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Table of Content

    20 November 2019, Volume 55 Issue 6
    Evolutionary Dynamics Model of Prostate Cancer and Optimization of Treatment Strategies
    GAO Xin, SHI Shuyu, LI Fangting
    2019, 55(6):  987-994.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.115
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    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in men. Abiraterone is commonly used in clinical treatment, but it often causes patients to evolve to drug resistance prostate cancer. In order to reveal the dynamic mechanism of prostate cancer development, this paper established a two-variable quantitative model of tumor evolution and introduced dose factors. By analyzing the dynamic properties of fixed and adaptive dosing treatment therapy and plotting the potential energy landscape figure, we revealed the advantages of adaptive dosing method from the perspective of dynamics and the mechanism that high doses of Abiraterone could lead to an irreversible state of drug resistant. In addition, the treatment score system was designed for the strategies, compared the two drug delivery methods and optimized the treatment strategies.
    Simulation Research on Satellite Deep Dielectric Charging Potential in Jupiter Orbit
    YU Xiangqian, SONG Siyu, CHEN Hongfei, ZOU Hong, SHI Weihong, CHEN Ao
    2019, 55(6):  995-1001.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.059
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    The charging process of FR4 (epoxy glass cloth laminate) dielectrics and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) dielectrics in Jupiter orbit are simulated using GEANT4-RIC method. The deep dielectric charging potential under different grounding states, different dielectrics thickness and different shielding layer thickness are calculated. The results show that the deep dielectric charging potential is related to the grounding mode of dielectrics. Double-side grounding can greatly reduce the deep dielectric charging potential. Using thinner dielectrics and increasing the thickness of shielding layer are also effective ways to reduce the deep dielectric charging potential.
    Active Ion-Trajectory Control at the Wafer Extreme Edge in Plasma Etch
    LI Guorong, ZHAO Kui, YAN Lijun, Hiroshi Iizuka, LIU Shenjian, Tom NI, ZHANG Xing
    2019, 55(6):  1002-1006.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.066
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    As the impedance of the conventional plasma etching system at the edge of the wafer is not consistent with that at the center of the wafer, the movement trajectory of ions at the edge of the wafer is deviated and it is difficult to meet the more stringent requirements on etching process uniformity and high aspect ratio. A method to optimize the movement direction of edge ions by adjusting the impedance of the wafer edge is proposed which can continuously and real-time adjust the movement trajectory of edge ions and control the direction of edge ions. The results show that the direction of ion movement can be optimized to be perpendicular to the surface of the wafer, the uniformity of the edge etch rate is optimized, and the vertical etching morphology is obtained.
    Research on Jiuzhaigou Ms 7.0 Earthquake Based on AETA Electromagnetic Disturbance
    LÜ Yaxuan, WANG Xin’an, HUANG Jipan, YONG shanshan
    2019, 55(6):  1007-1013.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.108
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    On August 8, 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake hit Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China. Before the earthquake, the AETA system was equipped with 6 monitoring stations in Jiuzhaigou County, Songpan County, Pingwu County, Qingchuan County, Maoxian County and Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province within a 200 km radius of the epicenter. With sliding principal component analysis (PCA) method, whose length of time window is 30 days, we analyzed the characteristics of electromagnetic disturbance of these six stations, and discussed the coand post-seismic changes of the electromagnetic field observed by the AETA system, and proposed a new impending seismic feature, namely the “anomaly band”. The results show that except the day of Jiuzhaigou Ms 7.0 earthquake, anomalous points appeared on monitoring station of Jiuzhaigou in the same period (5:00 am–6: 00 am) from the 5th day before the earthquake to the 15th day after the earthquake, and the anomalous value generally presented the trend of increase before the earthquake and decrease after the earthquake. Although anomalous points appeared on other monitoring stations, these points were scattered and the anomaly value was low. Within Two months after the abnormal band disappeared, there were no obvious band anomaly and no strong earthquakes.
