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Table of Content

    20 March 2021, Volume 57 Issue 2
    Dynamics Model of Type 2 Diabetes with Inflammation in Islets and Treatment Strategies
    LIN Zhili, LEI Lei, LI Changrun, LI Fangting
    2021, 57(2):  199-208.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.038
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    In order to reveal the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes caused by inflammation in islets, this paper established the mathematical model of interaction between β cell and macrophage, including the process of IL-1β production and macrophage infiltration in islets. The combined effects of glucose and free fatty acid on IL-1β was analyzed to reveal the dynamic mechanism of islet inflammation in the progression of type 2 diabetes. By analyzing this model’s sensitivity to parameters variation, the feasible optimal treatment strategies was given to different type 2 diabetes patients.
    Simulation and Ground Experiment of Deep Dielectric Charging Effect Monitor
    SONG Siyu, YU Xiangqian, CHEN Hongfei, CHEN Ao, SHI Weihong, ZOU Hong
    2021, 57(2):  209-214.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.099
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    In order to monitor the internal charging effect on spacecraft, analytical method and finite element analysis are used to study the parameter of the through holes in deep dielectric charging effect monitor (DDCEM). The result shows that when the radius of insulation area is more than 2 times as large as the radius of pad area, the leakage current from the through holes can be neglected. The maximum total electric field intensity located in the insulation area of the through holes exceeds 8×106 V/m, indicating the risk of internal discharging effect. Electric performance test and electron radiation test prove that DDCEM has a good linearity and can detect internal discharging effect. When a discharge occurs, the calculated electric field intensity is 4×106 V/m, which exceeds the threshold electric field 2×106 V/m. The result indicates that DDCEM is effective in monitoring the internal charging effect.
    Air Flow and Transport Patterns over Baoding-Xiong’an Area
    LI Hange, CAI Xuhui, KANG Ling, SONG Yu
    2021, 57(2):  215-224.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.001
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    Hourly wind fields were obtained in the period of 2016 to 2017, using the diagnostic model CALMET over the Baoding-Xiong’an area, Hebei province. Data from 22 meteorological observatories and the NCEP-fnl dataset were used in the procedure, and daily trajectories were derived. According to characteristics of the wind fields and trajectories, local air flows were classified into three types: systematic flow, local circulation, and weak synoptic winds. The analysis results depict that the proportion of the three type of flows are approximately 10%, 50% and 40%. The frequency of systematic flow is quite low, with a little more occurrence in spring and summer than that in autumn and winter. The local circulation appears more in autumn and winter than that in spring and summer. The frequency of weak synoptic winds changes little over the whole year, but slightly lower in autumn and winter. The air flow is characterized by the mountains in the northwest of the region, mountain and plain breeze circulations influence the range of about 100 km in front of the mountain, covering Baoding city and a major part of Xiong’an area. The transfer of mountain and plain breeze causes light winds in this area timely. The major transport pathways in this region are southwesterly and northeasterly, corresponding to large-scale background flows. Lateral transports caused by mountain and plain breeze circulations are relatively short in northwest and southeast directions. Occasionally, under conditions of systematic flow and weak synoptic winds in winter and spring, transport trajectories can also extend to southeast.
    Late Smithian (Early Triassic) Fish-bearing Concretions from Chaohu Area: Geochemistry and Its Significance
    YU Xin, SUN Zuoyu, MENG Qingqiang, JI Cheng, ZHOU Min
    2021, 57(2):  225-240.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.117
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    Fish-bearing carbonate concretions are found in the organic-rich shale at the top of Helongshan Formation, Lower Triassic in Chaohu area, Anhui Province. In order to study the formation mechanism and environmental significance of the carbonate concretions, petrography, major and trace elements, carbon and oxygen isotopes and environmental minerals were analyzed for the concretions and surrounding rocks. The 3D-preserved fish fossils and high carbonate content (80%) in the center of concretions indicate that concretions were formed in the early diagenetic stage. Concretions have a concentric zoning structure inside. From the center to the edge, the content of carbonate decreases, the content of siliceous clastic increases and laminae gradually appears, the content of Fe and S elements increases, δ13C values increase, δ18O values decrease, and TOC contents gradually increases, all indicating a concentric growth of concretions. The analysis of the size of framboidal pyrites in the host rock indicates a euxinic environment where concretions were formed. The level of concretions appears 1 m below the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB), consistent with the increased burial of organic carbon, rapid positive excursion of δ13C (-1.3‰ to 1.9‰) and seawater euxinic event. The concretions have the potential to be regarded as an auxiliary identification marker of SSB in South China.
