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Table of Content

    20 March 2022, Volume 58 Issue 2
    Improvement of Experimental Techniques of Whole Mount in situ Hybridization Technology in Rice
    WANG Donghui
    2022, 58(2):  195-200.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.019
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    Taking rice SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1)/OsMADS16 gene as an example, by optimizing the preparation of hybridization probes, material immobilization, dissociation, permeabilization and color development, the SPW1/OsMADS16 gene expression patterns with high specificity but low backgrounds were obtained. The procedure of whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) technology for rice is simple and inexpensive, and it can be performed simultaneously with several species in the centrifuge tube. The main experimental steps include probe preparation, material immobilization and dissociation, hybridization reaction, post-hybridization treatment and detection and color development. The proposed method provides a technological basement for a protentional high throughput detection of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns and functional analysis in rice.
    Monte Carlo Approach for Nano-scale Metal Interconnect Simulation
    HU Yuanzhao, DU Gang, YANG Yi, ZHAO Yudi, ZHAO Kai
    2022, 58(2):  201-209.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.008
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    A Monte Carlo simulation method is proposed to simulate the electron transport characteristics in metal interconnects, with the presence of major scattering mechanisms. The results show that the plasma excimer scattering is the major contributor for bulk resistivity, followed by the electron-to-electron scattering. However, grain boundary scattering, dominating the resistivity of nanoscale interconnects, is the main reason for the “size effect”. The comparison of the simulated results and experimental data indicates that the proposed method can accurately calculate the resistivity for different metallic materials from bulk to nanoscale.
    Develop an Objective Post-processing System with Artificial Neural Network to Improve Numerical Weather Prediction for the Olympic Winter Games Beijing 2022
    QU Yonglin, WEN Xinyu, ZHANG Muqi, LIU Zhe
    2022, 58(2):  210-220.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.011
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    A new objective post-processing system with cutting-edge machine learning algorithm for numerical weather prediction is presented. The core of the system, a matrix of artificial neural network trained by using historical in-situ observations and model results, can be applied on the latest numerical weather prediction results and produce real-time forecast for specific stations. The authors investigate the performance of post-processing system for two stations, Zhangjiakou and Beijing, for the period 2005?2020. It is shown that the forecasts produced by the new system are significantly more accurate than those produced by raw model forecasts, single-variable linear regression, and multi-variable linear regression, especially in terms of 3-day forecast. The authors developed all the core and auxiliary code by serving as Zhangjiakou and Beijing post-processing systems, which are routinely deployed since Nov. 1, 2020, to facilitate the weather service for the Olympic Winter Games at Beijing in 2022.
    Statistical Downscaled Climate Projection Dataset for China Using Artificial Neural Network
    ZHANG Muqi, WEN Xinyu, BAO Yun, QU Yonglin
    2022, 58(2):  221-233.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.015
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    A high-resolution climate change dataset for China is developed. The climatic evaluation results of downscaling suggest as follows. 1) It is feasible to establish one statistical downscaling framework by incorpo-rating the advanced deep learning approach, artificial neural network (ANN), with high robustness. 2) The high-resolution climatology generated by this new method match the observations better than GCMs’ raw outputs. Those large bias induced by GCMs in temperature and precipitation can be reduced from 5°C down to 1°C and from 5 mm down to 0.5 mm, respectively. 3) The future climate projected by this new method have as similar long-term trend as the raw GCM’s results with minor differences in amplitude and spatial pattern. It is estimated that a warmer climate in the whole country with temperature increment at 3?4°C and a wetter (drier) climate in North China (South China) can be expected around 2100 A. D. under RCP8.5 scenario. More scientists can be encouraged to use this new ANN-based downscaling method and this released high resolution climate change dataset can be used to a wide range of communities related to global change studies.