    Study on Chain Code Methods for Triangular Grids
    WEI Xiaofeng, GENG Zexun, PU Guoliang, WANG Deyong
    2019, 55(6):  1014-1020.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.116
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    Only vertex chain code can be applied to triangular grids, but it has defect in angle adjacent expression. Aimed at the problem of object border representation in triangular grid, three novel chain codes were proposed and compared in character and performance. Firstly, Freeman chain code was extended to triangular grids. For two different triangular elements, the corresponding 12-direction Freeman chain code encoding rules were designed respectively. Secondly, based on the relative direction changes of the contour, the relative direction chain code was proposed. Finally, the edge chain code could be obtained by differentiating the combinations of edges number and internal grids number of the boundary grids. The geometric properties, expressive abilities and compression ratios of three novel chain codes were compared and analyzed. Experiments show that the proposed methods can accurately and completely realize the shape boundary expression of triangular grids. Among them, edge chain owns the best performance, the average code number per grid is 1, and compression ratio can reach 0.75.
    Effect of PVD Process on the Crystallization of IGZO Thin Films
    XIE Huafei, LU Macai, LIU Nian, CHEN Shujhih, ZHANG Shengdong, LEE Chiayu
    2019, 55(6):  1021-1028.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.067
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    A series of IGZO thin films were deposited using magnetron sputtering with different condition (substrate temperature, sputtering time, sputtering power, O2 flow rate, anneal temperature), and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The technological parameters and methods of preparing crystalline IGZO were studied. The results show that the thickness of the IGZO film has a significant effect on the crystallization of IGZO. When the thickness of the IGZO film is above 3000 ?, the crystallization effect is obvious, and is not affected by the film forming temperature, power and other factors. The crystallization of IGZO can be promoted effectively by 600℃ annealing treatment after the film formation is completed, but the effect of film formation temperature and O2/Ar ratio on the crystallization of IGZO is not obvious. The crystalline IGZO active layer can be effectively prepared by adjusting the film thickness and annealing temperature. By optimizing the film forming conditions of IGZO, the back-channel etching structure IGZO TFT (thin film transistor) with mobility of 29.6 cm2/(V·s) was prepared, which was about three times higher than that of amorphous IGZO TFT, and the electrical characteristics of IGZO TFT were significantly improved.
    A Validation Study of MODIS-Based Ecosystem Respiration Model in a Semi-Arid Grassland of Inner Mongolia
    JIANG Haimei, YE Haotian, WANG Ruojing, HAO Yong, WANG Chenggang, CAO Le
    2019, 55(6):  1029-1037.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.109
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    Eddy covariance data from Xilinhaote National Climatological Observatory in Xilin Gol League during growing seasons of 2010—2013 as well as MODIS data were used to validate an ecosystem respiration model based on enhanced vegetation index (EVI), land surface water index (LSWI) and land surface temperature (LST) in a semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia. The limitations of this remote sensing respiration model were also discussed. The results indicate that this model can successfully simulate the variations of nocturnal ecosystem respiration (Reco) in the growing seasons and between different years. The simulated nocturnal Reco also agreed remarkably with the observed Reco (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02 mgCO2/(m2·s)). Moreover, the observed nocturnal Reco showed a good linear correlation with EVIs×Ws (R2=0.63), in which EVIs and Ws are response functions of EVI and LSWI on photosynthesis, respectively. The response of nocturnal Reco to LST was also found following the L-T equation (R2=0.39). In addition, the difference between responses of nocturnal Reco to EVIs×Ws and LST in the early, middle and late stages of the growing season is indicated as one principal source of the deviations of model results.
    Sedimentary Facies and Provenance Area Analysis of Xuniwusu Formation in Tugurige Area, Southern Xing-Meng Orogenic Belt and Their Tectonic Significance
    TIAN Yingjie, XU Bei, ZHANG Yanjie, YANG Zhenning, YAO Zhongwei
    2019, 55(6):  1038-1054.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.084
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    Sedimentary facies studies on flysch formation of Xuniwusu Formation in Tugurige area, western Inner Mongolia reveal that the formation generally shows Bouma sequences with different thickness and types, in line with turbidity current sedimentary facies. According to turbidite facies model, it can be categorized into middle fan subfacies and contains three micro facies such as braided channel, inter-braided channel and central fan front margin microfacies. Xuniwusu Formation is speculated as the early-middle Silurian according to the regional stratigraphic correlation and the youngest peak of detrital zircon ages (437.9±2.7 Ma). Provenance analysis of Xuniwusu Formation reveals that it cames from the early Paleozoic island arc belt in the north and the basement of North China plate in the south, respectively. In addition, the strata comparison of Tugurige, Damaoqi and Bainaimiao areas suggests that a Back-arc Basin, representative of prevailing Xuniwusu Formation and Talingong Group, located in the south orogenic belt and extended about 400 km in East-West direction. Such a wide trencharc-basin system in early Paleozoic might be formed in relation to Paleo-Asia Ocean subduction and thus determines an Andean type active continental margin along the north edge of North China plate.
