In order to analyze the composition and distribution characteristics of potential pathogenic bacterial communities in water and sediment and provide basic data for the prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria in Hanjiang River, samples were collected from 7 monitoring sections of Hanjiang River in spring and autumn of 2014. Based on 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology, FAPROTAX software was used to predict the pathogenic bacteria communities, 6 categories of pathogenic bacteria were identified, belonging to 6 phyla, 9 classes, 22 orders, 45 families, 105 genera. The results showed that Proteobacteria was the main component species of pathogenic bacteria community in Hanjiang River, accounting for 96.56%, Methylopumilus and Roseomonas were dominant species at the genus level. Diversity analysis showed that pathogens were more abundant in sediment than those in surface water, and there were more apparent differences between different seasons in the plankton community. Environmental factorsrelated analysis indicated that benthic communities were more sensitive to environmental factors. Zero model analysis revealed that random processes dominated the establishment ofpathogenic bacteria communities in surface water and sediment. In summary, high-throughput sequencing technology can comprehensively and deeply present microbial community information and has great potential in the detection of pathogenic bacteria. 
    Distribution and Assembly Mechanisms of Rare Bacterioplankton Community in Hanjiang River
    FANG Yao, WANG Bingxue, XUE Zehuan, LI Zhilong, LIU Tang
    2023, 59(2):  309-316.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.004
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    The authors probed Illumina high-throughput sequencing in Hanjiang River to investigate the community structure, distribution and assembly mechanisms of bacterioplankton integrally and rare taxa (RT), abundant taxa (AT) respectively. Hanjiang River bacteria spanned across 22 phyla, 55 classes, 93 orders, 132 families and 164 genera dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. 4035 ASVS (80.2%) were defined as RT. Significant seasonal differences were found of the bacteria community by alpha diversity and this pattern were intensified by RT. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed insignificant differences of the seasonal and spatial distribution of bacteria community in Hanjiang River. Mantel tests considered dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia nitrogen as primary influencing factors of autumn microbiome community. Variance partitioning analysis (VPA) indicated more stress from environmental factors to the bacteria community compared with spatial factors. The holistic bacteria community was dominated by deterministic process, while both RT and AT were mainly affected by stochastic process. Overall, RT was mainly influenced by environmental selection as opposed to AT which were more inclined to stochastic distribution.
    Influence of Intolerance of Uncertainty on Emotional Disturbance: Mediating Effect of Coping and Moderating Effect of Mindfulness
    YAO Nisha, YANG Yin, SHU Shu, YIN Xiaochuan
    2023, 59(2):  317-325.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.005
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    The current study aimed to examine the influence of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on emotional disturbance through coping. Further, the buffering effect of mindfulness on the relationship between IU and emotional disturbance was explored. Data were collected through online survey method, and mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Study 1 examined how different sets of coping responses mediated the relationship between IU and emotional disturbance. Study 2 replicated the analysis performed in study 1 and further examined the moderating effect of mindfulness on the association between IU and coping/emotion disturbance. Results showed that IU led to an increased use of maladaptive coping responses, a decreased use of a subset of adaptive coping responses, and an increased use of support seeking responses. The former two exacerbated emotional disturbance, while support seeking ameliorated emotional problems. The current study did not find significant moderating effect of mindfulness on the relationship between IU and coping. Mindfulness moderated the direct effect of IU on emotional disturbance: as the level of mindfulness increased, the magnitude of the effect of IU on emotional disturbance decreased. The current study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the association between IU and emotional disturbance. Further, the protective effect of mindfulness was established, which may enlighten the development of interventions targeting IU.
    Boltzmann Model of Growth Curve of the β Index for Traffic Networks
    CHEN Yanguang
    2023, 59(2):  326-330.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.118
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    Based on the verified empirical models of urbanization level and traffic network, a set of mathematical models of traffic network development are proposed. With the help of mathematical deduction, a Boltzmann equation is derived for the β index of traffic networks from the common logistic function of urbanization level growth, and a quadratic Boltzmann equation is derived for the β index from the quadratic logistic function of urbanization curve. The former is applicable to European and American countries and China’s southeast coastal areas, while the latter is applicable to mainland China, especially northern China. The main functions of the models are as follows: the first is to explain and predict the development of traffic networks, and the second is to research the stage division of a growth process or even the spatial dynamics of a traffic network.
    Review of Observational Studies on Ambient Atmospheric Formaldehyde in China
    LIU Yuehui, WANG Hongli, LU Keding
    2023, 59(2):  331-343.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.007
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    This paper reviews the current status of observational studies on atmospheric formaldehyde in China, and discusses the atmospheric formaldehyde concentration levels, the relative contributions of primary and secondary sources, and the inventory of formaldehyde emissions from anthropogenic sources. On this basis, the authors point out some limitations of the existing studies and make targeted suggestions for future observational studies on formaldehyde.
    A Review on Accessibility Measurements of Public Service Facilities
    GAO Wei, OUYANG Yuxin, ZHAO Mei, GAO Yong, MENG Haohan
    2023, 59(2):  344-354.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.125
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    Based on the three levels of mathematical statistics, topological network and geometric network, the accessibility measurements on public service facilities in existing studies are teased, and the fundamental principles, metrics, range of applicability, the advantage and disadvantage of these different measurements are reviewed. It is pointed out that current methodological task is to find the right balance between a measure that is theoretically and empirically sound and one that is sufficiently plain, and emergence of new data technologies provides a new direction for accessibility measurements.