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Table of Content

    20 September 2022, Volume 58 Issue 5
    Study on Adsorption of H2O Molecules on KDP (100) Surface Based on DFT
    SU Xinyang, HE Xiantu, CHEN Jun
    2022, 58(5):  785-794.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.087
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    Based on the calculation method of First-Principles in DFT, the authors carry out the study of the properties of H2O molecules adsorbed on the KDP(100) surface. By topological analysis of the electron density. combining analysis methods such as Bader charge, electron density, electron density difference, electron localization function and other parameters, it is found that the best adsorption site for H2O molecules on KDP(100) surface is H-K bridge site where adsorption energy is –0.809 eV, indicating that the KDP(100) surface can absorb H2O molecules spontaneously. The oxygen atoms in H2O molecules form strong hydrogen bonds O—H...Ow involving covalent effect, with bond energy –18.88 kcal/mol.
    Whole Mount in situ Localization Technology of Plant Hormones
    WANG Donghui
    2022, 58(5):  795-800.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.020
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    The existing phytohormones measurement methods are relatively cumbersome and difficult to measure the concentration of intracellular hormones. The paper describes whole-mount “immunolocalization” technique for the overall distribution of auxin (IAA) during lateral root and flower development in Arabidopsis. Based on the specific reaction of the antibody to the antigen, this method binds the antibody to the secondary antibody linked to enzymes, fluorescent molecules, etc. to detect the auxin in tissues or organs by light and electron microscopy, realizing the overall in situ localization of auxin (whole mount in situ localization of Hormone, WISIH). This method is not only suitable for growth hormone IAA, but also for rapid and reliable tissue or organ localization of hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA). The protocol is usually done within three to four days. It is a highly sensitive, specific and simple hormone in situ localization method, and is suitable for various plant tender organs and tissues.
    Layer Pruning via Fusible Residual Convolutional Block for Deep Neural Networks
    XU Pengtao, CAO Jian, SUN Wenyu, LI Pu, WANG Yuan, ZHANG Xing
    2022, 58(5):  801-807.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.081
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    Aiming at the problems of long inference time and poor effect of the compression model obtained by the current mainstream pruning methods, an easy-to-use and excellent layer pruning method is proposed. The original convolution layers in the model are transformed into fusible residual convolutional blocks, and then layer pruning is realized by sparse training, therefore a layer pruning method with engineering ease is obtained, which has the advantages of short inference time and good pruning effect. The experimental results show that the proposed layer pruning method can achieve a very high compression rate with less accuracy loss in image classification tasks and object detection tasks, and the compression performance is better than the advanced convolutional kernel pruning methods.
    Post Training Quantization Preprocessing Method of Convolutional Neural Network via Outlier Removal
    XU Pengtao, CAO Jian, CHEN Weiqian, LIU Shengrong, WANG Yuan, ZHANG Xing
    2022, 58(5):  808-812.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.082
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    In order to improve the performance of post training quantization model, a quantization preprocessing method based on outlier removal is proposed. This method is simple and easy to use. The outliers of weight and activation value are removed only through simple operations such as sorting and comparison, so that the quantization model loses only a small amount of information and improves the accuracy. The experimental results show that the performance can be significantly improved by preprocessing with this method before using different quantization methods.
    An Array-Based Method for Measuring Apparent Velocity of the High-Speed Rail Seismic Wavefield
    YIN Changyang, WEN Jingchong, SHI Yongxiang, NING Jieyuan
    2022, 58(5):  813-819.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.046
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    For the seismic source generated by the high-speed rail with viaduct, a theoretical method is proposed to measure the apparent velocity of the high-speed rail wavefield generated by a moving source set by using cross-correlation of the waves recorded by multiple stations. Furthermore, synthetic data of the high-speed rail wavefields in layered media is generated, and the apparent velocity of a phase in it is calculated. The correctness of the method is verified compared with the theoretical results. 