    Sedimentary Characteristics of Dolomite from Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Beipiao Area, North China
    DING Weiming, NING Meng, QIN Shujian, DONG Lin
    2019, 55(6):  1055-1066.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.081
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    The Neoproterozoic Gaoyuzhuang dolomite from Beipiao area, western Liaoning Province was systematically studied based on outcrop and microscope observations. The whole section is composed of several cyclic shallowing upward units (subsequences), which include subtidal massive dolomite and intertidal thin-bedded dolomite. Three types of microfacies, microspar dolomite, dolomicrite and intraclast dolomite, were identified. Partial recrystallization and silica filling/replacement are associated with each microfacies. The chert bands and
    nodules, which are commonly distributed along the stratigraphic layers, was probably formed during the syndepositional stage. Silica filling/replacement may have great contributions to dolomite dissolution and recrystallization and therefore improve the porosity of the dolomite, potentially leading to the formation of the excellent dolomite reservoir. Therefore, silica filling/replacement during the syn-depositional stage is significant for the development and evolution of dolomite reservoirs.
    Instance Segmentation of Buildings from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images with Multitask Learning
    HUI Jian, QIN Qiming, XU Wei, SUI Juan
    2019, 55(6):  1067-1077.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.106
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    At present, building extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images using deep neural network is viewed as a binary classification problem, which divides the pixels into two categories, building and nonbuilding, but it cannot distinguish individual buildings. To solve this problem, the U-Net modified with Xception module and multitask learning are combined to apply to the instance segmentation of buildings, which both acquires the binary classification and distinguishes the individual buildings. Inria aerial imagery is used as the research dataset to validate the algorithm. The results show that the binary classification performance of U-Net modified with Xception outperforms U-Net by about 1.4%. The multitask driven deep neural network not only accomplishes the instance segmentation of buildings, but also improves the accuracy by about 0.5%.
    Value Evaluation of Birds Resources in Futian Mangrove Wetland of Shenzhen Bay
    GONG Yuan, SHEN Xiaoxue, DING Huan, LI Ruili
    2019, 55(6):  1078-1084.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.085
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    This study comprehensively evaluated the value of bird resources in wetlands based on the birds survey data of Futian mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay. The evaluation indicators include the economic value of birds, the benthic value of birds foraging, the value of bird manure, the value of pest control, the value of scientific research, the value of ecotourism and the value of natural education. The results show that the total economic value of bird resources in Futian mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay is 326.5385 million RMB. The economic value of birds and the value of benthic foraging by birds act as the main components of the value of bird resources, accounting for 60.50% and 39.32%, respectively. The values of pest control, bird manure and scientific research are less than 0.1%. The results indicate that the economic value of bird resources in Futian mangrove wetland of Shenzhen Bay is high, but its social service value needs to be further developed.
    Problems and Treatment Countermeasures of Water Environment in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Chang, LIN Shenhui, JIAO Xueyao, SHEN Xiaoxue, LI Ruili
    2019, 55(6):  1085-1096.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.087
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    This study identifies the current situation of water pollution in the rivers, reservoirs and coastal waters in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and analyzes the issues about urban water-logging as well as the changes in water volume in rivers and estuaries. The water pollution in the Bay Area is mainly caused by the intensive population and industrial activities in large cities. The imperfect sewage treatment system and management strategies have exacerbated the pollution. Water quantity problems mainly derived from the excessive encroachment of ecological water. By summarizing the development experience of the international advanced Bay Area, including improving legislation, raising standards, limiting emissions, and protecting the ecological water environment, this study proposes the following countermeasures for further management of water environment in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: 1) improving water use efficiency and strengthening sewage treatment; 2) promoting the construction of sponge cities; 3) controlling cofferdams and improving ecological protection; 4) accelerating the transformation of social economy.
    Inequality Indexes for Measuring Between-Groups Mean Difference of Size and Spatial Distributions
    CHEN Yanguang
    2019, 55(6):  1097-1102.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.107
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    A set of new inequality indexes are constructed to measure the relative unbalanced difference between regions or groups of elements in a geographical systems. Firstly, the within-group inequality index, namely, the Gini coefficient based on the Lorenz curve, is transformed into a new mathematical expression. Then, based on the new formula, the within-group index is generalized to between-group inequality index. Technically, the two types of inequality indexes can be integrated into the same logic framework. As an example, the new formulae are applied to three systems of cities in China, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta. The results display a spatio-temporal evolution patterns of relative mean differences within and between these urban systems.