    InSAR Time Series Analysis Technique Combined with Sequential Adjustment Method for Monitoring of Surface Deformation
    WANG Hui, ZENG Qiming, JIAO Jian, CHEN Jiwei
    2021, 57(2):  241-249.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.002
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    Based on the SAR satellite imagery with short revisit periods, this paper proposes a novel SBASInSAR time series analysis technique for efficient and continuous monitoring of surface deformation in the study area. First, standard interferometric processing is carryed out with the existing SAR image set in the study area to obtain the interference map. Then the atmospheric and orbital errors are removed, and the traditional SBAS (small baseline subset) method is used to obtain the surface deformation. On this basis, when a new SAR image is added, the progressive SBAS is adopted to invert the surface deformation at the new moment. The progressive SBAS method integrates the idea of sequential adjustment based on the obtained results derived from existing data set, and combines the newly acquired data to implement incremental calculations, finally achieves the equivalent effect of overall processing. Compared with the traditional SBAS method which needs to resolve all the calculations every time when a new image is added, the progressive SBAS method can reduce redundant operations and improve computing efficiency. The experiment proves that based on the Sentinel-1 satellite SAR data acquired in the Yellow River Delta from May 2018 to August 2016, the surface deformations retrieved by the progressive SBAS method are almost the same as the results of the measured ground level. The correlation coefficient (R) is 0.82, and the difference between the ground deformation rate and the traditional SBAS method is within 1 mm/a. The solution time is shortened by about 40%, and the ground deformation can be efficiently and continuously monitored.
    Spatial Pattern and Driving Factors of Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon in Grassland in Northern Agro-Pastoral Transition Zone
    CHEN Xinyue, YAO Xiaodong, ZENG Wenjing, WANG Wei
    2021, 57(2):  250-260.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.003
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     In order to explore spatial pattern of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and its environmental driving forces in grassland surface layer (0?10 cm) and subsurface layer (10?20 cm) in the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China, 456 soil samples (57 sample sites, two soil layers and four replicates) were selected for investigation from Inner Mongolia-Liaoning plain, Bashang on the north of Beijing, the northern foot of Yinshan Mountain and Ningxia-Shaanxi Loess Plateau. The results showed that the spatial pattern of MBC was consistent between the surface and subsurface layer, which increased with latitude and had no significant change with longitude and elevation. With the increase of degradation degree, the reduction of soil microbial biomass in the subsurface layer was smaller than that in the surface layer. The difference of soil pH between the two layers decreased with the degree of degradation. The difference in soil MBC between surface and subsurface soils was regulated by the change of soil pH. The smaller the difference in pH between the two soil layers, the smaller the difference in MBC. Climate, vegetation and soil factors could affect the spatial variation of MBC, and soil factors were the main driving forces for MBC at the regional scale. The main influencing factor of MBC was soil total carbon at surface layer, and soil total nitrogen at subsurface layer. In the context of climate change and the intensification of human activities, the results were useful for predicting the response of soil microorganisms at the regional scale and maintaining and restoring ecological functions of degraded grasslands.
