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Table of Content

    20 July 2022, Volume 58 Issue 4
    A Reduced-order Sub-region Model for Structural Damage Analysis under Sudden Disasters
    HAN Xudong, SUN Shuli
    2022, 58(4):  591-596.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.113
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     A simplified order-reduced sub-region model and the analysis method are proposed to analyze structural damage caused by local failure under sudden disasters. The method firstly divides a complex building into sub-regions. Secondly it evaluates the failure degree of sub-regions according to the state of internal components, then analyzes the failure process from macro regional perspective. Finally it summarizes the law of collapse evolution so as to provide guidance for emergency management. 
    Design of Secure Divider for Side Channel Defense
    MA Bingwen, YAN Xuesong, LIU Hao, LIU Pengyuan, YI Jiangfang
    2022, 58(4):  597-601.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.128
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    According to the common methods of side channel timing attack and defense using arithmetic unit, based on the division algorithms of fixed delay and variable delay, a secure divider was designed. The design considered both high performance and high security. It was suitable for different working environments. Experimental results showed that the proposed divider was effective, especially for low power embedded microprocessors for IoT applications.
    Source Mechanisms of Small Earthquakes and Tectonic Stress Field in Xiaojiang, Yunnan
    PEI Weilai, YANG Zhousheng, ZHOU Shiyong
    2022, 58(4):  602-608.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.043
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    674 small earthquakes occurred from 2016 to 2019 near Xiaojiang Fault Zone, Yunnan are relocated using local dense array data. The focal mechanisms of 222 small earthquakes around are determined by HASH algorithm using P-wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios. The tectonic stress field is inversed by MSTASI algorithm. The results indicate that the earthquakes around Xiaojiang Fault Zone are mainly left lateral strike slip, and the direction of principal compressive stress obtained from focal mechanism inversion is NW-SE, which is in good agreement with previous research results and regional GPS observation results. Compared with the north section of Xiaojiang Fault Zone, the horizontal tectonic compressive stress in the middle and south section has been reduced, which might be related with tectonic stress release.
    Distinguishing Underground Nuclear Test by Matrix Decomposition
    ZHAO Kechang, ZHANG Xianbing
    2022, 58(4):  609-614.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.042
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    Using the seismic data of three underground nuclear tests and three nearby natural earthquakes, the focal seismic moment tensor is obtained by inversion, and the underground nuclear explosion is identified by matrix decomposition method. The results show that there are obvious explosion sources (EXP), compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) source and double couple (DC) source in the source of underground nuclear explosion earthquake. The physical mechanism of CLVD is medium rupture caused by explosion, which accounts for a large proportion of underground nuclear explosion sources. Compared with underground nuclear explosion, natural earthquake is generally shear dislocation mode, and DC accounts for a large proportion of its source.
    Array-Based Double Difference Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding Method and Its Application
    BAO Tiezhao, NING Jieyuan
    2022, 58(4):  615-625.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.044
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    Through multi-channel cross-correlation, the differences of arrival time differences of SsPmp and Ss between adjacent stations in dense broadband seismic array are measured, and then arrival time differences of SsPmp and Ss of each station are obtained by means of least squares. This method is an advanced virtual deep seismic sounding (VDSS) method and named Array-Based Double Difference Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (ABDDVDSS) method, which effectively reduces arrival time difference error and estimates crustal thickness precisely by taking advantages of array data. This method is applied to synthetic data and ChinArray II data. Results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the precision of measurement.
    Application of the Automated Event Location Using a Mesh of Arrays in Southern Ordos and Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt
    YANG Yanzhao, GE Zengxi
    2022, 58(4):  626-634.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.045
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    The recently developed automated event location using a mesh of arrays (AELUMA) method is used to scan and locate the continuous waveforms recorded by 136 broadband mobile seismic stations in Ordos basin and its surrounding region. Compared with the seismic catalog provided by national earthquake data center, besides the events located in conventional seismic zone, a large number of events were located in Qingling-Dabie orogenic belt with few earthquakes in the catalog. The detected events were further confirmed through the bootsctrap analysis and carefully manual examination. The apparent velocities of these events were also obtained from slowness analysis. Most apparent velocities were 2.5-5.2 km/s which was consistent with the group velocity of surface wave propagation. The events detected and located in this paper can be a supplementary of the earthquake catalog and further used to determine the focal mechanism through waveform fitting.
