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Table of Content

    20 July 2020, Volume 56 Issue 4
    Analysis of Influence of Combined External Store on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Unmanned Helicopter
    LONG Haibin, WU Yuping
    2020, 56(4):  579-586.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.048
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    In order to analysis the aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned helicopter combined external stores on the both sides of unmanned helicopter fuselage. The aerodynamic characteristics of the helicopter fuselage are calculated by the method which can solve the Navier-Stokes equation, and the results are compared with the results of wind tunnel test to verify the accuracy and reliability of the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) method. The aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned helicopter installing combined external store are calculated in different yaw angles and different loading conditions. The results show that the combined external stores has a large impact on the helicopter drag, and a less impact on the lift and pitch moment and so on. The aerodynamic characteristic of unmanned helicopter is affected larger by the yaw angle after the installation of weapon. The change of missiles number has a relatively large impact on the helicopter drag. The results can provide an reference for aerodynamic layout of combined external stores and the drag reduction design.
    Butterfly Diversity in Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    FAN Cheng, CAO Zijuan, LI Jialian, ZHANG Dan, LEI Ying, YANG Jianing, GAO Yuan, HU Ping, WANG Di, JIN Tong, WANG Rongjiang
    2020, 56(4):  587-599.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.050
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    A systematic survey was conducted in Laohegou Nature Reserve in Sichuan Province from mid-April to late October, 2013 (13 repeats altogether, about 15 days between repeats). Supplementary surveys were carried out in 2014 and 2015. 252 species of butterfly were found in total belonging to 12 families and 117 genera, in which the richness of Nymphalidae is the highest (33.3%). During the systematic survey in 2013, there were 235 species found, and 17 species were newly recorded in 2014 and 2015, indicating that almost complete information may be obtained based on our survey protocol. There were 3 species assessed globally as “least concern” by IUCN Red List, and 5 species protected by Chinese law. The proportion of Palearctic, Oriental, and Palearctic-Oriental species was 3.3%, 32.9%, and 63.8%, respectively. Taking the butterfly fauna composition of other districts into account, Qinling and Minshan mountains were found to serve as geographical barrier to the dispersal of Palearctic and Oriental species. The butterfly richness was the highest from June to September. Butterfly species richness was unimodal in general with elevation rising. The highest was in 1500–1600 m, and there was a minor peak in 1000–1100 m, in which the transect lied in a village near the boundary of the reserve, indicating that moderate interference by human activity was conducive to the conservation of butterfly diversity. This work provides an optimized protocol for butterfly monitoring survey.
    Design and Implementation of Data Acquisition System for AETA
    YANG Xingwen, YONG Shanshan, WANG Xin’an, ZHOU Kangsheng, JIN Xiuru
    2020, 56(4):  600-606.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.052
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    This paper designs and implements a data acquisition system for AETA (Acoustic and Electromagnetic Testing All in one system). The data acquisition system is mainly divided into three parts: probe data acquisition software, data processing terminal software and server application. The data processing terminal software is the core, which is responsible for receiving the data collected from the probe and transmitting it stably and reliably to the server. The proposed system also has the function of automatic upgrade and online execution of commands, which can realize remote operation and maintenance of the device. Tests show that the AETA data acquisition system can run stably with network speed as low as 10 KB, and can respond to remote commands in a minute. It has good stability and real-time interactivity, and is suitable for cross-region and high-density layout of seismic monitoring system equipment.
    Research on Expert Disambiguation of Same Name Based on Multi-feature Fusion
    ZENG Jianrong, ZHANG Yangsen, WANG Siyuan, HUANG Gaijuan, CUI Jia, MA Huan
    2020, 56(4):  607-613.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.049
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    According to the expert ambiguity with the same name in the process of building expert database, an expert disambiguation method based on multi-feature fusion is proposed. The paper information of experts is obtained from data sources such as CNKI. Key information (title, abstract, keyword, affiliation and collaborator) is extracted. The feature representation model is constructed with these information as attribute features. The similarity calculation function between experts of the same name is defined. According to the similarity, the problem of disambiguation of the same name is transformed into clustering problem. Affinity propagation clustering algorithm is used to solve the problem of homonymy disambiguation. Experiments on the collected expert papers show that the accuracy of the same-name expert disambiguation method based on multi-feature fusion can reach 92%, and good disambiguation results are achieved.
