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Table of Content

    20 November 2023, Volume 59 Issue 6
    A Transformer-based Syntax Tree Decoder for Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition
    ZHOU Bohan, CAO Jian, WANG Yuan
    2023, 59(6):  909-914.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.085
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    Most of the existing tree-structured decoding methods of handwritten mathematical expression recognition are based on the recurrent neural networks, which have low training efficiency and complicated training process. In order to prove this problem, the authors propose a handwritten mathematical expression recognition model based on Transformer structure, which can decode the syntax tree of expressions directly. Experimental results show that the proposed tree-structured decoding method achieves better performance than the string decoding methods base on Transformer on several datasets of handwritten formula recognition tasks, and show the potential to surpass recurrent neural network tree decoding methods.
    Study on Nitrogen Fixation Characteristics of Glow Plasma in Series under Fixed Magnetic Field
    PENG Ke, LIU Yuexi, CHEN Liang, LU Xinpei
    2023, 59(6):  915-922.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.088
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    A novel magnetic field fixed and series on the circuit glow plasma nitrogen fixing device is developed, which consists of two plasma generator devices connected in series on the circuit. The nitrogen fixing energy consumption, product concentration, voltage characteristics, resistance characteristics, electrical conductivity characteristics and electric field characteristics of the device are studied, and the discharge conditions of a single device are compared. The plasma nitrogen fixation energy consumption of the series discharging device reaches the lowest at 143.14 GJ/tN when the discharge current is 60 mA. The lowest total nitrogen fixation energy consumption after calculating the electrical energy consumed by the ballast resistor is 229.69 GJ/tN. The lowest total nitrogen fixation energy consumption of a single device is 370.38 GJ/tN, indicating that series discharge is beneficial to reduce nitrogen fixation energy consumption, and the gap between the two nitrogen fixation energy consumption widen significantly with the increase of current.
    Efficient Combined Simulation Research of Finite Element Analysis for Bolt Assembly Process
    LI Xiang, SHEN Chao, LIU Zhao, LIU Caishan, LIU Yan, LIU Chao
    2023, 59(6):  923-933.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.087
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    Current finite element (FE) simulating methods for pre-tightening process of thread fasteners have some shortcomings. In order to ensure the accuracy and efficiency simultaneously, the interference fit method and the direct torsion method are combined via ANSYS APDL to form a new pre-tightening means. Firstly, FE models of the thread pair structure before and after simulating the necking plastic forming process are obtained. Further assembly process simulation of the necking anti-loosening nuts is realized. Via different pre-tightening methods for simulating the assembly process, the thread pair load distribution, the contact stress state and the torsion-tension relationship can be obtained. Via comparing the numerical results of the zero closure amount nuts with some theoretical solutions, the reliabilities of the FE models and the simulation process are verified. Furthermore, the calculation time and numerical results of different pre-tightening methods are compared to prove the combined pre-tightening method is reliable and effective. 
    Wide-area InSAR Time Series Analysis Technique for Monitoring of Surface Deformation in the North China Plain
    LI Mingjia, SUN Jianbao, XUE Lian, SHEN Zhengkang
    2023, 59(6):  934-944.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.069
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    Based on the SAR satellite images from 2015 to 2019, this paper proposes a novel wide-area InSAR time series analysis technology for high-precision and continuous monitoring of the surface deformation in the North China Plain. Firstly, standard interferometric processing is carried out on SAR images to obtain the interferogram. Then the parallelized StaMPS method is used to extract all PS pixels in the interferogram and obtain the deformation time series with full resolution. Next the atmospheric noise is estimated and removed using the joint atmospheric correction method, through combination of the atmospheric model correction and common scene stacking. After this processing flow, we successfully obtain a solution of large spatial scale, long-term span, full spatial resolution, and high precision deformation in the North China Plain, and detect the subsidence deformation pattern with a strong signal of up to 100 mm/a in central plain due to groundwater extraction. Compared with existing algorithms, the parallelized StaMPS method saves at least 60% of computing time through real-time distribution among multiple computing nodes. Besides, the joint atmospheric correction method can remove about 74.3% of the atmospheric noise, and its effectiveness is significantly higher than that of using the two correction methods alone. This wide-area InSAR time series analysis technique can effectively realize high-precision continuous monitoring of large-scale surface deformation. 