    Study on Rupture Spatial Complexity of Global Large Earthquakes
    WANG Jing, GE Zengxi
    2022, 58(4):  635-643.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.048
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    Based on the displacement data obtained from finite fault inversion, the number of independent slip units is used to characterize the magnitude of the seismic rupture complexity and group the events statistically, to study the relationship between rupture complexity and source parameters, to explore the global spatial distribution and regional characteristics of fracture complexity. The results show that for events with a large moment magnitude (Mw ≥ 8.5), the rupture complexity tends to be greater; the earthquake with higher rupture complexity is more likely to be distributed in the shallow crust (≤ 30 km), and the sensitivity of the rupture complexity to the focal depth gradually disappears as the focal depth increases; the events with higher strike-slip fault mechanism components tend to have higher fracture complexity; there is no clear relationship between rupture spatial complexity and seismic energy-moment ratio; the spatial distribution characteristics of rupture complexity is associated with regional geological tectonic environment. The spatial distribution characteristics of fracture complexity can be divided into three categories. The first category is the subduction zone caused by simple collisions between plates and the slip rate and direction at the boundary of the plates are relatively high, and relatively simple event types are main in this case. The second type is the junction of multiple plates, or the sliding rate and direction at the junction of the plates are different in the whole area. The third type is the strong compression inside the continent. The rupture complexity of the second and third types of cases tends to be higher than that of the first type. The rupture complexity can reflect the complexity of the regional stress field to a certain extent.
    New Discovery of Macroscopic Cone Fossils from the Cambrian Series-2 Shuijingtuo Formation of Hubei, China
    LIU Xuan, CHEN Chunhan, YANG Runyu, DONG Lin
    2022, 58(4):  644-654.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.041
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    Macroscopic cone fossils, from the early Cambrian Shuijingtuo Formation of Shennongjia and Zigui areas, Hubei Province, were studied by using stereo light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A new species of the genus Sphenothallus was identified by its longitudinal ridges located within the “V” shaped thickenings. The genus Ambrolinevitus of the class Hyolithida was firstly described from Shuijingtuo Formation. The result enriches the biodiversity of the Shuijingshuo Formation and adds new palaeontological data for the research of early life evolution. 
    Environmental Factors Influencing Women’s Safety Perception in Non-commercial Alleys in Urban Villages: A Case Study of Pingshan Village, Shenzhen
    WANG Junjing, HAN Xili
    2022, 58(4):  655-663.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.038
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    Taking non-commercial alleys in Pingshan Village, Nanshan District, Shenzhen as an example, this study identified and extracted 5 categories of 32 environmental factors that have negative effects on women’s safety perception, then ranked and discussed the environmental factors that have significant negative effects, and explored whether women’s socio-demographic variables would lead to differences in safety perception. The results showed that the social environment factors in the alley were more likely to make women feel uneasy than the physical environment factors. Negative special groups and animal activities were the most important factors causing women’s uneasiness, followed by the lack of maintenance of the vertical features of the alleys, such as falling objects and chaotic electrical facilities. In addition, there are significant differences in women’s safety perception among different social backgrounds, that is, educated women, knowing about negative reports in urban villages, and young women are more likely to feel insecure.
    Analysis of Urban Land Use Function Identification in Shenzhen Based on SOFM Network
    WU Jianan, CHU Jun, SUN Yiyu, CHAO Heng
    2022, 58(4):  664-672.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.060
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    Based on 88814 POI data and with the help of Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM), the functions of urban land use in Shenzhen are analyzed and identified, and compared with China’s basic urban land use type mapping (EULUC-China). It is found that 1) the urban block scale of Shenzhen presents the characteristics of mixed functions, which is mainly divided into five types of spatial land, such as secondary industry and producer service industry, transportation facilities, residence + secondary industry and producer service industry + commercial service industry facilities, residence + public management and service, commerce + public management and service. 2) The land use function identification model based on SOFM network has more detailed results, and the classification of mixed function land can highlight the regional characteristics.
    A Study on the Electro-and-bioelectro-deposition of Heavy Metals in Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash
    FENG Zhendong, LEI Tao, ZHANG Shanfa, ZHANG Lijuan, DING Lingyun, TAO Huchun
    2022, 58(4):  673-679.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.034
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    The contents and leaching concentrations of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated in Shenzhen. Targeting at Cu, Pb and Zn as the key heavy metals, aqueous solutions containing Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) of 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 300 mg/L were synthesized to test the feasibility and efficiency of electro-and-bioelectro-deposition of heavy metals. In a bio-electrochemical system (BES), the removal and recovery efficiency of Cu(II) was >98%. In the subsequent electro-deposition reactor (ER), the concentrations of Pb(II) and Zn(II) were decreased from 200 and 300 mg/L to 23.5±1.1 and 4.3±0.2 mg/L with external voltage of 1.5 and 2.5 V, respectively. Energy consumption analysis revealed that extra electricity of 16.55 kWh was generated by 1 kg Cu(II) reduction in BES, while electricity of 60.91 kWh and 114.27 kWh were consumed by 1 kg Pb(II) and Zn(II) treatment in ER, and the heavy metal ions were reducted to free elements, oxides and salts. These results suggest that a combined BES and ER technology has advantages in metal recovery and energy saving. 