    Global Agricultural Development Potential and Population Carrying Capacity Analysis Based on GIS
    LIANG Shumin, LIU Lan, CUI Qifeng, ZHU Lizhi
    2021, 57(2):  261-274.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.004
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    Based on Miami model of natural ecosystem productivity, a high-precision per capita crop yield distribution map is drawn, global agricultural development potential is calculated on the condition of highefficiently use of water resources, and scenario analysis method is applied to predict the future population supporting capacity of the earth. The potential yield of crops in the world’s wasteland suitable for agriculture is 6039 million tons of dry material of economic yield. If it is added up with the current crop yield and yield increase potential of existing cultivated land, and crop production potential of reclaiming wasteland by water diversion across river basins, the maximum sustainable output capacity of crops in the world is 16015million tons, which is 3.09 times of the current global crop production. In the case of medium input and medium consumption, the global can support 12.11 billion populations in 2100, which is 1.60 times of the current global total population. The paper concludes that, in order to ensure food security, China’s future agricultural development should be concentrated on increasing agricultural input, promoting advanced agricultural production technology, and efficiently exploring and utilizing water resources and arable land resources. More over international agricultural cooperation and exchanges should be strengthened, and the spread of advanced agricultural production technologies in developing countries should be accelerated.
    Study on the Start-up and Operation of Partial Nitrification-Anammox in the Actual Landfill Leachate Treatment Project
    CHU Yongbao, ZHAO Shaoqi, LIU Sheng, ZHAO Huazhang
    2021, 57(2):  275-282.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.013
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    Partial nitrification-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a new process of nitrogen remova1. Aiming at the problem of stable formation of nitrite in the current work, an in-line system combined with hydrolysis acidification + UASB +aerobic oxidation was designed to improve the formation of nitrite nitrogen and applied to the actual landfill leachate treatment project. Results showed that when the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and C/N ratio were 610–1900 mg/L and 1.8–3.5 in the influent, respectively. By the condition of 100 m3/d water inflow, 2:1 reflux ratio, 7.5–8.0 pH value and 2.0 mg/L dissolved oxygen (DO), partial nitrification happened in the aerobic tank, and 200 mg/L nitrous oxide accumulated with the highest accumulation rate of 78%. Microbial DNA analysis showed that the abundance of AOB species in aerobic tank was more than 10 times that of NOB. COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen in the hydrolytic acidification tank were removed at the same time. The removal amount of COD could not denitrificate all the total nitrogen, and the remaining total nitrogen was removed by the ANAMMOX process. The total nitrogen removed by ANAMMOX reaction accounted for about 35%–67% of the total nitrogen removal amount in the hydrolytic acidification tank. In the actual landfill leachate treatment project, by controlling the inflow, reflux ratio, pH and DO, the partial nitrification-ANAMMOX process was successfully conducted.
    Distributions and Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Tanghe Groundwater
    ZHANG Min, WANG Ting, YANG Chao, NI Jinren
    2021, 57(2):  283-290.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.014
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    In order to evaluate the pollution status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the groundwater around Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir in Xiong’an New area, the authors analyzed OCPs residues in 36 groundwater samples collected in 2019. The composition characteristics and sources of HCHs and DDTs were preliminarily determined, and their health risks were assessed. The results suggested that Tanghe groundwater showed lower OCPs pollution with total amount of nd–45.60 ng/L and a detection rate of 77.78%, of which HCHs was the greatest distributor. The lower OCPs contents were partially attributed to implementations of the ecological sewage treatment project in 2018. Furthermore, both HCHs and DDTs were mainly historical residues originated from agricultural source, and DDTs probably decomposed into aerobic metabolite DDE. Overall, the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of OCPs were very low, posing no threat to human health though infants were more sensitive.
    Spatial Mutual Effects between Municipal Infrastructure Investment and Economic Development
    CHU Jun, LIU Yiming, LIN Xiongbin, TONG De
    2021, 57(2):  291-298.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.015
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    Based on the data of 241 cities in 2011 and 2016, this paper explores the spatial mutual effects between infrastructure investment and economic development through the spatial simultaneous equation model. The results show that the spatial lag parameter of infrastructure investment is significantly positive. It is likely to be explained by the imitation between municipals. Also, infrastructure investment and economic development have significantly reciprocal relationships. It is suggested to improve the budget management of infrastructure investment and to reform the evaluation and promotion system for governmental officials.