    Inversion Research of Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Curve Based on Fast Scalar Transfer Algorithm
    DONG Zhikai, DUAN Wensheng, XIAO Chengwen, HU Tianyue, ZHANG Xianbing
    2020, 56(4):  614-628.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.020
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    In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves near the surface, fast scalar transfer algorithm which has the characteristics of high computational efficiency is introduced to calculate the forward theoretical value of Rayleigh wave dispersion curve. The performances of genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing algorithm (SA) in the inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves before and after adding linear constraints are compared. On this basis, linear constraints are added to GA and SA to improve the speed of convergence, and Monte Carlo method (MC) with fast computing speed is used to identify the types of formation as a supplementary means. Then the inversion results obtained by GA are taken as the initial state of SA as well as narrowing search scope appropriately, and this kind of joint inversion is carried out to overcome the premature problem of GA. Using the above method to calculate the three-layer model, noisecontaining data and actual model of the work area. The results show that the method above is efficient, accurate and stable, and it has strong ability of global optimization and anti-noise ability to a certain extent.
    Numerical Modeling of Global Seismic Wave Propagation in the Whole Mars Models
    DENG Di, XIAO Wanbo, WANG Yanbin
    2020, 56(4):  629-637.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.029
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    The pseudospectral and finite difference hybrid method on staggered grid is applied to solve seismic wave equations for two Martian structure models derived from geochemical analysis. The numerical modeling is used to calculate P-SV and SH wave propagation inside 2-D whole Mars models. The generation and propagation of various seismic phases in the whole Mars models are shown by synthetic seismograms and wavefield snapshots. Effect of Martian crustal thickness and the depth of Martian core-mantle boundary on seismic wave propagation is analyzed with synthetic seismograms. Multiple reflections and conversions of seismic waves and their constructive interference inside the low-velocity Martian crust form reverberating wave trains, which are strongly affected by the thickness of Martian crust. Seismic reflections from core-mantle boundary can be clearly identified from the calculated transverse component seismogram.
    A Synchronizing Method for Dense Seismic Array Based on Ambient Noise Correlation Function
    TIAN Yuan, WANG Weitao, LI Li, YU Changqing, ZHANG Haiming
    2020, 56(4):  638-648.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.043
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    This paper develops a NCF-based array synchronizing and error-estimation method employing the daily time shift of NCFs between nearby stations to estimate the stability of the timing system of a short-term but densely deployed seismic array. The error related to the reference NCF, the temporal change of ambient noise field, the data error and the optimization method in inversion are all estimated and correspondingly corrected based on the characteristics of a dense seismic array. The proposed method could effectively calculate the daily clock shift of a seismic array and pick out the time period of stations with obvious clock error. As an example, among the 209 stations of Yanyuan Seismic Array, it is found that 17 stations have obvious clock error with time shift over 1 s. These clock errors might be caused by the hardware or software problems related to the data acquisition system.
    Study on Crust and Upper Mantle Structure in Shandong Area
    QU Ping, LÜ Jie, GUO Zhen, YU Yong, CHEN Yongshun
    2020, 56(4):  649-658.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.039
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    This paper records seismic data, using the broadband seismic station and the state seismic station in Shandong Province. Receiver function and shear-waves splitting are applied to study the earth’s crust and upper mantle structure beneath Shandong and its adjacent area. This study analyzed the crust thickness distribution of the region, distribution of crustal average P and S wave velocity ratio, and the regional distribution of shear wave splitting delay. It can be seen that the range of crust thickness in Shandong region is 28?39 km. The crustal thickness of the northern and southern sections of the Jiaonan uplift is less than 32 km. The crustal thickness of Jiyang depression on the north side of west Shandong uplift is also within 32 km. The lithosphere below the western Shandong uplift is relatively thicker. The velocity ratios of P and S in the study area are mainly distributed in the range of 1.67?1.94. In the southwest part of the Luxi uplift and the northern part of the Jiaonan uplift, the wave velocity ratio of P and S is less than 1.75, which may be caused by the thickening of the middle and upper crust, and the thinning and subsidence of the lower crust. The difference between velocity ratio of P and S in the north and south of the west uplift reflects the difference of crustal activity. The anisotropy of mantle material indicates that crust thinning and subsidence in the west of Shandong region may still be ongoing.