    Effects of Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio on Nitrogen and Phosphate Removal in A/O-MBR Wastewater Treatment Process
    TAO Huchun, TONG Hao, WANG Jian, HUANG Yilong, ZHANG Lijuan, YANG Kai, DING Lingyun, QIAO Xuejiao, DOU Min, XU Nan
    2022, 58(4):  680-686.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.037
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    The changing profiles of NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphate (TP) were investigated in the A/O-MBR process at high and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. By elevating the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, there was an increase in the removal efficiency of TN from 44.1%±8.9% to 78.5%±7.9%, while the removal efficiency remained unchanged for TP. Metabolite analyses revealed that enhanced metabolism of amino acids contributed significantly to efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater and the up-regulation of riboflavin biosynthesis, further improving the water quality.
    Meta-analysis of Mangrove Salt-Waterlogging Tolerance and Application Strategies
    JIANG Biqian, LI Ruili, SHEN Xiaoxue, ZHANG Zhi, ZHANG Yueqi
    2022, 58(4):  687-699.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.062
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    The success of mangrove afforestation depends on the selection and plantation of mangrove species, in which salinity and waterlogging are important factors. In this study, based on literature retrieval and meta-analysis, we evaluated the salt and waterlogging tolerance of five mangrove species commonly used in domestic afforestation projects. The results showed that Avicennia marina was the most tolerant to salinity and waterlogging, which could grow in extreme salinity (40‰) and long-term waterlogging (16 h/d) site. Meanwhile, Kandelia obovata and Aegiceras corniculatum had the ability to withstand salinity and waterlogging, which could adapt to moderate salinity (30‰) and short-term inundation (12 h/d) environment. While Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Sonneratia apetala were salt-sensitive, which grew better at low level of salinity (20‰) place, and the former could be planted in short-term immersion (12 h/d) area. When salinity or duration of immersion was out of the limit, compound stress would decrease the tolerance capabilities of mangroves. In the practical application of afforestation, A. marina, K. obovata and A. corniculatum were highly adaptable to aquatic environments with a high level of salinity and prolonged waterlogging, which were suitable afforestation species for mangrove wetland in southern China. This study also put forward the corresponding application strategies which contributes to the ecological restoration of mangroves in China.
    The Spillover-Feedback Effect of Agricultural Sector’s Environmental Footprints Interregional Transfer in China
    HU Jingru, HUANG Kai, CHEN Ying
    2022, 58(4):  700-710.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.061
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    This study takes seven regional agricultural sectors in China as the research object, and introduces water footprint (WF), carbon footprint (CF) and land footprint (LF) to analyze the spillover-feedback effect of these environmental footprints to characterize their resource and environment impacts. Based on the inter-regional input-output model, this paper first decomposed the spillover-feedback effects model, extended it to the environmental field, constructed the spillover-feedback effects model coupled with environmental footprints, and evaluated the transfer of resource and environment pressure in the agricultural sector from the perspective of interregional two-way impacts. The results show that the spillover effects and feedback effects of WF, CF and LF in seven regions of China’s agriculture sectors varied greatly in spatial level in 2007?2012. The feedback effects of WF, CF, and LF were more significant and should not be ignored. Through further analysis of the ratio of feedback effect to spillover effect of each region’s Agricultural Sector, it was found that the ratio of feedback effect to spillover effect of North (NO) region’s agricultural sector was the largest, all more than 31.3%. The ratio of feedback effect to spillover effect of East (EA), South (SO) and Central South (CS) regions’ Agricultural Sectors were also larger, all more than 10.7%. Finally, it was pointed out that the current interregional available resources in China’s Agriculture Sector did not match the demand and the level of regional economic development, so to some extent, the current trade structure should be improved to support agricultural sustainable development.