    Effects of Carbon Nanotubes on Formation of Disinfection By-Products during Chlorination of Natural Organic Matters
    LI Huimin, CHEN Xuejiao, YOU Mingtao, SUN Weiling
    2021, 57(2):  299-310.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.115
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    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and natural organic matters (NOMs) were chosen as target pollutants in this study. The effects of CNTs on the formation of disinfection by-products during chlorination of different types of NOMs (Suwannee river standard humic acid (HASR) and Suwannee river standard fulvic acid (FASR)) were investigated. Compared with the single system of CNTs or NOMs, the presence of CNTs increased the yields and initial formation rates of trihalomethanes (THMs) and halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) in the binary systems. Both CNTs and NOMs could serve as precursors of disinfection by-products, leading to more active sites for chlorination in NOMs-CNTs system. Therefore, the yields and initial formation rates of binary systems increased. Moreover, the initial formation rate of THMs and HAAs formed by HASR were higher than those formed by FASR in the absence and presence of CNTs. This was due to the higher aromaticity of HASR than FASR, which favored the attack of hypochlorous acid. In addition, the adsorption amount of HASR to CNTs was greater than FASR, which resulted in its stronger effects on the formation of disinfection by-products than FASR. 
    Implementing Reduced Form Model to Construct Ozone Isopleths and Its Application
    DU Yunsong, HUANG Ran, WANG Xinlu, QIN Momei, ZHANG Wenxian, ZHANG Yuzhong, YANG Yao, ZHANG Wei, LUO Bin, HU Yongtao, Armistead G. Russell
    2021, 57(2):  311-321.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.120
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    An efficient approach to construct ozone isopleths was established. It utilizes both first- and secondorder sensitivity analysis from a regional air quality model to build a reduced form model (RFM) for calculating ozone concentrations that respond to the different levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. The approach was applied to the Chengdu Plain area by simulating the ozone concentration and its sensitivities to anthropogenic emissions for August 2018 with adjusted emissions inventory. Ozone isopleth diagrams were plotted for cities in the area. Under the guidance of ozone isopleths, effective ozone control strategies were further suggested for Chengdu city as an example.
    Simulation of Sub-Daily Transpiration Characteristics of Typical Arbor Trees in Cities Based on Deep Neural Network
    ZHAO Wenli, QIU Guoyu, XIONG Yujiu, ZOU Zhendong, YAN Chunhua, YU Leiyu, HAO Mengyu
    2021, 57(2):  322-332.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.121
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    Based on the sap flow system and synchronous meteorological observation data of the typical arbor tree in the city, a transpiration estimation model for urban arbor tree was built using deep neural network. The simulation results can systematically figure out the environmental controlling factors that affect the transpiration of Ficus microcarpa in the dry or wet seasons as well as day or night. Based on the routine meteorological observation data from 91 meteorological observation stations in Shenzhen, the trained deep neural network was used to estimate the station-scale hourly transpiration characteristics of typical arbor trees in Shenzhen. The results show that 1) compared with the measured data of the sap flow system, the deep neural network can accurately simulate the transpiration change of the Ficus microcarpa at 10-minute intervals with a R2 of 0.91, MAPE of 21.77%, RMSE of 0.02 mm/h. 2) The main controlling factors of urban Ficus microcarpa during the wet and dry seasons are solar radiation and air temperature in the daytime, while at night is saturated water vapor pressure deficit. 3) Urban Ficus microcarpa still has transpiration at night, and average value can be 0.03 mm/h and 0.01 mm/h in dry season and wet season, respectively. 4) There are differences among vegetation transpiration in different areas of Shenzhen, with a maximum difference of 0.10 mm/h. In general, the transpiration during the dry season is higher than that during the wet season, and the vegetation transpiration at most sites are close to 0 at night. For some specific sites, the average transpiration at night can reach 0.07 mm/h in dry season, and can reach 0.10 mm/h in the wet season. 
    Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Upstream of Yellow River and Ecological Risk Assessment
    ZHANG Qian, LIU Xiangwei, SHUI Yong, WANG Ting
    2021, 57(2):  333-340.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.124
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    14 sampling sections in the upstream of Yellow River were selected to detect concentrations of As, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd, followed by ecological risk assessment. The metal content in water ranged among ND to 5.496 μg/L, while ND to 1097.995 μg/g in suspended solids (SS) and ND to 75.524 μg/g in sediment. NMDS results proved that metal contents in water displayed significant difference in spatial scale, while that in SS and sediments were remarkably diverse in different season. Correlation analysis proved that Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb were mainly from natural process, while As and Cd were partially from man-made pollution. Meanwhile, establishment and operation of reservoirs also impacted metal distributions, which could be the combined actions of interception to SS by big dams, dilution by impounding, and distribution effect in mud-water interface. Results by potential ecological risk index proved that heavy metals in the upstream of Yellow River showed low risk, and Cd and As played the important role.
    Estimation of Shadow Price of Major Pollutants in China’s Chemical Firms: An Empirical Analysis Based on Directional Distance Function
    CHEN Xing, XU Jintao
    2021, 57(2):  341-350.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.008
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    This study estimated the shadow price of two air pollutants (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) and carbon dioxide in 867 chemical firms from 2007 to 2012 using a parameterized directional distance function to measure the marginal abatement cost of pollutants. The result is as follows. 1) The average shadow prices of SO2, NOx and CO2 in the sample chemical firms were 59.8 yuan/kg equivalent, 388.13 yuan/kg equivalent and 164 yuan/ton equivalent, respectively. 2) The shadow prices of the three pollutants showed an upward and fragmented trend, implying that traditional target-bound emission reductions policies during the 11th Five-Year-Plan had not been economically effective. 3) By plotting the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) of chemical industry, we find that in order to achieve the pollution reduction targets set by the 13th Five-Year Plan, the effective environmental tax rate should be much higher than the current environmental tax rate or the average carbon price in the carbon market, which means that the current environmental tax may require some adjustment. The shadow price of nitrogen oxides is much higher than that of sulfur dioxide, therefore the tax rate of nitrogen oxides may need a certain degree of adjustment. The results can provide some reference for the future establishment of a more complete system of environmental tax.
    Hierarchical Characteristics of River Network in Hanjiang Basin
    HUANG Ziye, WANG Yichu, NI Jinren
    2021, 57(2):  351-360.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.009
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    The structural characteristics of river network in the Hanjiang basin were investigated based on the extracted high-precision digital river network. Combined with surface water frequency maps and river width remote sensing datasets, we analyzed the self-similarity of geometric and topological structure of the river network, as well as the hierarchical characteristics of river width. The results show that convergences of bifurcation ratio, river length ratio, area ratio, and side-branching ratio happen to rivers at stream-orders 1–6, which implies that geometric and topological self-similarity of river networks was fairly fitted at stream orders of 1–6. Moreover, the statistics of hierarchical characteristics of river width show that within the range of self-similar stream-orders, the average river width presents an approximate exponential distribution. The river width ratio is relatively stable at stream-orders 1-6 and the average value is 1.87, indicating that Horton’s law is applicable to river width. By comparing the river network parameters before and after exclusion of pseudo-rivers, it is found that rivers with smaller stream-order, length, width and basin area are more likely to dry up, leading to the deviations of the real river network from the structure of self-similarity.