    Validation of the Virtual Gather Generation Method from Synthetic Data for High-Speed Rail Seismic Source
    YIN Changyang, SHI Yongxiang, WU Han, NING Jieyuan
    2022, 58(5):  820-828.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.047
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    Based on the principle of superposition method which can eliminate the crosstalk noise of the high-speed rail seismic wavefield recorded by the stations and generate virtual gathers, the operation ways of the superposition method are given and the method is verified on the synthetic high-speed rail data. The precise source time function of the high-speed rail is obtained by establishing the vibration equation of the high-speed rail viaduct, and the forward modeling of the high-speed rail wavefield in layered medium is calculated by using the finite element method and time-shift superposition of forward modeling of the high-speed rail wavefield with different speeds is carried out. The virtual gathers are obtained, which verifies the correctness of the stacking method.
    Microseismicity in Central Xiaojiang Fault Zone, Yunnan: Application of PALM on Dense Seismic Network
    YAO Yuan, YANG Zhousheng, JIANG Jinzhong, ZHOU Shiyong
    2022, 58(5):  829-838.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.059
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    Based on the continuous waveforms (2016?2019) of 20 portable broadband seismic stations and three local stations deployed in the middle section of Xiaojiang fault (XJF), the effectiveness of PALM (phase picking, association, location, and matched filter) was tested as an integrated event detection system, to perform automatic earthquake detection, positioning and matched-filter studies. A total of 4355 earthquakes were detected. In comparison with the catalog of the regional network, the number of events was augmented by 4.6 times, and the minimum magnitude of completeness (Mc) is reduced from ML 1.3 to ML 0.8. It shows that PALM technology can effectively and accurately detect and locate micro-earthquakes using dense seismic arrays, and improve the automation level and microseismic detection from continuous waveforms. Based on the obtained catalog rich in microseismic events, the result shows that the latest spatial distribution characteristics of seismic activity in the middle section of XJF zone. It shows that a large number of secondary faults are developed in XJF fault zone outside the main fault, and the trend along ENE-WSW, which reveals a possible hidden fault at the southern end of the study area, and detects dense clusters around the Chai Shi Tan Reservoir in Yiliang County Microearthquake activity.
    Characteristics of Surface Currents in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in Spring Based on High Frequency Radar Observations
    REN Lei, YANG Fan, YANG Lingna, CHEN Xiaofan, PAN Guangwei, WEI Jun
    2022, 58(5):  839-849.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.055
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    Based on the sea surface currents data of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) in March 2020 obtained from high frequency radar (HFR), the surface currents data from 907 densely distributed points were selected to analyze the characteristics of spatial-temporal variation. Harmonic analysis and some other methods were used to explore the characteristics of tidal currents. The results show that the irregular semidiurnal tide M2 is dominant in the sea area, and the shallow-water effect is significant. The dip angles of the main diurnal and semidiurnal tides are between 120° to 160°. The direction of maximum flow rate is WN-ES, which shows the trend of shore offshore flow. As the distance to the shoreline increases, the tidal current pattern coefficient and the effect of shallow water constituents coefficient gradually increase, and the offshore area in the south of the research area shows the characteristics of irregular diurnal tide. The ranges of probable maximum current velocity and measured maximum current velocity were 0.33 cm/s to 71.01 cm/s and 58.63 cm/s to 149.99 cm/s, respectively, with the upper-end values distributed in the northwest and south of the study area.