    Identification of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Groundwater from Hebei Province Using Iodide-Based Nontarget Screening
    ZHONG Wei, LIU Siqi, DONG Yanran, XU Nan
    2022, 58(4):  711-720.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.027
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    A complete set of nontargeted analysis method was established by combining the high-resolution MS and the characteristic mass spectrometry properties of iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs). Groundwater samples were collected from 17 sites in Hebei Province, and an integrated nontarget screening workflow was developed and implemented to identify the category, quantity and distribution of I-DBPs in the groundwater samples. As a result, a total of 2408 suspect I-DBPs ions including isomers were screened, of which 839 unique mass-to-charge ratios were identified, much higher than the numbers reported by previous studies. Among the suspect I-DBPs ions, the structures were carefully analyzed for precursors which were detected with top 10 the most abundant iodide ions in their MS/MS spectra, and the top 2 suspect ions were identified as phenolic I-DBPs, whose developmental toxicity are tens to hundreds of times higher than the corresponding aliphatic DBPs. Further analysis confirmed that the phenolic I-DBPs were one of the main categories of all the I-DBPs detected in samples. Finally, the distribution characteristics of 2408 suspect ions were analyzed based on principal component analysis (PCA). According to the PCA, 3 sites significantly different from other sampling sites were screened as outlier sites. The suspect ions were clustered into 4 classes using Gaussian mixture model according to their loading scores, and ions from 3 of 4 classes were identified as the diagnostic pollutants for 3 outlier sites respectively. The results highlighted the differences and complexity of I-DBPs in groundwater of Hebei Province.
    Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Corbicula fluminea under the Stress of Graphene Oxide Combined with Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) 
    BI Chunqing, LIU Yan, GUO Wenjing, JIANG Xilin, LI Zhengguoshen, XU Nan
    2022, 58(4):  721-729.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.028
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    In order to explore the combined toxicity of carbon nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in freshwater benthic shellfish, Corbicula fluminea was used as the target organism to study the effects of single and co-exposures of 1 mg/L GO or/and 500 ng/L PFOS for 28 days on body length, body weight, filtration rate, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme system and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The toxicity was evaluated by enhanced integrated biomarker response (EIBR). The results showed that the body length and body weight of C. fluminea did not change significantly after exposure. Compared with the blank control and solvent control groups, the filtration rates in the single and co-exposure groups significantly decreased. Both GO and PFOS stresses significantly changed the enzyme responses in gills and visceral masses of C. fluminea with consistent variation trends in both organs. The EIBR results showed that the toxicity in gills and visceral masses of the co-exposure group was stronger than that of the PFOS or GO single exposure groups. 
    Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Temperate Forest and Subtropical Forest 
    LI Rui, FENG Jiguang, ZHU Biao
    2022, 58(4):  730-738.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.050
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    The soils collected from a temperate forest in Wuying in Heilongjiang Province and a subtropical forest in Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province were used to investigate the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus addition (NH4NO3 and NaH2PO4) on soil carbon and net nitrogen mineralization in the topsoil (0–20 cm) through a 120-day laboratory incubation experiment. The results showed that nitrogen addition reduced soil carbon mineralization in the subtropical forest by reducing soil microbial biomass and its carbon/nitrogen ratio, but had no significant effect on soil carbon mineralization in the temperate forest. Phosphorus addition had no significant effect on soil carbon mineralization in the two forests. Moreover, phosphorus addition significantly increased soil net nitrogen mineralization in the temperate forest, nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil net nitrogen mineralization in the temperate forest, but nitrogen and phosphorus addition had no significant effect on soil net nitrogen mineralization in the subtropical forest. In general, the responses of soil carbon and net nitrogen mineralization to nitrogen and phosphorus addition are different between the temperate forest and the subtropical forest, likely due to the differences in nutrient availability and soil properties between the two forests.
    Identification and Characterization of a New Species of Thermoleptolyngbya Isolated from Hot Springs in Sichuan
    LI Meijin, TANG Jie, Md. Mahfuzur R. Shah, Maurycy Daroch
    2022, 58(4):  739-752.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.029
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    The objective of the study is to characterise the taxonomy of the thermophilic filamentous strain B121 isolated from the hot springs in Ganzi, Sichuan, and provide insight into its genetic basis for future application. The taxonomy of strain B121 was analyzed by using polyphasic approach encompassing genome analysis, phylogenetic analysis, secondary structure prediction, and overall analysis of morphology, sodium salt tolerance test combined nitrogen fixation ability. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that strain B121 closely clustered with strains Thermoleptolyngbya oregonensis PCC 8501, Thermoleptolyngbya albertanoae ETS-08 and Thermoleptolyngbya sp.O-77; the 16S-23S ITS secondary structure prediction showed that the D1-D1' region of strain B121 has certain similarity and high sequence identity with reference strains, but they have not reached the generalized threshold for the same species. Additionally, the secondary structures of V2, BoxB and V3 regions are quite different between B121 and other reference strains. Combined with the analysis of morphological investigation, strain B121 was identified as a new species of the genus Thermoleptolyngbya. In addition, the strain B121 can survive in NaCl and NaNO3 modified BG-11 medium with a concentration of 0.5 M, and it can also survive in NaCl modified BG-11 medium with a concentration of 1 M. When the gas phase condition is Ar:N2:CO2 = 79:20:1 (v:v:v), the acetylene reduction rate of strain B121 can reach 2564.1 nmol/(g·h). 