    Effects of Altered Plant Detritus Input on Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Plantation
    HE Keyi, SHEN Yawen, FENG Jiguang, HAN Mengguang, ZHOU Yiqi, ZHU Biao
    2021, 57(2):  361-370.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.010
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    Six treatments (control (CK), litter removal (?L), litter addition (+L), root removal (?R), litter and root removal (?R?L), litter addition and root removal (?R+L)) were conducted in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Saihanba, Hebei Province. Based on the results of the first growing season (May–September 2019) after the treatments, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different plant detritus input on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity. The results show that: 1) soil respiration rate exhibited significant seasonal dynamics, with peak value in July–August and minimum value in late September. The average soil respiration rates of control, litter removal, litter addition, root removal, litter and root removal, litter addition and root removal treatments were (mean±SE) 2.20±0.17, 1.24±0.09, 2.40±0.07, 2.05±0.11, 1.04±0.07 and 2.28±0.17 μmol/(m2·s) respectively. Compared to the CK, ?L and ?R?L significantly reduced soil respiration rate by 43.6% and 52.7%, respectively; 2) soil respiration in the growing season was significantly and exponentially correlated with soil temperature (p<0.01) among different treatments. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10 values) were 2.32±0.13, 2.37±0.05, 2.41±0.09, 2.42±0.14, 2.09±0.08 and 2.87±0.11, respectively. Aboveground litter treatment had significant effects on both average rate and Q10 value of soil respiration (p<0.05), while belowground root treatment did not (p>0.05); 3) compared to CK, soil moisture was significantly higher in all root removal treatments (?R, ?R?L, ?R+L) likely due to the lack of water uptake by roots, but soil temperature did not change significantly. In most treatments (except ?R and ?R+L), soil respiration and soil moisture showed a significant parabolic relationship during the growing season, and the threshold of soil moisture was about 15% (v/v). In conclusion, the results showed that litter removal had significant effects on growing season soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation, but root removal had no significant effect in the first growing season after the manipulation.
    Changes of Surface and Groundwater Reserves in the Narenguole River Basin
    WANG Yue, WANG Yichu, NI Jinren
    2021, 57(2):  371-380.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.016
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    Based on the data from 2001–2016, we investigated the variation trends in surface water and groundwater reserves of the Narenguole River, their response relationship and influencing factors. The trend distribution of groundwater reserves is uneven and the seasonal variation is obvious. The co-varying change of surface water and groundwater reserves presents a “stable-decrease” trend in the northern part of the basin. In the part of the Tulagt Ar Gol River, the surface water decreases but the groundwater increases, while the “stableincrease” and the “decrease-decrease” co-varying trends are observed respectively in the West and East Taijinar Lakes of the rump area. The main factors influencing the change of water reserve include temperature, soil section thickness, irrigation factors and population factors. Based on the response characteristics of surface water and groundwater changes in different areas of the basin, we get insights into the typical non-consistent response relationship between them, which is very helpful to realize the integrated management of surface water and groundwater and the protection of ecological environment in the basin.
    Research on Supply and Demand of Habitat Maintenance Services: A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    WANG Yalin, NIU Mingshuang, SONG Bo
    2021, 57(2):  381-389.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.123
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    In order to measure the rights and responsibilities of maintaining services in the habitat between the administrative regions of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, this study characterized the supply by habitat suitability, and characterized the demand by habitat occupancy and habitat quality decline caused by human development and activities. Based on the characterization method, this study calculated the supply and demand of habitat maintenance services in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in 2000, 2008, and 2013. The results showed that the overall supply of habitat maintenance services in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region gradually decreased from north to south. From 2000 to 2013, the demand for development and construction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region showed an increasing trend, while the demand for behavioral radiation showed a downward trend. The supply in Chengde and Zhangjiakou was much greater than the demand, while the supply in the southeast coastal cities of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei was less than the demand. The above results are basically consistent with the ecological function positioning and economic development status of each administrative region in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which verifies the rationlity of the calculation method.
    Musculature of Cambrian Fossil Embryo Markuelia
    LIU Teng, DUAN Baichuan, LIU Jianbo, DONG Xiping
    2021, 57(2):  390-394.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.118
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    The authors used synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to study fossil embryos of M. hunanensis from the Wangcun Lagerst?tte. The studied specimen shows the preservation of palisade-shaped structures underneath the cuticle of the head and tail. The 3D reconstruction of these structures reveals that the palisade-shaped structures are ring-like in shape with bilaterally symmetrical elongation on both sides. We interpreted the palisade-shaped structures as possible musculatures of the pharynx in the head and at the base of the spines in the tail, respectively. Further investigation of the musculatures suggests that these animals may have been small benthic species that live between crevices in the soft sediment, and may be active predators.