    Preliminary Investigation on the Surface Ruptures of the Turkey M7.8 Earthquake on February 6, 2023
    FENG Jun, YAN Jiyuan, ZHAO Xiaoxia
    2023, 59(6):  945-950.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.081
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    Two M7.8 earthquakes struck southern and central Turkey on February 6, 2023, forming typical surface ruptures in Hatay Province. Earthquake surface raptures geometry and displacement characteristics were investigated in Karatas and Hassa regions. Preliminary results show that the rupture with strike of N5°E–N20°E extends over 40 km. Left-lateral strike-slip faulting developed with an average horizontal displacement of 50–60 cm and maximum horizontal displacement of 2 m. The earthquake development started on Narlı Fault, transferred to the main fault and propagated to south and north across the main fault of East Anatolian Fault Zone, which lead to the decreasing of the horizontal coseismic displacement in research area.
    Lake Sedimentation Rate and Its Influencing Factors in Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage Site
    SHEN Xiaoxue, TANG Lili, DU Jie, JIANG Xianchenghao, QIU Guoyu, LI Ruili
    2023, 59(6):  951-960.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.068
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    After the “8.8” earthquake (June 2020), Arrow Bamboo Lake and Rhino Lake, with different input degrees of earthquake damage sources, were selected to analyze the lake sedimentation rates by isotope dating method. Moreover, vertical distribution characteristics of grain size composition, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and carbonate content were analyzed. By analyzing the vertical variation characteristics of sediment environmental indicators and their relationship with natural disasters and human activities, the long-term and short-term factors affecting lake sedimentation were explored. The results showed that the sedimentation rates of the Arrow Bamboo Lake and Rhino Lake from 1900 to 2020 were about 0.32 and 0.44 cm/a, respectively. The vertical distribution characteristics of the environmental indicators on the surface (0–10 cm) were as follows: the specific activity of 210Pbex significantly increased, the sediment particle size was relatively large, TC, TN and calcium carbonate were enriched, and the vertical variation was violent. Meanwhile, the disturbance depth of surface sediment in the Arrow Bamboo Lake, which was obviously affected by seismic damage sources, was greater. These revealed that a large number of loose material sources of land disasters caused by the “8.8” earthquake entered the lake, rapidly intensifying the lake sediment deposition in the short time. The deep vertical distribution features recorded the long-term slow impact of human activities such as deforestation, unreasonable discharge and environmental protection on lake sediment.
    Reanalysis of the Marine Adaptation of the Archosaurian Qianosuchus mixtus from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou, China
    Cindy X. SU, ZHOU Min, GU Shulun, Ryosuke Motani, JIANG Dayong
    2023, 59(6):  961-969.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.079
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    A reanalysis of marine adaptation of Qianosuchus mixtus is given by observing and making measurements to a new specimen. The marine adaptation in non-avian tetrapods follows a pattern of five steps (M1-M5). Comparation of the statistics of Qianosuchus mixtus and other clades leads to the result that Qianosuchus mixtus is placed in M2-3 and not considered to be completely marine. Observation and analysis of the morphology of the new specimen shows that its limbs do not exhibit characters of marine adaptation, yet its body shape and tail are morphologically adapted to undulatory or subundulatory swimming, similar to extant crocodiles and marine iguanas. Comparison with extant crocodiles and other clades suggest that despite having a specialized tail, Qianosuchus mixtus is not capable of swimming at high speed or for long distances. With the information above and reference to the habits of tetrapods in the Panxian Fauna, it is assumed that Qianosuchus mixtus possibly inhabits an intraplatform with islands, and that Qianosuchus mixtus and other upper trophic level predators exhibit complex ecology.