    Characteristics of Nano-pores of Clay Minerals in Tight Reservoirs and Their Effects on Reservoir Properties: A Case Study of Yanchang-6 Oil Formation in Ordos Basin
    WANG He, SHI Yongmin, ZHANG Zhiqiang, SUN Tong, SHI Shiyuan, GUAN Ping, XU Dawei
    2020, 56(4):  659-666.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.037
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    In view of the lack of quantitative characterization of intercrystalline pores of clay minerals in tight sandstone reservoirs, the development characteristics of clay minerals and intercrystalline pore in Yanchang-6 oil formation in Ordos Basin were studied based on scanning electron microscope image and energy spectrum analysis. The intercrystalline pore parameters were quantified, and the intercrystalline pores of different types of clay minerals were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. On this basis, the contribution of different types of clay minerals to reservoir porosity was calculated according to the mineral content, and the mechanism of its influence on the physical properties of tight reservoirs was explored. The results showed that there were significant differences in the development characteristics of different clay minerals and the characteristics of intercrystalline pores. The size trend of pore throat and facial rate of clay minerals was illite/smectite formation > chlorite > illite. Clay mineral development characteristics and pore structure were the main influencing factors of reservoir physical properties and residual oil distribution.
    Paleoenvironment Interpretation of Early Cambrian Yurtus Formation, Tarim Basin, and Its Mechanism for Organic Carbon Accumulation
    WANG Zhihong, DING Weiming, LI Jian, HAO Cuiguo, LIU Hui, LI Tong, DONG Lin
    2020, 56(4):  667-678.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.045
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    This study scrutinizes the petrological and geochemical signatures by systematically sampling three sections of Yurtus Formation, which deposited during the early Cambrian in the western margin of Tarim Basin. The redox conditions together with the intensity of primary productivity during Yurtus Formation deposition are reconstructed, which provide theoretical basis for the distribution of source rocks and evaluation of reservoir potentials. The extremely high Ba content (>1000 μg/g) and appearance of barite in the lower part of Yurtus Formation implies high primary productivity, which explains the substantive organic matter in the surface ocean and is also consistent with the abundant phytoplankton fossil record and high TOC content. The large positive excursion of δ15N (>8‰) in the lower parts of Yurtus Formation probably is resulted from denitrification or annamox, both of which occur only when O2 is depleted. It may indicate that organic matter transporting from the surface ocean to deeper ocean could consume dissolved oxygen by the process of degradation, which would drive the condition of deeper ocean more reduced. Meanwhile, low Ge/Si values of cherts in the lower part of Yurtus Formation indicate normal seawater origin of Si input. Oversaturation state of silica promotes the organic matter preservation due to relatively fast cementation. 
    Study on Granitoid Intrusions Characteristics and Metallogenetic Mechanism of Zhunsujihua Porphyry Mo-Cu Deposit
    LIU Cong, GUO Hu, LAI Yong
    2020, 56(4):  679-691.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.031
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    A precise Re-Os isochron age of 297.2±4.3 Ma for the molybdenite and a zircon U-Pb age of 301.1±4.0 Ma for the ore-bearing granite porphyry determined that the age of diagenesis and mineralization of Zhunsujihua porphyry Mo-Cu Deposit is from Late Carboniferous to Early Permian. The barren granodiorite in this mining area yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 301.2±2.2 Ma, which is consistent with that of granite porphyry. Amphibole and biotite in granitic rocks and their geochemical characteristics of high Rb, Th, Ba, and low P, Ti suggest that granite porphyry and granodiorite belong to I-type granites. Relatively low Re, Mg#, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf values, coupled with whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes (low ISr and positive εNd(t)) signify that they are mainly originated from a juvenile lower crust source derived from depleted mantle. It can be recognized from the whole-rock major and trace element data that significant fractional crystallization occurs during magmatic evolution, which is beneficial to further enrichment of Mo in the melt. Using the Ce4+/Ce3+ ratio in zircons to calculate the oxygen fugacity of magma during fractionation, it is found that the oxygen fugacity of granite porphyry is relatively high (average ΔFMQ is +4.8), and that of the granodiorite is relatively low (average ΔFMQ is +2.2), indicating that magma with high oxygen fugacity is more conducive to mineralization. 