    Study on the Mechanism of Mantle Plume Production: Taking Ferrar as an Example
    LIU Xiaoxu, DANG Zhuo, ZHANG Nan
    2022, 58(2):  234-240.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.018
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    According to the mantle convection control equations, taking the Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) erupted at 180 Ma as an example, we used the 3D numerical simulation method and introduced Pangea supercontinent, large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs), subductions surrounding Pangea supercontinent to simulate mantle convection process. The evolution process of Ferrar LIP from the interior thermal boundary layer of the earth (such as the core-mantle boundary) and the related factors affecting the location of mantle plumes are discussed. The results show that the shape of LLSVPs and the distance between subduction zone and LLSVPs’ edge have great influence on the location of mantle plumes. The mantle plumes often rise from the position where the curvature of the LLSVPs’ edge is large, and gradually shift away from the LLSVPs’ edge with the increase of the distance between the subduction zone and the LLSVPs’ edge. The viscosity of the subduction zone affects the timing of the mantle plume emergence, but not the location of the mantle plume production. 
    Abiotic Methane Inclusions in Olivine from the Yushigou Peridotite and Their Forming Conditions
    LIN Chiumei, SONG Shuguang, CUI Ying
    2022, 58(2):  241-248.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.013
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    The paper presents studies of the methane-rich fluid inclusions in the fresh peridotite from the Cambrian Yushigou ophiolite, the middle part of North Qilian Orogenic Belt. In situ analysis of laser Raman spectroscopy shows that these fluid inclusions are mainly composed of liquid or gaseous CH4+C (graphite) with minor components of N2, H2O, C2H6 and C3H8, representing the reductive C-H fluid speciation. Based on characteristic bands of graphite, the authors carry out fluid temperature estimates using the RSCM (Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous materials). The calculated temperatures range from 430 to 590°C, which represents the minimum temperature for precipitation of graphite and indicates that CH4+C is abiotic origin and formed in the mantle environment.
    Pore Structure and Diagenetic Evolution Features of Member-7 of Yanchang Formation in Qingcheng Area, Ordos Basin, NW China 
    WANG Enze, WU Zhongbao, SONG Yanchen, SHI Kaibo, LIU Hangyu, LIU Bo
    2022, 58(2):  249-260.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.012
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    Thin section and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements, and mercury intrusion capillary pressure were selected to systematically research the lithology, physical properties, pore structure, and diagenetic features of member-7 of Yanchang Formation (Chang-7 Fm) in Qingcheng Area, Ordos Basin, NW China. The influences of pore structure and diagenetic processes of physical properties were revealed, and the gradual evaluation standard was proposed. The results show that the Chang-7 Fm sandstones are dominated by feldspathic litharenites. The average porosity and permeability are 9.7% and 0.06 mD, respectively, which can be classified as a set of tight sandstone reservoir. The reservoirs stay in mesodiagenesis B stage, and the physical properties are primarily controlled by mechanical compaction and dissolution. The coarser particle size and higher content of quartz and feldspar improve the anti-compaction ability of relatively high-quality reservoirs. Meanwhile, quartz and feldspar also provide material basis for dissolution, and are important control factors for the development of relatively high-quality reservoirs. The pore type and structure also have influences to the physical properties. The primary pore has excellent connectivity. The development of secondary pores is conducive to porosity increasement, but has little effect to permeability. Based on the fractal theory, the heterogeneity of reservoir’s pore network is quantified, and the results show that the heterogeneity is negative correlate with the porosity and permeability, which means that the complex pore network is not conducive for the development of high-quality reservoirs. According to the pore structure and physical properties, three categories can be identified of the Chang-7 Fm tight sandstones. Class I and II reservoirs have large particle size, and the pore system is dominated by primary pores with less heterogeneity, therefore, they are favorable exploration targets. Type III reservoir has small particle size, and mainly develops intercrystalline pores of clay minerals, possess strong heterogeneity of pore structure and poor physical properties, which is not the target of tight oil and gas exploration. 
    Study of Hainan Mantle Plume Based on Shear Wave Splitting Method
    GE Tianyu, CHEN Yongshun, ZHANG Chen
    2022, 58(2):  261-270.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.014
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    The authors use the shear wave splitting method to calculate the XKS seismic phases recorded by the temporary broadband seismic stations of Peking University, Southern University of Science and Technology and Guilin University of Technology in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, and the fixed stations of China Earthquake Administration in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces. The authors obtain the anisotropy parameters of the upper mantle in Hainan and its adjacent areas, and the delay time is between 0.35 and 1.90 s. Based on the previous shear wave splitting results around the research region, the authors believe that with the retreat of the subduction zone of eastern Pacific plate, the asthenosphere material in the west flows eastward to fill, making the olivine lattice of the upper mantle aligned along the E-W direction in most areas of central and northern Guangdong and Guangxi. Because the continental lithosphere at the coastline is thinning rapidly, the splitting results in Guangdong coastal areas are mostly NE-SW direction, parallel to the coastline. In particular, there are several NULL stations in the coastal areas near Hainan Island, and the splitting results in the northeast corner of Hainan Island are very disorderly, with small δt. These observations support that Hainan plume may exist on the southeast of Leizhou Peninsula, which is centered at 20.5°N and 111.5°E.