    Analysis of the Evolution and Driving Factors of Production-Living-Ecological Space Pattern in the Heihe River Basin from 1980 to 2020, China
    WU Qiqi, MENG Jijun
    2023, 59(6):  970-980.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.056
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    Taking the Heihe River Basin as study area, based on the land use data and socioeconomic statistics from 1980 to 2020, constructing the production-living-ecological space classification system, this paper analyzes evolution characteristics of production-living-ecological space from the aspects of topography, towns and roads. Besides, the driving factors of production-living-ecological space is analyzed by using Geodetector. The results show that 1) the territorial space of the study area features obvious horizontal regional differences. Within the production-living-ecological space schema, the ecological space has occupied the absolute dominant position, while the production ecological space is mainly distributed in the agricultural oasis area in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, and the production living space is scattered in the production ecological space. In the past 40 years, the production ecological space and production living space has steadily expanded, and the strong ecological space has increased with fluctuations, while the weak ecological space has continuously decreased. 2) The production-living-ecological space of the Heihe River Basin has significant vertical differences. The altitude of 1500 m and the slope of 5° are taken as the boundary of the production-living-ecological space. Below the boundary, the production ecological space, the production living space and the weak ecological space are concentrated; above the boundary, the strong ecological space are relatively concentrated. 3) The distribution of production-living-ecological space is significantly influenced by towns and roads, the production ecological space and the production living space tend to be distributed close to towns and roads, while the ecological space is mostly distributed in areas far away from towns and roads. 4) Natural geographical factors are the basic conditions for the formation and evolution of production-living-ecological space pattern. Socioeconomic factors are the key driving forces. Among them, the urbanization rate, urban scale and fixed asset investment are the main driving factors; the interaction of factors has significant synergistic enhancement effect, especially the interaction between urban scale and natural factors, total population and natural factors has the most significant impact on the evolution of the production-living-ecological space pattern. The results can provide reference for ecological protection and to achieve high-quality development pattern in the Heihe River Basin. 
    Study on Physical Activity Characteristics of Formal and Informal Sports Grounds in Urban Parks: A Case Study in Shenzhen
    HAN Xili, ZHANG Xinyue
    2023, 59(6):  981-990.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.084
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    Using the System for Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), 36 observations were conducted in three parks in Shenzhen, China, to count the physical activity levels of 12297 visitors in 78 target sports grounds. The gender and age differences in the physically active populations were analyzed in formal and informal sports grounds. The results indicate that the physical activity levels of children and adolescents were significantly higher than those of middle-aged and elderly individuals, and males exhibited significantly higher physical activity levels than females. Among formal sports grounds, the physical activity levels on soccer fields, basketball courts, tennis courts, and ping-pong tables were significantly higher than those on other sports grounds. In informal sports grounds, the physical activity levels of children’s non-apparatus activity spaces were the lowest. Some informal sports areas supported a greater variety of physical activities, such as dancing, badminton, soccer, and kite-flying, on park squares and open grassy areas. The research findings can provide environmental strategies for constructing urban parks that are conducive to enhancing physical activity levels.
    Precise Measurement and Numerical Correction of Atmospheric Nitrogen Oxides Based on Photolytic Chemiluminescence
    LI Xuan, CHEN Shiyi, LU Keding, ZENG Limin, ZHANG Yuanhang
    2023, 59(6):  991-1002.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.057
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    In summer and winter of 2017, two self-developed blue light converter-photolytic chemiluminescence (BLC-PCL) NOx analyzers and a traditional molybdenum-chemiluminescence (MCL) NOx analyzer (Thermo 42i-TL) were applied for atmospheric NOx monitoring. A performance comparison experiment for BLC-PCL and MCL NOx analyzers was carried out during the observation period, and the numerical correction methods for possible interferences was discussed in detail. Results show that the two methods have stable measurement performance for NO (R2=0.994, slope is 0.98). The measurement of NO2 by MCL is 25%–30% higher than that of PCL. Notably, water vapor interference can cause the NOx signals to be underestimated by 0.2%–13.2%; photochemical interferences can lead to an underestimation of NO by 0–13.3% and an overestimation of NO2 by 0–8.8%. These results highlight the necessity of numerical correction of such interferences and the importance to carefully design related parameters such as photolysis efficiency, pipeline residence time, and pipeline humidity control. 
    Effects of Refrigerate Incubation on Nitrogen Removal Performance and Microbial Community of Anammox
    ZHANG Kuo, WANG Lina, FENG Yiming, ZHOU Jianhang, LI Xinjue, LIU Sitong
    2023, 59(6):  1003-1010.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.091
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    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) consortia were incubated at 5℃ to explore the nitrogen removal performance of the recovered anammox bacteria at 10–15℃. The results showed that after 92 days of low temperature incubation, the nitrogen removal rate of anammox bacteria reached 225±25 mg N/(L·d) at 12±1℃, which reached 68% of the nitrogen removal rate at 22±1℃. It was significantly higher than previous research results. 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the microbial composition in the reactor. Low temperature incubation had significant impact on the microbial community, especially for anammox bacteria. Candidatus_Kuenenia, as typical anammox bacteria, have a higher adaptability to low temperature than Candidatus_Brocadia and Candidatus_Jettenia, thus dominated the microbial community. The increased abundance and low-temperature metabolic capacity of Candidatus Kuenenia after low temperature incubation play an important 
    role in improving the nitrogen removal performance of anammox reactor at 10–15℃.