    Recognition of Urban Polycentric Structure Based on Spatial Aggregation Characteristics of POI Elements: A Case of Zhengzhou City
    LI Xin
    2020, 56(4):  692-702.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.044
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    In order to improve the recognition efficiency and accuracy of urban polycentric structure and provide scientific basis for urban planning, this paper uses kernel density analysis, hotspot analysis and weighted overlay analysis to explore the spatial aggregation patterns and characteristics of urban elements, and designs a spatial weighted overlay analysis method based on public dependence, spatial aggregation degree and attribute values. By using the POI data with high accuracy, fast update and full coverage, which can reflect the spatial aggregation characteristics of urban elements, the method realizes the measurement of aggregation characteristics and the polycentric recognition of Zhengzhou city. The results show that the POI elements in main urban area of Zhengzhou city present an annular spatial distribution structure. It has the characteristics of centralizing in the center and spreading along the road. The polycentric structure is unbalanced. There are some differences between the planned sub-centers and the identified ones. Because of the remote location and lack of supporting facilities, the peripheral functional centers with lower development level is far from achieving the dispersal and evacuation role they should have. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the overall planning of the industry to enhance the outward radiation and inward attraction of the sub-center through the link of transportation.
    Study on the Catalytic Oxidation of Rhodamine B by Nanoporous Carbon Materials Loaded with Zero Valence Copper
    WANG Aide, FENG Zhendong, QIN Dayu, ZHANG Lijuan, ZHU Lili, ZHANG Shanfa, TAO Huchun
    2020, 56(4):  703-709.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.033
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    Nanoporous carbon material loaded with zero-valent copper NPC@Cu was synthesized by one-step carbonization method using copper-based MOF (HKUST-1, [Cu3(BTC)2], BTC as 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) as template. With NPC@Cu as catalyst, peroxymonosulfatesulfate (PMS) was activated as oxidant to treat simulated azo dye wastewater by heterogeneous catalytic oxidation at ambient pressure and room temperature. The catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. The effect of degradation efficiency of the catalyst dosage, oxidant dosage and initial pH during the reaction were studied. The experimental results showed that the degradation rate of 0.10 mmol/L RhB can reach 100% after 45 minutes of reaction at a catalyst dosage of 0.1 g/L, a PMS concentration of 2.00 mmol/L and a initial pH of 7. Through the free radical trapping experiment, it proved that there are two free radicals in the system—SO4·and ·OH, and NPC@Cu is a catalytic material with good catalytic performance.
    Community Structure and Functional Groups of Fungi in the Roots Associated with Pinus sylvestri var. mongolica in the Hulunbuir Sandy Land
    WEI Xiaoshuai, GUO Mishan, GAO Guanglei, REN Yue, DING Guodong, ZHANG Ying
    2020, 56(4):  710-720.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.040
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    To reveal the fungal community structure and functional groups in the roots associated with P. sylvestris, natural forest and different-aged plantations were analyzed using field investigation and molecular biotechnology in the Hulunbuir Sandy Land. 520 fungal OTUs were obtained from root tip samples of P. sylvestris, and belonged to 197 genera, 87 families, 5 phyla. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota had higher relative abundances, accounted for 54.98% and 39.27% respectively. The dominant bacteria in natural forest were Geminibasidium, Russula and Phialocephala, whereas the dominant bacteria in plantation were Suillus, Phialocephala and Tricholoma. Further, the relative abundance of other bacteria fluctuated with the stand age. The α diversity index of fungi in the roots of P. sylvestris plantation decreased gradually with the increasing of stand age. Among the different stands, the fungal diversity in the roots of mature forest was significantly lower than that in near-mature and middle-aged plantations as well as natural forest (P<0.05). Although the fungal community composition associated with P. sylvestris natural forest and plantations had stable variability, and near-mature forest is the closest to natural forest, natural forest and mature plantation obviously differed in the composition of fungal community. The proportion of symbiotic trophic fungi increased with the increasing of stand age. Conversely, the saprophytic and pathological trophic fungi decreased with the aging forest. The proportion of symbiotic trophic fungi in natural forest was similar with near-mature plantation, however saprophytic trophic fungi was the dominant type in natural forest. In the Hulunbuir Sandy Land, the fungal community in the root of P. sylvestris has complex structure and diverse species. The main functional groups are ectomycorrhizal and undefined saprophytic fungi. Some fungi show different ecological strategies in different stands.