    Main Controlling Factors of Uplift Deformation of Longmenshan Structural Belt: Insight from Discrete Element Method
    WANG Ying, LI Jianghai, MA Changming, SONG Juechen
    2022, 58(5):  850-860.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.056
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     In order to explore the main controlling factors of uplift deformation of Longmenshan structural belt, based on the differences in the properties of lower crust material layer between the east and west sides of Longmenshan structural belt, three groups of PFC2D discrete element numerical simulation are carried out to realize quantitative analysis. The experimental deformation results and the model particle motion vector map show that under the condition of no obvious difference in the material properties of the lower crust, the existence of plate collision and compression stress and crustal thickness difference will not form a huge topographic elevation difference in the Longmenshan structural belt. When there are obvious differences in the viscosity coefficient of the lower crust, the relative value of the particle movement rate of the weak lower crust material layer is 1.5?2.94 m/s, and the average movement rate is 1.62 m/s, which is about 54 times of the average movement rate of the particles of the hard lower crust layer. Uplift deformation occurs in the middle of the model (Longmenshan structural belt), with a vertical influence range of 94.74% and a uplift amplitude of 19.85%. The particles of the middle crust and upper crust overlying the weak lower crust have a large upward velocity component, and the upward trend of the material layer of the upper crust is obvious. There is a 20 km thickness difference between Bayankala block and the crust of Sichuan Basin, which increases the uplift amplitude of Longmenshan structural belt from 14.79% to 19.85%. Based on the comprehensive analysis of three discrete element simulation experiments, it is concluded that the viscosity difference between the material layer of the lower crust of Bayan Kara block and the material layer of the underground block of Sichuan Basin is the most key control factor for the vertical uplift deformation of Longmenshan structural belt. On the premise that there are obvious differences in the viscosity structure of the lower crust, the crustal thickness differences between the Bayan Kara block and the Sichuan Basin significantly promote the vertical thrust uplift amplitude of the Longmenshan structural belt. 
    A New Zosterophyllopsid Plant with Encrusted Microconchids from Lower Devonian Guijiatun Formation of Qujing, Yunnan Province
    YANG Shuai, HUANG Pu, LIU Lu, WANG Jiashu, ZHANG Jiudong, XUE Jinzhuang
    2022, 58(5):  861-874.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.058
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    A new early vascular plant is described from the Guijiatun Formation of the Guogaishan section, Qujing, Yunnan. This plant shows smooth axes; the rhizomes are characterized by multiple K- or H-shaped branchings, forming a complex branching system; the erect axes are dichotomously branched; and the sporangia are helically arranged, spoon to ovoid shaped in lateral view. The plant is small in size, with better-preserved rhizomes, while the spikes are in poor preservation and the dehiscence line of the sporangia is invisible, and thus it is tentatively designated as cf. Zosterophyllum sp. Nevertheless, the character combination of this plant is different from typical species of Zosterophyllum and other related taxa, enriching the knowledge about the morphological variations of early vascular plants and about the floral assemblages from the Guijiatun Formation. Abundant microconchids, with a diameter of ca. 0.7~2.2 mm, occur on erect axes of the plant. Microconchids are a type of extinct aquatic invertebrates, spanning from the Late Ordovician to late Middle Jurassic, and they show a spiral-shaped calcareous shell and have been found to habitually colonize on various hard substrates including plants. Our finding that microconchids settled on erect axes of cf. Zosterophyllum sp. indicates that this plant was submerged by water during its growth period, and afterwards, the microconchids and their occupied plant axes were transported and then buried.
    Late-Quaternary Activity of Tongdian-Madeng Basin Segment of Weixi-Qiaohou Fault
    CHANG Zufeng, LI Jianlin, CHANG Hao, LUO Lin, LIU Changwei, HE Shufang
    2022, 58(5):  875-887.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.057
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    Based on the field survey results, the geological and geomorphic evidences of Late Quaternary activity and paleoseismic events in Tongdian-Madeng basin section of Weixi-Qiaohou fault are studied. The results show that the segment is active during Holocene and dominated by dextral strike slip. Its horizontal slip rate is 1.8-2.4 mm/a, and vertical slip rate is 0.30-0.35 mm/a since the Holocene. The OSL ages of faulted strata revealed by Yushuiping trench are 5.1±0.6, 5.3±0.2, 7.5±0.5 and 10.3±0.9 ka respectively, belonging to Holocene accumulation. Several faults developed on T2 terrace of a small river in Xiataiping offset all the strata under the modern loam layer, and the OSL age of the upper stratum is 5.3±0.6 ka. The activity of fault since Pliocene resulted in strong tectonic deformation of the Pliocene sediments, and its property also changed from thrust to dextral strike slip. Seismic phenomena such as seismic wedge, sand vein and soft sedimentary structural deformation are exposed at Xinmin, Gaichang and other trenches and the offset amount is mostly about 1 m. It is considered to be caused by the same seismic event, with an occurrence time of about 28000 aBP and a magnitude of seven.