    Construction of Wildlife Recreational Opportunity Spectrum: Based on Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Base
    CONG Li, XIAO Zhangfeng, XIAO Shuwen
    2019, 55(6):  1103-1111.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.082
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    Taking Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Base as an example, this study applies the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) to the wildlife tourism context and constructs the Wildlife Recreational Opportunity Spectrum (WROS). Content analysis was used to analyze the tourists’ reviews on experiential activities, and the Octopus collector V7.2.6 was used to collect the comments of visitors from sites such as Mafengwo.com, Qunar.com, Ctrip.com, and TripAdvisor. A total of 9192 valid comments were collected and visual analysis was done with micro-text analysis tools. Through the analysis of three characteristics, natural attributes, the social environment and the management environment, 7 indicators were set for the destination zoning: the natural landscape degree, tourist density, tourist feature, accessibility, tourism infrastructure, wildlife conservation intensity, and tourist management. The Giant Panda Research Base in Chengdu was divided into three types of artificially constructed display area, semi-artificial interacting area and wild exploration area, and a list of the corresponding wildlife-based recreation activities and spectrum was constructed. The construction of WTOS can relieve the pressure of resources in designing different recreation activities and in different types of regions, so as to guarantee the quality of tourism experience, providing reference for the planning and management of wildlife tourism destination.
    Estimating Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution Load in Bali Lake Basin of Jiangxi Province Based on SWAT Model
    CHEN Yan, ZHAO Yanxin, ZHAO Yue, WANG Dong, BAI Hui, GUO Huaicheng
    2019, 55(6):  1112-1118.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.086
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    The simulation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollution load structure in Bali Lake basin was performed by SWAT model using the spatial and attribute database acquired through social survey and statistical data. The model was applied and validated based on the data of meteorology, runoff and water quality from 2010 to 2014. The spatial-temporal distribution of N and P in the basin was also studied. The results showed that the urban life was the most important source of N and P load, following by agriculture and livestock breeding pollution source, and the least was industry pollution source. The annual TN and TP loads were mainly concentrated in flood season (from May to September) which took up nearly 55% of the whole year load. As the amount of precipitation increased, TN and TP loads increased during flood period, which was mainly due to the increasing of non-point rural living water and agricultural fertilization pollution source with scouring action of the heavy rainfall during flood season. The spatial distribution of N and P was centered on the Jiujiang county, Xunyang and Lushan district as the urban agglomeration area affected by urban sewage pollution.
    Impacts of Spontaneous Migration and Policy-Driven Migration on the Livelihood of Pastoralists: A Case Study in Nangqian County, Yushu#br# Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province
    JIN Ying, LI Wenjun
    2019, 55(6):  1119-1128.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.114
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    There are two modes of migration in western pastoral areas: spontaneous migration and policy-driven migration. Comparing these two modes can help to better understand the current situation of migration in pastoral areas. Two villages in Nangqian county, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province were selected as the cases for contrastive study. During field investigation, the research was carried out by using semi-structured interview, questionnaire and key informant interview. The results showed that the scale of policy-driven migration was larger and the time was more concentrated, but the pastoralists who moved spontaneously were more successful in finding alternative livelihoods and had lower willingness to return to pasture. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mechanism behind pastoralists’ decision-making of the two migration modes from the macroscopic, microscopic and mesoscopic perspectives by using the multi-level decision-making framework. The results point out the main influence of urban pulling force and social network on spontaneous migration and the main influence of government subsidy and rural pushing force on policy-driven migration. Accordingly, the corresponding policy suggestions are put forward: transforming the one-time government subsidy into a form that can improve the sustainable livelihood of pastoralists, refusing rigid project arrangement and helping potential immigrants to build social networks.