    A Method for Monitoring Cropland Retirement Using Landsat Images and Time Series Subsequence of Cropland Probability
    WU Weiwei, LI Peijun
    2022, 58(2):  271-281.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.120
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    A method for monitoring cropland retirement using Landsat images and time series subsequence of cropland probability was presented. First, random forest was used to classify the statistical values of intra-annual Landsat images to obtain the probability of belonging to cropland for each pixel. These cropland probabilities obtained constitute annual time series of cropland probability. Next, the time series of cropland retirement (cropland to non-cropland) and other landcover change were analyzed to obtain the time series subsequence representing cropland retirement, that is, the characteristic subsequence. Finally, the distance between the cropland probability time series of an unknown pixel and the characteristic subsequence of the cropland retirement was calculated to extract the area and timing of cropland retirement. The proposed method was validated in cropland retirement mapping using Landsat time series of Tumuertai Town, Chahar Right Back Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The results shows that compared with existing methods, the proposed method produced higher accuracy in the extraction of both the area and timing of cropland retirement. 
    Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Mineral Composition of Urban Mangrove Sediments
    WANG Qian, SHEN Xiaoxue, CAO Ye, LI Ruili
    2022, 58(2):  282-290.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.119
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    Taking the sediments of Shenzhen urban mangrove wetland as the research object, the mineral composition and physical and chemical properties of the sediments are analyzed, and the characteristics of mineral composition and influencing factors are explored. The main results show that the whole rock mineral composition in surface sediment is given priority to clay minerals (16.5%?73.5%) and quartz (22.0%?81.2%), and there are differences in the contents of potash feldspar, pyrite, and rock salt in different samples at different depths. The main types of clay minerals in surface sediments are imonite (44%?76%), kaolinite (0%?40%), chlorite (0%?24%), and illite (2%?21%), and are dominated by imonite. The distribution characteristics of clay minerals at different depths are basically the same as those in surface sediments. There are significant differences in the composition of clay minerals in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and Daya Bay without vegetation. Correlation analysis shows that the composition of whole rock minerals is mainly affected by salinity, TS and TOC, while the composition of clay minerals is mainly affected by pH, salinity, TOC, and sediment particle size.
    Correlation Study of Tourist Respiration with Travertine Landscape Degradation in Jiuzhaigou
    QIU Guoyu, XIANG Jiao, YAN Chunhua, QIN Longjun, MAO Peng, XIONG Bowen, LI Ruili, TANG Ya, DU Jie, QIAO Xue, SHEN Xiaoxue, SHI Cong, JIANG Xianchenghao, CHEN Zhi, SHI Zhe, HUANG Ying, DING Junjie
    2022, 58(2):  291-296.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.125
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    With the continuous increase of global CO2 emission, the CO2 emission of tourists leads to an increase rate of atmospheric CO2 around popular scenic spots which is much higher than global average. Based on the eddy covariance system, long-term monitoring of CO2 concentration was conducted in Rhino Lake, Shuzheng Village, Jiuzhaigou World Heritage. Combined with the annual runoff and the rate of travertine loss (CaCO3) based on CO2 concentration, the annual amount of travertine loss in Jiuzhaigou World Heritage Site was estimated to explore the mechanism of travertine degradation. The research finds that the breath of tourists can increase the local atmospheric CO2 concentration by 250–300 μL/L, which can increase travertine loss rate by 18%–21%. Increase in CO2 caused by the breath of tourists is the main reason leading to the degradation and disappearance of the world heritage travertine. CO2 emission of tourists is indeed destroying the world heritage.
    Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Source Region of Yangtze River
    QIAO Shuang, WANG Ting, ZHANG Qian, LIU Xinyao, ZHAO Mengyao
    2022, 58(2):  297-307.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.007
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    Water and sediment samples in twelve monitoring sites were collected in the source region of Yangtze River in June 2017, followed by the content detection of seven metal ions, and assessment of pollution level and ecological risk with the consideration of geo-accumulation index, water quality index, and potential ecological risk index. As results, the concentrations of Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cr in water ranged among ND–4.21, 0.6093.71, 0.0335.01, ND–34.86, ND–0.06, ND–0.55 and 0.235–2.66 μg/L respectively, which were rather low compared with other aquatic systems. Their contents in sediment were in the range of 445.93–627.32, 10.11–17.85, 15.61–24.57, 45.40–125.20, 0.19–0.56, 14.85–235.21, and 27.94–46.18 mg/kg. Metal contents in sediment were dominated by background value, and barely impacted by physicochemical factors. Whereas natural or anthropogenic factors, such as NH4-N, NO3-N, SS and water temperature, displayed certain influence on ion contents in water according to correlation analysis. Results by water quality and risk assessment suggested that water quality in the source region of Yangtze River was excellent. The sediments at higher altitude area presented certain metal accumulation especially Zn, Pb, and Cd, which was perhaps due to the adjacent Pb-Zn deposits. Cd was the key factor that contributes to the potential ecological risk of sediment in the Yangtze River source. Overall, this study can fill in the gap of lacking detecting data at headwater, and provide a theoretical basis for the pollution prevention and control of heavy metals even in the whole Yangtze River basin.
    Re-measurement of Regional Complete Carbon Emission Intensity: Based on the Correlations of Carbon Emission and Economics 
    LI Kun, JIANG Mingdong, WANG Qi
    2022, 58(2):  308-316.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.009
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    Although the inter-provincial correlation of carbon emission has been taken into account in the measurement of complete carbon emission intensity, due to the neglect of economic correlation, the existing measurement could be biased. Considering both the carbon emissions and economy correlation among regions, based on the multi-region input-output model, the paper re-measures the regional complete carbon emission intensity in China in 2010 and 2015 to analyze its spatio-temporal evolution characteristics. The results show that, on the perspective of time evolution, China’s carbon emission reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan period has achieved significant results, with the total carbon emission intensity of each region reduced by 26.25% on average. From the perspective of spatial characteristics, in 2010 and 2015, the regions with the highest complete carbon emission intensity are Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, and the region with the lowest is Beijing. But from the perspective of external-drive carbon emission intensity, it is not only lower in Inner Mongolia than that in Beijing, but also significantly lower than the national average level. Compared with the direct carbon emission intensity and the complete carbon emission intensity measured by the traditional method, the complete carbon emission intensity considers both the carbon emission and economic correlation, which not only avoids the interference of the embodied carbon problem on the intensity measurement, but also realizes the transformation from the territorial boundary to the territorial behavior constraint. it is helpful to the realization of the national overall carbon emission control target. 
    Influence of Real Estate Regulation Policies on Housing Transaction Price: Taking 29 Cities in China as Examples
    HE Yizhou, GUO Yongpei, GUO Han, FENG Changchun
    2022, 58(2):  317-325.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.123
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    This paper studies the effects of four kinds of real estate regulation policies, including home buying restrictions (HBR), home loaning restrictions (HLR), home price restrictions (HPR) and home saled restrictions (HSR), on housing prices in 29 large cities in China from February 2016 to May 2018. The policy intensity index was constructed by policy scoring method, and a fixed effect panel model was constructed. The effect of policy regulation was analyzed by focusing on the first-tier and second-tier cities of different sizes, and the effect of policy regulation was analyzed by transmission theory. The results show that the HBR and HLR can play a regulatory effect on the first-tier and second-tier cities. The HPR and HSR have certain regulation effect on the first-tier cities, but the effect on the second-tier cities is not obvious. This paper argues that government should persist in carrying out the HBR, and release policy according to the city, accurately grasp the law of the timeliness of the policy.
