Taking Chaoyang District of Beijing as an example, this paper identified Production-Living-Ecological Space in rural-urban fringe, and described the spatial pattern evolution with the help of transformation matrix and spatial analysis tools. On this basis, the spatial metrology models were selected to analyze the driving factors of space conversion. The results show that, 1) from 2005 to 2020, according to the spatial order from near to far from the city center, the scale of Production Space was reduced and concentrated, the Ecological Space formed a green ecological landscape belt in the periphery of Beijing, the Eco-Agricultural Production Space and the Life-agricultural Production Space were rapidly reduced, and the Living-Non-farm Production Space was rapidly expanded in the point-line-plane order. 2) From 2005 to 2020, the shift of Production Space to Living-Non-farm Production Space was always the main direction of conversion, the Living-Non-farm Production Space continued to gain a large amount of inflow, and finally became the largest space type in the study area. 3) From 2005 to 2010, driven by population, economy and industrial factors, the Production Space converted into Living-Non-farm Production Space, and Eco-Agricultural Production Space converted into Production Space. From 2010 to 2015, population and economic factors further drove Production Space to Living-Non-farm Production Space. From 2015 to 2020, driven by the policy and industrial factors, the Production Space converted into Living-Non-farm Production Space or Ecological Space.