    Global Sensitivity Analysis of Hydrological Parameters of the Watershed Simualtion Model
    CAI Kaikui, LI Jincheng, HU Mengchen, MA Wenjing, YE Rui, LIU Yong
    2022, 58(4):  753-762.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.052
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    A hydrological simulation model was developed for the Dashetai watershed in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region with LSPC (Loading Simulation Program in C++). Two global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods, Morris and Sobol, were applied to identify hydrological sensitive parameters and sensitive surface landuse types. The impacts of two GSA methods and model output measures on sensitivity analysis results were also evaluated. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The model has a good fit for daily and monthly runoff simulation. The R2 of the simulated value and the observed value is greater than 0.6, and NSE between them is greater than 0.5, which indicates that LSPC model is suitable for hydrological simulation of inland arid and semiarid areas. 2) The two GSA methods have impacts on the identification of sensitive parameters and the ranking of sensitive indexes; while the impact of the two measurement methods of MAE and MSE is mainly reflected in the identification of sensitive parameters. 3) The sensitive hydrological parameters are lower zone nominal storage (LZSN) and active groundwater evapotranspiration (AGWETP), and the sensitive underlying landuse types are grassland, farmland, forest and water. All have close relationships with precipitation and landuse types in the study area.
    A Case Study on Cost-effectiveness of Accelerated Vehicle Retirement Programs in Beijing
    YU Yashen, HU Yuhan, ZHANG Shiqiu
    2022, 58(4):  763-770.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.053
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    NOx and PM2.5 reduction were taken as indicators of emission reduction effect, and vehicle residual value cost, policy implementation cost and fuel cost saving were taken as social cost indicators. Based on social cost of per unit emission reduction (the ratio of social cost to emission reduction), cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted on the effect of the old motor vehicle replacement and subsidy policy in Beijing from June 2011 to December 2020. The results show that the cost-effectiveness of the policy is not monotonically decreasing over the period covered by the study. It shows phased and structural characteristics: the policy is most cost-effective in phasing out diesel trucks and least cost-effective in phasing out China III gasoline vehicles, and the cost of reducing per unit of NOx and PM2.5 differs by 14 times and 34 times, respectively; the cost-effectiveness of phasing out small buses tends to decline with the expansion of models to higher emission standards, and the emission reduction potential of small buses with China III and China IV Emission Standards has been limited and the cost-effectiveness is much lower than that under the early policy; the cost-effectiveness of phasing out heavy trucks is better and there are social cost savings in some periods. The paper suggests that the formulation of relevant follow-up policies should be based on cost-effectiveness. It should be cautious about including small passenger cars with higher emission standards in policy implementation, and focus more on the optimization of the policy design for accelerated phase-out of heavy diesel trucks.
    Characteristics and Source Apportionment of VOCs in Suzhou, China
    LI Jiayin, ZHOU Ming, NING Miao, SHI Xurong, YAN Gang, MA Qiang, LU Keding
    2022, 58(4):  771-781.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.051
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    VOCs concentrations based on offline sampling in Suzhou from July to October 2020 were monitored, and temporal and spatial distribution characteristics, ozone formation potential (OFP) and sources of VOCs were conducted and compared with other studies in China. The results showed that the average concentration of VOCs in Suzhou in the summer is 47.1 nL/L, the average OFP is 334.7 μg/m3, and the aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics (OVOCs) are important components of VOCs in Suzhou and contribute a lot to ozone generation. The trends of VOCs concentration and composition in Suzhou are similar with those in Shanghai. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model results showed that six major sources of VOCs in Suzhou are liquefied petroleum gas volatilization sources (20.7%), solvent usage sources (19.5%) and industrial sources (17.5%), followed by other sources, vehicle exhaust emission sources and combustion sources, in which the contribution of liquefied petroleum gas volatilization sources is higher than the general level in Yangtze River Delta. The higher concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Yangtze River Delta is related to the higher contribution of industrial and solvent uses. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons and OVOCs have a greater impact on the atmospheric environment of Suzhou. The main sources are surface coating, gas stations, traffic emission, petrochemical sources and electric heating sources, which should be mainly controlled.