    Visualized Analysis of Knowledge Map for Research on the Plants of Rauvolfia Based on CiteSpace
    ZHANG Xin, LI Linsi, QIN Xinsheng
    2023, 59(6):  1011-1024.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.095
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    In order to understand the research hotspots and frontier directions of Rauvolfia in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, the literature about chemical composition, pharmacological activity and clinical application were searched in CNKI and Web of Science databases. CiteSpace 6.1.R6 was used for authors and research institutions co-occurrence, keyword co-occurrence, keyword clustering and keyword timeline mapping and analysis. A total of 173 effective Chinese articles and 356 effective English articles were included, and the annual number of articles showed a fluctuating upward trend overall. The authors with the most publications in Chinese and English were CAO Fuxiang and Stockigt J, respectively. The institutions with the most publications were Central South University of Forestry and Technology and Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, respectively. The analysis of keywords showed that the research direction of Rauvolfia mainly focused on cultivation, chemical composition extraction, identification and pharmacological activity analysis. Chinese literature focused on the cultivation of various Rauvolfia. English literature focused on the extraction and identification of strictosidine synthase and other chemical components, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of pharmacological activities of various chemical components. How to rationally use the chemical components of Rauvolfia and study their pharmacological activities and clinical applications are the main trends in the future.
    Psychometric Validation of the Revised Chinese Digital Stress Scale in College Students
    LAO Chao Kei, SU Jiabao, WEI Shijuan, YU Xiaoyan, ZHOU Guangyu
    2023, 59(6):  1025-1034.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.055
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    This article aims to translate and revise the Digital Stress Scale (DSS) developed by Hall et al. (2021) and validate the revised Chinese DSS’s reliability and validity among Chinese college students. Structured interviews regarding social media use and digital stress were conducted with 15 Chinese college students in sample 1. Four other samples of Chinese college students (n=87, n=100, n=300, n=239) were recruited online by convenience sampling. Item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, criterion-related validity and reliability analysis were conducted. Depression-Anxiety-Stress scale, life satisfaction, UCLA loneliness scale, perceived social support and Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale were used to assess criterion-related validity. Test-retest validity was assessed among 156 college students in sample five two weeks after baseline. The revised Chinese Digital Stress Scale (RC-DSS) consists of 31 items, including six dimensions (availability stress, approval anxiety, social comparison, fear of missing out, connection overload and online vigilance). Discrimination analysis and item analysis showed good discriminability. The six-dimension structure of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/df=2.82, GFI=0.80, NFI=0.93, TLI=0.95, CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.08). Digital stress was significantly and moderately associated with social media addiction, stress, depression, anxiety and loneliness (rs=0.41–0.61, ps<0.01), and was negatively associated with social support and life satisfaction (r = −0.24, p<0.01; r = −0.15, p<0.05). The Cronbach’s alpha of the scale was 0.94 and its two-week test-retest reliability was 0.73 (p<0.01). The RC-DSS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess digital stress among Chinese college students.
    An Other-report Checklist for Crime Due to Passionate Impulse: Construction and Psychometric Properties
    WANG Zhongrui, HUANG Xin, ZHOU Ying, ZHONG Jie
    2023, 59(6):  1035-1042.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.083
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    After clarifying the operational definition and assessment criteria of crimes of passion, an assessment checklist for incarcerated individuals, “Crimes Due to Passionate Impulse Other-report Checklist”, was developed and its reliability and validity were tested. Sample 1 involved 40 prison guards assessing 15 typical violent dossiers, exploring the checklist’s accuracy, factor structure, and internal consistency. Sample 2 comprised 14 prison guards evaluating 275 offender dossiers, using the UPPS Impulsivity Scale as a benchmark to measure corresponding inmates, examining the checklist’s convergent validity, threshold determination, test-retest reliability, and evaluator reliability. Results indicated that scores for the crimes of passion group were higher than the control group. Exploratory factor analysis supported a single-factor model. The scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, evaluator reliability, and test-retest reliability, meeting psychometric standards. It also showed good convergent and discriminant validity. With robust assessment capabilities, the checklist’s threshold was determined to be 10.5 via ROC (receiver operating characterisitic) curve analysis, positioning it an effective tool for screening inmates committing crimes of passion.