    An Approach for Discovering Urban Public Management Problem and Optimizing Urban Governance Based on “12345” Citizen Service Hotline
    PENG Xiao, LIANG Yan, XU Liyan, LI Dihua
    2020, 56(4):  721-731.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.041
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    This paper puts forward a new approach for analyzing the problems of urban public management based on the data collected from “12345” citizen service hotline. The research sets up the geocoding by the extraction of the spatial information from the call logs of Sanya City, Hainan Province. Meanwhile, the characteristics of time, space and categories of inquiries are documented and depicted by combining the original information of hotline records with the geocodes. By using high frequency word distribution and correlation network, the research reveals the major problems of cities, and analyzes the featured spatial-temporal distribution patterns of corresponding problems. The factors which affect the occurrence of urban problems are discussed with the combination of other urban characteristics including various types of point of interest (POI) representing urban functions and road network representing urban structure. The results are as follows. 1) The frequency of calls fluctuates on a weekly basis, and the total number of records in midweeks is larger than that of the weekends. 2) The hottest five categories of urban problems are noise, construction, communication and network, urban water use and parking issues, among which the noise and construction problems are closely correlated. 3) Different urban problems undergo distinct temporal patterns, while all of them are distributed in urban activity-intensive areas. 4) The occurrence of urban problems is not significantly relative with the density of road network, but positively relative with the POI densities of public facilities, transportation facilities, and educational and academic facilities, and significantly negative with the POI densities of scenic spots, sports and entertaining utilities, and administrative offices. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of “12345” citizen service hotline in urban problem discovery and depiction. Furthermore, this paper proposes several pathways for the optimization of urban governance using big data. For instance, the accumulation and analysis of urban data, the integration of multi-source data, and the enhancement of the degree of data share should be seriously appreciated. It’s necessary to utilize these data to support the fine urban governance and promote the construction of smart city.
    Characteristics of Nighttime Sap Flow and Its Partition in a Mixed Forest in Jiuzhaigou Valley
    YAN Chunhua, WANG Bei, ZOU Zhendong, YU Leiyu, HUANG Wanbin, QIU Guoyu
    2020, 56(4):  732-738.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.042
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    To investigate the characteristics of nighttime sap flow and its partition into nocturnal water refilling and transpiration, the Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure sap flux density in 2013 in three main species of a mixed forest in Jiuzhaigou Valley. The results showed that the ratio of nighttime sap flow to daily value mainly ranged from 0 to 30% for Betula albosinensis Burk. and Acer ginnala Maxim., from 0 to 25% for Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., and might excess 40% in some special occasions. It showed a “U-shaped” seasonal variation, with lower ratios in the mid-growing season and higher ratios in the early and late growing season. There was a significant linear relationship between nighttime sap flow and vapor pressure deficit during a clear day, indicating the occurrence of nocturnal transpiration along with refilling. The ratios of nocturnal water refilling and transpiration to the total nighttime sap flow were 80.7% and 19.3%, 81.4% and 18.6%, 63.9% and 36.1%, respectively for the three tree species.
    Effects of Different Light Qualities on the Growth of Thermophilic Cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC6715
    LI Kai, GONG Yiwei, LI Xingkang, ZHANG Yanting, Maurycy Daroch, JIN Peng
    2020, 56(4):  739-744.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.036
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     In order to understand the lighting quality effects on the light-adaptive growth of cyanobacteria which does not express phycoerythrin, the thermophilic cyanobacteria PCC6715 in logarithmic growth phase was cultured by using white light (control), red light, and blue light with photosynthetically effective photon quantum density (PAR) of 100 μmol/(m2·s). Compared with the growth characteristics of PCC6715 under white light conditions, the changes in the measured and analyzed values of PCC6715 under other light qualities were as follows: the dry weight of PCC6715 significantly increased under blue light and significantly reduced under red light; the red and blue light have different effects on the start time and duration of the photosynthetic pigment synthesis of PCC6715; the maximum light energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm) of PCC6715 significantly increased under blue light and decreased significantly under red light; after 6 days of culture, the Fv/Fm of PCC6715 under red and blue light conditions tends to stable. In conclusion, the blue spectrum lighting promotes the growth of PCC6715, while red light inhibits the growth of PCC6715. At the same time, PCC6715 produces light-adaptive growth under both red and blue light, the reduction of phycocyanin content caused light-adaptive growth of PCC6715 in red light, and the light-adaptive growth of PCC6715 in blue light was due to the increase of phycocyanin content.