    Diversity Analysis of Intestine Microbiota of Yunnan Small Wildlife Mammals Based on 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing Technology 
    SU Jia, HE Kai, LIAN Chun’ang, ZHANG Xue, YU Ke
    2022, 58(2):  326-336.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.002
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    This study takes two wild mammals living in the same environment, but with different evolutionary relationships and different dietary habits (Apodemus, Erinaceidae and Soricidae) as the research objects, using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing technology to analyze and compare the gut microbiota of these mammals. 5378 operational taxonomic units (OTU) are identified, mainly affiliated with Firmicutes (40.55%), Proteobacteria (34.60%), and Bacteroidetes (13.67%). Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the dominant phyla of the Apodemus. Proteobacteria is the dominant phylum of Erinaceidae and Soricidae. The results of diversity analyses show that the gut microbiota diversity and community composition are significantly different among Apodemus, Erinaceidae and Soricidae. LEfSe analysis shows that there are more bacteria related to complex carbohydrate fermentation in the Apodemus, while the Erinaceidae and Soricidae contains higher amino acid fermentation bacteria. Probiotics, such as Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, coexist in these three wild small mammals to regulate host health. This study reveals that phylogeny and feeding habits of the host have a profound effect on the shaping gut microbes. The gut microbiota may also play a probiotic effect on the host in many aspects.
    Real-Time River Water Quality Prediction Model Based on Spatial Correlation and Neural Network Model
    ZHANG Yang, XIAN Huiting, ZHAO Zhijie
    2022, 58(2):  337-344.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.126
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    Based on the high frequency water quality online monitoring data, the spatial correlation of water quality data was used to construct a neural network model to realize the real-time prediction of river water quality. The model was applied to the Baini River Basin in Guangzhou, and the water quality parameters of dissolved oxygen and ammonia nitrogen were predicted and analyzed to verify the effect of the model. According to different prediction time, six water quality prediction models were built, and the results showed that the model predicting dissolved oxygen 6 hours in advance had better prediction effect, while the model predicting ammonia nitrogen 24 hours in advance had better effect. The average absolute errors of the better trained model for real-time water quality prediction of dissolved oxygen and ammonia nitrogen were 0.43 mg/L and 0.29 mg/L, respectively, and the root mean square errors were 0.71 mg/L and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. At 95% confidence level, the prediction interval coverage rates were 96.6% and 97% respectively. The model can be used as the early warning of abnormal water quality events. At the same time, the sensitivity analysis of the input items by the model can be used to analyze the pollution sources to help the basin identify the main sources of pollutants. 
    Variation Characteristics of Surface Water Temperature and Their Response to Climate Change in Dongting Lake
    BAI Qianqian, LIANG Enhang, WANG Ting, WANG Jiawen
    2022, 58(2):  345-353.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.004
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    Based on the synchronized data of monthly average water temperature and air temperature at Chenglingji Station of Dongting Lake from 1991 to 2019, the intra-annual variations, the interannual variation trends, the periodicity characteristics of water temperature and air temperature were investigated by using the linear trend analysis and the wavelet analysis methods, and the response of water temperature changes to air temperature, precipitation, and wind speed changes was also discussed. The results showed a similar intra-annual variation pattern for the average water temperature and air temperature, which was the warming period ranged from January to August and the cooling period started from September to December. In the past 29 years, the annual average water temperature and air temperature exhibited an obvious warming trend, and increased at the rate of 0.35oC/10a and 0.19oC/10a, respectively. Meanwhile, the wavelet analysis revealed that average water temperature and air temperature in different seasons performed an oscillation period of 14 years. Overall, the strongest correlation between air temperature and water temperature indicated that climate change could be one of the main factors driving the variations of water temperature.
    Study on Filtration Efficiency of Facemask for Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Real Environment
    JIANG Meijie, ZHANG Peng, GONG Jicheng
    2022, 58(2):  354-360.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.117
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    Five kinds of respirators were selected to analyze the protective performance of four kinds of atmospheric particulate matter in the real environment of Beijing with different pollution levels, and the effects of particle, respirator types, inspiratory flow rate and atmospheric PM2.5 concentration on the protective performance of respirators were studied. The results showed that the four factors had significant effects on the protective performance of the facemasks. The particle protective performance of facemasks increased with the increase of particle size. The protective performance of four types of KN95 or KN90 facemasks for actual atmospheric particles could reach 80%, while the protective performance of disposable medical surgical facemasks was far lower than the above four types. The inspiratory flow also significantly affected the protective performance of the facemask, possibly due to the difference in filter material performance and leakage rate at different flow rates. The influence of atmospheric PM2.5 concentration on the protective performance of different facemasks was complex 
    and there was not a simple correlation.