    Application of Digital Twin Technology to Heterogeneous Traffic Flow Security
    ZHANG Yulin, SHANG Ke, ZHANG Feizhou
    2022, 58(5):  888-896.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.083
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    Aiming at the heterogeneous traffic flow composed of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and human-driving vehicles (HVs), by analyzing the characteristics of different methods for the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, the urban heterogeneous traffic model is constructed by the digital twin technology, and the safety and stability of complex heterogeneous traffic flow are explored and solved with the help of simulation testing tools. Based on the construction of the heterogeneous traffic flow model framework by the digital twin technology, combined with the operation mechanism of the digital twin, the paper reveals the operation mechanism of the internal physical entity and virtual space of the digital twin. Using the digital twin technology, an abundant test and verification environment is built, and the driverless development software PanoSim is used to test the heterogeneous traffic flow model. The test results show that the digital twin technology can effectively solve the safety problem of heterogeneous traffic flow by constructing virtual complex driving scene under the condition of limited resources.
    How Does Residential Integration Affect the Psychological Integration? Comparison between Migrants and Locals
    QUE Jinnan, GONG Yue, ZHAO Guochang
    2022, 58(5):  897-908.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.054
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    From the perspective of social integration as a two-way integration process of migrants and locals, based on the data of National Migrant Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey, this paper analyzes the impact of residential integration between the migrants and locals on the psychological dimension. It finds that inter-group residential integration has different effects on psychological integration between migrants and locals. Specifically, the scores of migrants’ psychological integration are higher than those of locals; the policies which improves the situation of residential integration through self-owned housing and increased residential proximity between migrants and locals can significantly improve the migrants’ psychological integration, but have few impacts on locals; intergroup contact can further enhance the promoting effect of residential proximity on social integration between two groups, which validates the theory of “intergroup contact”. The future integration policy should include the promotion of the migrants’ own housing property rights in the place they flow in, the residential proximity of two groups and the inter-group contact, in order to eliminate the prejudice and exclusion of the locals towards the migrants, so that the migrants will believe that “one shall have his peace of mind when he possesses a piece of land”. 
    Comprehensive Performance Evaluation Framework of Water Landscape with the Orientation of Water Eco-system Service
    LIU Jiaju, WANG Zhiyong, WANG Chunlian, WU Shanshan, WANG Yuhong, YANG Pingjian
    2022, 58(5):  909-915.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.049
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    The existing landscape performance evaluation research has problems such as the lack of ecological theory support in the evaluation system, the lack of comprehensive performance evaluation of water landscape according to the scale of site design, the completeness of the selection of framework or indicators, and the lack of typicality and availability. Therefore, the authors fully combed the four existing systems of landscape performance evaluation. At the same time, the related theories of water ecosystem services were studied, the types and elements of water ecosystem services were identified, and then the logical relationship between water ecosystem services and landscape performance evaluation were clarified. Based on the water ecosystem service theory, combined with the relevant international landscape performance evaluation system and indicators, the authors built a scientific and operable comprehensive performance evaluation index system for water landscapes, including 5 types of project layers, 10 types of criteria layers and 28 indicators. The relevant results are expected to provide a basis for the 
    optimization of design strategies for water landscape designers. 