    Study on Endogenous Dynamics and Evaluation of Intensive Use of Construction Land Based on the Perspective of Elements
    ZU Jian, HAO Jinmin, AI Dong, WANG Nan, LI Mu, ZHANG Yibin
    2020, 56(4):  745-754.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.006
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    Based on the perspective of factors, this study used the literature method and comprehensive analysis method to draw on the basic theory, and deeply analyzed the endogenous dynamics and characteristics of the intensive use of construction land, and then discussed and constructed the framework of the construction land intensive evaluation system. An empirical study was conducted in nine cities (autonomous prefectures) in Guizhou Province. The conclusions show that: 1) The intensive use of construction land has its own objective laws. Its endogenous driving force includes population power, natural power and economic power. Policy systems, planning and control, and technological advancement are taken as its exogenous driving force through supply and demand mechanisms and aggregation effects. Mechanisms and factor substitution mechanisms lead to changes in the number and structural changes of endogenous motive elements, thus resulting in different intensive utilization types and intensive utilization levels. 2) The evaluation of construction land intensive degree is a comprehensive evaluation, and its expression is no longer confined to the intensive integration of single land elements, but should be an intensive ensemble of all factors that covers the degree of intensive population factors, the degree of intensive energy components and the degree of intensive economic factors. The evaluation index system should also include the population factor criteria layer, the energy factor criteria layer and the economic factor criteria layer. 3) The process of intensive land use of full element for construction land in Guizhou Province is relatively slow, and the intensive degree of construction land in most cities (autonomous prefectures) is in a fluctuation trend. The spatial pattern of intensive use of construction land in Guizhou Province have been optimized, and the spatial variability shows a trend of decreasing first and then increasing from 2010 to 2016. 4) The levels of intensive utilization of nine cities (autonomous prefectures) in the province are dominated by low-level intensive use and low-level extensive utilization, and population factors and economic factors play a major intrinsic impetus.
    Change of Vegetation and Contribution of Ecological Construction Projects in Hebei Province
    ZHU Lijun, MENG Jijun, LI Jiangfeng
    2020, 56(4):  755-764.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.047
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    This study analyzed the characteristics of vegetation change, and built spatial econometric models to identify the affecting factors of vegetation change in Hebei Province with topographic, meteorological, and socio-economic data. On this basis, the hotspot analysis and artificial neural network were used to further quantify the specific impact extent of the ecological projects on vegetation change. The results showed that vegetation index in the southern and northeastern regions of Hebei Province was higher than that in the northwestern areas. Vegetation improved in most areas during the study period and the area proportion of NDVI sustained regions, increased regions and decreased regions is 15.14%, 61.75% and 23.11%, respectively. The main influencing factors of NDVI were elevation, per capita GDP and population density in 2000, which had a negative effect on vegetation in Hebei Province, while NDVI in 2015 was also affected by the additional factors, precipitation and ecological construction program, which had a positive effect. The impacts of ecological construction projects on NDVI were positive in most areas, and most of them were slightly improved. The areas with significant improvement were distributed in Chengde City and Zhangjiakou City, which were also hot spots of NDVI change and EPA (Ecological Project Area) change. The negative impact of ecological construction project on NDVI mainly occurred in the northwest of Zhangjiakou City, the east of Qinhuangdao and Tangshan, and the urban built-up area in the south of Hebei Province. The research results provide a basis for the scientific evaluation of the performance of national ecological construction projects and support for ecological protection and vegetation restoration of Hebei Province.
    Study on the Classification of Response Relationship between Total Pollutant Emission Reduction and Water Quality Improvement in China
    BAI Hui, CHEN Yan, WANG Dong, WU Shunze, GAO Wei, GUO Huaicheng
    2020, 56(4):  765-771.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.051
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     The response relationship between total pollution emission reduction and water quality improvement from 2011 to 2015 was analyzed by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The results show that the response relationship is different in time and space. The response relationship was further divided into four different models, and suggestions about total pollution emission controlling and water environment prevention were made under different models, in order to make total pollution emission controlling play a better role in water quality improvement. The result should provide scientific basis for precise pollution control in accordance with the water environment quality objectives of the basin.
    Variations of 4 Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Sewage Treatment Plant
    BAO Yingyu, XIE Hui, CHEN Lüjun, WEN Donghui
    2020, 56(4):  772-776.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2020.046
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    In order to understand the variations of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in sewage treatment plants (STPs), the distribution and removal efficiencies of 4 subtypes of intracellular ARGs (sulII, ermB, tetC and blaPSE-1) and class I integron integrase gene (intI1) in a middle-scale STP in Hebei Province were detected by PCR and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). 4 ARGs and intI1 were found in all water samples and 1.26–2.30 orders of magnitude of ARGs were removed by the STP. Correlation analysis showed that intI1 and water quality factors including pH, COD, and NH3-N might affect the distribution and diffusion of tetC, ermB, and blaPSE-1. The final effluent of a STP may promote the spread of ARGs in surface water system.