    Study on Hydrochemical Change Trend of Yarlung Tsangpo River Based on Artificial Neural Network
    LIU Jiaju, LI Jincheng, GUO Huaicheng, YUAN Peng, LI Zheng, ZHANG Yang, WANG Zhiyong
    2023, 59(6):  1043-1051.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.093
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    In order to reveal the trend of water chemistry change in the Yarlung Tsangpo River (Yajiang River) under the background of climate change and provide scientific and technological support for water resources and water environment management in the basin, based on the study of hydrochemical characteristics of the Yajiang River in 2016, 2017 and 2018, combined with the research results of existing research teams on hydrochemistry, this paper studies the trend of 11 hydrochemical components change of the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yajiang River over the past 60 years by comprehensive use of linear tendency estimation, climate change model output and BP neural network model. The results show that the annual average temperature in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yajiang River Basin has been increasing obviously in the past 60 years. The average temperature warming rate was 0.38°C/10a. The precipitation in the Yajiang River Basin fluctuated obviously and showed an overall rising trend, with a rising rate of 7.34 mm/10a. pH value of the water in Yajiang River was weakly alkaline and showd an upward trend. TDS was higher than the average level of the world river (120 mg/L) and showed a trend of gradual increase. Based on the climate change model RCP4.5 scenario, the artificial neural network prediction shows that the TDS flux in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yajiang River Basin presents a gradually increasing trend, and the downstream will have a certain impact on the production and life of the downstream residents. 
    Advances in Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes and Clumped Isotope of Lacustrine Carbonates
    LI Shien, GUAN Ping
    2023, 59(6):  1052-1068.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.067
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    This paper reviews the progress of traditional carbon and oxygen isotope research of lacustrine carbonate and emerging clumped isotope research in recent years, summarizes their influencing mechanisms and applications in geological research, and discusses the problems in existing research. The oxygen isotope composition of lacustrine carbonates is less affected by temperature, which is mainly related to the evaporation and precipitation of lake water. The carbon isotope composition is jointly controlled by the evaporation and salinization of lake water and the interaction between organic matter and inorganic matter. The clumped isotope is only affected by the single factor of temperature and is a good carbonate thermometer. The paper points out two major directions for the study of carbon and oxygen isotopes of lacustrine carbonate: one is to solve the problems existing in the theoretical study of clumped isotopes, especially the resetting mechanism of clumped isotope temperature during burial; and the other is to combine traditional carbon and oxygen isotopes with emerging clumped isotope for comprehensive analysis of multi-index geochemistry, which can effectively resolve their limitation in geology research.
    A Review of Robot Learning
    QU Weiming, LIU Tianlin, LIN Weikai, LUO Dingsheng
    2023, 59(6):  1069-1086.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.086
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    The basic concepts and core issues related to robot learning are introduced and discussed, and the relevant researches are summarized and analyzed. Through comparing the relevant methods and recent progress, the authors classify the methods of robot learning into four categories based on data types and learning methods, namely reinforcement learning approach, imitation learning approach, transfer learning approach and developmental learning approach. Finally, current challenges and future trends in robot learning are listed.
    How to Understand Humor in the Framework of Eastern and Western Culture? 
    CAO Yi, HOU Yubo
    2023, 59(6):  1087-1093.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.090
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    The empirical research explored the cross-cultural differentiation of humor by systematically analyzing the different understandings of humor in Eastern and Western cultures, as well as the Western theories of humor and philosophical origin of Chinese humor. The research also observed the characteristics of Chinese humor influenced by the impact of Chinese traditional culture. Moreover, the present study highlighted the significance of investigating Chinese humor personality, pinpointing the necessity regarding future consideration of Chinese humor from the perspective of psychological distance and dialectical thinking. These analyses are of great value in understanding the relationship between culture and humor and the underlying concept of Chinese humor.