    Current Development Status and Countermeasures of Mangrove Protection and Restoration Standards
    LI Ruili, YANG Fang, WANG Hui, WANG Wenqing
    2022, 58(5):  916-928.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.079
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    In the past 20 years, mangroves have been strictly protected in China, and the area has been gradually restored through artificial afforestation. The authors reviewed the status of mangrove protection and restoration in China, summarized the problems of the present mangrove standards and proposed the existing problems, and put forward the countermeasures. The corresponding suggestions and countermeasures are as follows. 1) Develop a comprehensive technical standard plan for mangrove protection and ecological restoration in combination with the national carbon neutral strategy and mangrove protection and restoration planning goals, and speed up the introduction of national mangrove standards. 2) While compiling relevant standards for mangrove protection and restoration, attention should be paid to increase mangroves’ carbon sequestration capacity and carbon sinks. 3) Formulate standards for returning ponds to forests to fill the gaps in China. 4) Fully implement the ecological restoration principle of ‘natural restoration as the primary and artificial restoration as supplement’, and attach importance to strengthen the formulation of technical details of mangrove protection and restoration standards. 5) Mangrove professional research institutions and experts should deeply participate in the formulation and implementation of standards to improve the survival rate of afforestation.
    Mangrove Restoration Technology and Application in Difficult Site in Shenzhen Bay
    SONG Xue, WANG Hui, SHI Jianya, WANG Xuguang, SHEN Xiaoxue, LI Ruili
    2022, 58(5):  929-936.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.077
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    This research used three technical means of hollow bricks, customized bamboo basket I and customized bamboo basket II to carry out the mangrove restoration test under difficult site condition in Shenzhen Bay in 2016. The effect of plantation was evaluated in terms of colonization technology, economic cost, mangrove population characteristics and sediment environmental quality after 4 years. The results showed that 1) three technical methods in the mangrove plantation area could create an Aegiceras corniculatum restoration. The preservation rate of A. corniculatum gained over 87%. 2) The cost of the hollow brick technology was lower than those of the groups of customized bamboo basket I and customized bamboo basket II. 3) The total organic (TOC) and total phosphorus (TP) of the sediments in the mangrove planting area were significantly higher than those in the intertidal zone, which indicated that mangroves could promote the retention of organic matter and phosphorus and reduce the risk of their escape to the offshore marine environment. The conclusion is that the technical means of hollow bricks, customized bamboo basket I and customized bamboo basket II can successfully restore mangroves under the difficult site condition of Shenzhen Bay. Considering the restoration effect and economic cost, it is recommended to use hollow brick technology to restore mangrove under difficult site conditions.
    Study on Coupling Simulation Method of Environmental-Economic System at Lake Watershed
    ZHANG Baichuan, ZHANG Yang, LI Zheng, LIU Yanxiao, GUO Huaicheng
    2022, 58(5):  937-948.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.076
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    In order to explore the internal conflict and synergy among water pollution control, water conservation and socio-economic development, a system of coupling simulation for the aquatic environmental-economic system of lake watershed was constructed and applied at Yilong Lake Watershed. Based on the scenario analysis, the following conclusions are drawn. 1) Under the condition of economic and social affordability, the nutrient load of Yilong Lake can be reduced to the level of aquatic environmental capacity corresponding to Grade IV water quality through the measures of controlling the pollution. 2) The implementation of industrial relocation or very strict scale restriction is extremely unfavorable for gross domestic product (GDP) growth and urbanization of the watershed, but does not play a significant role in protecting the aquatic environment of Yilong Lake. 3) The critical measures in the planning period are to change the planting practices of high water-consuming and heavy fertilizer-using, treat rural domestic sewage more effectively, promote sewage reuse, and reduce the transfer of sewage. 4) According to the simulation results, the optional scheme selected by the approach proposed here would reduce the water diversion demand by 45%, and cut down the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) discharged into the lake from the land surface by 26.6% and 18.5% respectively, and eliminate the TN and TP load of the lake by 20.7% and 17.5% respectively, but only at a cost of 7% of GDP at the end of the planning period.