    Uncertainty Analysis of Gross Primary Productivity Estimates Based on a Light Use Efficiency Meta-Model
    PENG Siyuan, FU Bo, LAI Yuqin, LI Jingyi, LI Bengang
    2022, 58(2):  361-371.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.003
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    To investigate global and regional gross primary productivity (GPP) and its sources of uncertainties, widely used model structures of light use efficiency models are integrated to build a meta-model. Meteorological reanalysis data and remote sensing data are combined to estimate GPP, and a systematical and quantitative uncertainty analysis is conducted based on the ANOVA approach. Results show that: 1) the meta-model results correspond well with the upscaling of eddy-covariance measurements (FLUXCOM) GPP with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97 and root mean square error of 24.36 gC/(m2·month) and outperforms any single combination of model structure. 2) Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), water-related data and water regulation scalar (Ws) are the three main sources of uncertainties for global GPP estimates, contributing 41.73%, 26.79% and 23.82% respectively to total variance. 3) Sources of uncertainties of regional GPP depend on environmental conditions. For arid areas, Ws is the dominant contributor (over 80%). In cold areas, temperature regulation scalar (Ts) introduces over 40% of uncertainty. The findings not only highlight the necessity to reduce uncertainty of PAR and water-related data to reduce uncertainty in global and regional GPP estimates, but also point out the importance of improving performances of Ws and Ts algorithms under extreme environmental conditions.
    Forecasting Spatial Pattern of Land Use Change in Rapidly Urbanized Regions Based on SD-CA Model
    HU Yeting, LI Tianhong
    2022, 58(2):  372-382.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.005
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    As the method in the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model, System Dynamics (SD) and Cellular Automata (CA) are used to explore the spatiotemporal change features of land use in Shenzhen City, a typical rapidly urbanized region. Future land use demand was obtained by using SD model based on historical data from 2004 to 2018 for the use of spatial prediction. Then, CA model was used to predict the spatial distribution of eight land types (cropland, scrub, forest, grassland, urban land, traffic land, water area, and other land) in 2025 based on the 2014 land use map and the dynamic change of land use was analyzed. The simulation accuracy of land use pattern containing multiple land types in different time periods was relatively reliable, indicating that the SD-CA coupling model could be used to simulate the spatial patterns of land use in regions undergoing drastic changes of multiple land types. It was estimated that the percentage decline of the area of cropland, scrub, forest, grassland, and water in 2025, would reach to 39.26%, 32.72%, 10.06%, 55.3%, and 16.93%, respectively compared with that in 2014. The proportion of construction land (urban land and traffic land) area would account for more than half. The distribution of natural land types would become more fragmented and discrete while construction land would be continuously expanded and internally connected by encroaching on the ecological land. The results could provide support for land planning and evaluation of ecological and environmental effects from land use change in Shenzhen City.
    Chinese Critical Thinking: Structure and Measurement
    HOU Yubo, LI Qiangqiang, LI Hao
    2022, 58(2):  383-390.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2022.001
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    Based on Byrnes’ definition and theory of critical thinking, through the research of approximately 1000 college and adult subjects, the authors have determined the structure of critical thinking of Chinese people and compiled the corresponding scale. In order to verify Byrnes’s theory of critical thinking structure, the authors first interviewed 40 subjects and generated a question bank for measuring critical thinking. Then, a preliminary scale was compiled. Second, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the data of 284 college students and the three dimensions of Chinese critical thinking — analytic ability, open-minded to criticism, and effort to use critical thinking, were obtained. Third, the authors conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the data of 168 subjects, which confirmed the fit of the three-dimensional model. Finally, the data of 586 subjects were analyzed to further prove the reliability and validity of the scale. The result shows that the scale to measure the critical thinking of Chinese people conform to the theoretical constructs of Byrnes and colleagues. This scale has important theoretical and practical significance for future research in related fields.