    Investigation on Pyridine-Degrading Performances and Biofilm-Forming Properties of 12 Pyridine-Degrading Bacterial Strains
    ZHAO Xiaoxi, XIONG Fuzhong, WEN Donghui, LI Qilin
    2019, 55(6):  1129-1140.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.088
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    Choosing pyridine as the target pollutant, the pyridine-degrading performances and biofilm-forming properties of 12 pyridine-degrading bacterial strains, isolated from a coking wastewater treatment plant, were investigated. The results show that all the 12 strains had high degradation activity of pyridine. For two efficient degrading strains, Pseudomonas sp. ZX01 and Arthrobacter sp. ZX07, the optimal temperature and pH to degrade pyridine were 35oC and 7.0, respectively. Pyridine with initial concentration ranged in 100 to 2000 mg/L could be completely degraded by either strain. Furthermore, the biofilm-forming abilities of the 12 strains were significantly different. The cellular properties of extracellular protein secretion, extracellular polysaccharide secretion, and flagella-mediated swimming motility were identified to have significant positive correlations with their biofilmforming capacities. Our study provides scientific references for constructing a degrading-biofilm system for refractory wastewater treatment.
    Study on Characteristics of Virtual Water Flow Spatial Change and Influencing Factors in China
    DU Yihang, WANG Jun, LU Shunzi, LI Jingxian, CAI Ailing
    2019, 55(6):  1141-1151.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.117
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    Population migration and aggregation of industrial factories in the process of urbanization in China has further increased water demand in the relatively developed areas of China. The existing water transfer projects couldn’t meet the increasing demand for water resources in water-scarce areas. The calculation of virtual water based on the input-output analysis and the implementation of reasonable virtual water transfer have become new approaches to relax the demanding pressure on regional water resources. This analysis used the regional inputoutput tables of the years 1997 and 2010 and the water resources bulletins of China to build a multi-regional inputoutput calculation model of virtual water and calculate the exchange relationships and transfer volumes among virtual waters of different industries in detail. This study also analyzed the association of regional virtual water flows with inter-regional population migration and geographic transfers of industries. The results showed that there were highly correlated relationships between the characteristics of regional population migration and virtual water spatial transfer in the context of urbanization in China. The geographic transfers of industries continue to affect the volume and direction of virtual water flows. In the future, researchers should consider the relationship between physical water transfers, virtual water flows, population migration and geographic transfers of industries in the context of urbanization to ensure the supply of water resources in China.
    Study on Deoiling Effect and Kinetics of Ozone Catalyzed Oxidation of Oil-bearing Clay
    CHEN Hongshuo, LIU Yangsheng
    2019, 55(6):  1152-1160.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.089
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    An ozone catalytic oxidation treatment technology with natural aluminum ore as a catalyst was developed to treat the byproduct of oil-bearing clay with oil content of 6.5% produced during the thermochemical treatment of petroleum sludge at tank bottom. Under the optimized treatment conditions, the oil content of oilbearing clay could be reduced to 1.2%, meeting the treatment requirements specified in the “SY/T7301-2016”. For further research on the contribution of the catalyst to the ozone catalytic oxidation system, the reaction activation energy and reaction rates of ozone oxidation and ozone catalytic oxidation were compared from the perspective of kinetics. The results showed that, with the catalyst sludge adding, the oil removal rate increased 2–3 times and the reaction activation energy reduced 84.2%, which showed the effectiveness of the catalyst on the kinetics of quantitatively. As a kind of deep treatment method of the oily clay, this technology further complements and improves the recycling and harmless treatment system of petroleum sludge at tank bottom.
    State Boredom: An Emotion That Seeks to Change
    MIAO Peng, XIE Xiaofei
    2019, 55(6):  1161-1169.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.083
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    The concept and characteristics of state boredom are introduced, and the measurement scales and induction methods are summarized. On the basis of the self-regulatory function of state boredom, this paper summarizes the effects brought by state boredom through two pathways — seeking stimulation and meaning reestablishment. Future research is encouraged to improve and enrich the measurements and induction methods, expand the research direction (e.g. the effect of state boredom on consuming behaviors and decision making, and the positive side of state boredom), and develop effective interventions to alleviate state boredom.
    Identity-Based Motivation Theory and Its Implication to Academic Outcome of College Students
    WANG Chunhua, WANG Lei
    2019, 55(6):  1170-1178.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.090
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    This paper introduces the theory of identity-based motivation which is a suited approach and social psychological theory about human’s motivation and goal-pursuit. In the perspective of this model, people act in a way that congruent with the identity primed by current context. Doing something or not was influenced by the perception of identity which comes to the mind. Related research involving in the area of health behavior and academic outcome was reviewed. It suggested that future research might consider whether some special identity types in certain culture context and undesirable identity might influence academic outcome among college students, as well as the moderate and mediate role of cognitive ability and personality factors.