    Research on Differences of Image Perception of Beijing Historical and Cultural Districts among Various Cultural Groups
    PENG Xia, WANG Yun, HUANG Zhou
    2022, 58(5):  949-958.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.078
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    Based on the tourist online comment data of Beijing’s historical and cultural districts released by TripAdvisor from 2010 to 2019, and on the basis of constructing the place attachment model of inbound tourists, the authors use content analysis to discuss the discrepancies of various cultural groups’ perception image on historical and cultural districts in Beijing. This paper concludes that diverse culture groups have differences in cognitive, affective and overall image on historical and cultural districts; the authenticity of the district environment, public facilities and the perception of crowding affect the place attachment of different cultural groups, and then affect the cultural groups’ image perception of historical and cultural districts; cultural heterogeneity leads to great differences in place attachment of different cultural groups to the same historical and cultural district.
    Development and Validation of Avoidant Personality Organization Scale (AVPOS) 
    ZHANG Youwen, LI Jialu, ZHONG Jie
    2022, 58(5):  959-966.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.080
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    This article aims to develop Avoidant Personality Organization Scale (AVPOS) by using Diagnostic criteria for Avoidant Personality Disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) as a basis and framework, integrating Kernberg’s Personality Organization theory, fully combining literature review and clinical experience, and investigating its reliability and validity. Sample 1 of 728 people (197 males and 531 females, average age 26.34±8.37 years) filled out the basic information questionnaire, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) avoidance scale, and the initial version of AVPOS questionnaire to test the validity of the association between AVPOS and MCMI. Sample 2 of 709 people (160 males, 549 females, average age 19.34±1.23 years) filled out the basic information questionnaire, IPO, and the initial version of AVPOS questionnaire to test the validity of the association between AVPOS and IPO. Sample 3 of 65 people (13 males, 52 females) from sample 2 filled out the AVPOS again one month later to test the retest reliability of AVPOS. Sample 4 of 743 people (male 182, female 561, average age 22.76±6.86 years), from the half of the total sample (Sample 1 plus Sample 2), were used for exploratory factor analysis. Sample 5 of 694 (176 males, 518 females, average age 22.81±6.97 years), from the other half of the total sample, were used for confirmatory factor analysis. The results of factor analysis showed that the four-factor model was the best factor model for the AVPOS. The AVPOS was positively correlated with MCMI-III (r = 0.658, p<0.01) and IPO (r = 0.328, p<0.01). The AVPOS’s internal consistency coefficient was 0.786; the test-retest reliability of the total scale is 0.841. The results showed that the AVPOS meets the psychometric requirements.
    Effects of In-Service Training Programme on Primary School Teachers’ Ability to Guide ADHD Children: An Empirical Study of Teacher Training in Beijing
    JIN Ying, FU Yicheng
    2022, 58(5):  967-973.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.075
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    For evaluating the effects of in-service training about primary school teachers how to guide ADHD children, this study adopted a pre- and post-test design which chose 53 primary school teachers from Beijing as the experimental group and 59 primary school teachers as the control group. The teachers of experimental group were trained for 6 times in twelve weeks, and the teachers of control group didn’t receive any intervention. Then the questionnaires were used to evaluate the effects. This sharply contrasts with the teachers of control group, the ability about how to deal with ADHD children of the teachers in the experimental group enhanced greatly: 1) the knowledge level about the causes, symptoms and how to treat the ADHD children was increased obviously; 2) instead of the negative beliefs about ADHD children, more positive beliefs and self-efficacy emerged in the teachers of experimental group; 3) the teachers obtained more tutoring strategies for ADHD children, and they enhanced the ability greatly in the home-school communication, positive reinforcement, personalized behavioral intervention and academic intervention.