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Table of Content

    20 March 2024, Volume 60 Issue 2
    Design of Low-ripple and Adjustable High Voltage Power Supply for Space
    CHEN Jiali, ZOU Hong, YE Yuguang
    2024, 60(2):  195-202.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.047
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    In order to meet the output ripple requirements of space detectors such as mass spectrometers and energetic particle detectors, a low power consumption, low-ripple, adjustable high voltage DC power supply with a maximum output voltage of 10 kV are designed. A Royer inverter and voltage doubler rectifier circuit are used in the design. A feedback loop is adopted to make the ripple voltage less than 2 V peak-to-peak. A 51 series single-chip microcomputer is also used to control the output voltage and monitor the operating status of the power supply. In addition to the design of schematics, other measures to reduce output voltage ripple are also proposed. The test results show that the high voltage power supply has the characteristics of stable and adjustable output voltage and low ripple, which can meet the basic performance requirements of high voltage power supply for space detectors.
    Numerical Investigation of Hydrodynamic Characteristic of Undersea Vehicle with Low Noise
    DAI Yuanjun, REN Shicheng, ZHANG Jihua, YU Chao
    2024, 60(2):  203-209.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.014
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    Given that the shortcomings of low propulsion efficiency, poor flexibility, and high noise of traditional propeller propulsion vehicles, numerical investigation of hydrodynamic characteristics of a new undersea vehicle propelled by bionic flexible bodies is conducted in three aspects: 1) the effect of amplitude and wave number of flexible body motions; 2) the effect of bionic surface of the vehicle; and 3) the effect of overall design of the vehicle. The numerical results show that increasing the amplitude will significantly increase the hydrostatic thrust and the propulsion resistance, while increasing the wave number will significantly increase the propulsion resistance and decrease the hydrostatic thrust. In addition, the front tip design of the vehicle and the bionic surface of the vehicle can reduce the propulsion resistance. These findings are beneficial to further optimize the vehicle and improve the vehicle propulsion efficiency.
    Depositional Age, Provenance Characteristics and Tectonic Setting of Gaofan Group in the Wutai Area
    BAI Lu, GUAN Ping, HU Qitu, SONG Dandan
    2024, 60(2):  210-226.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.098
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    Addressing the debated aspects of the study on the depositional age, provenance, and sedimentary tectonic environment of Gaofan Group in the Wutai area of Shanxi, systematic sampling and detailed sedimentological and petrological analysis were conducted on the classic section of Gaofan Group exposed in Tanshang Town, Daixian County, Xinzhou City, Shanxi Province. Typical samples were selected for whole rock mineral composition, zircon U-Pb dating, major and trace element determinations. By analyzing detrital zircons and synthesizing previously published age data, the depositional age of Gaofan Group was considered to be approximate 2.2 Ga. This chronologic analysis showed that Gaofan Group was in a superposition relationship with the underlying Wutai Group and overlying Hutuo Group. The major and trace element composition of Gaofan Group indicated that the source rock was mainly intermediate-acidic igneous rock, suggesting that during the deposition of Gaofan Group, the upper continental crust was predominantly composed of granitoids. The age distribution of detrital zircons and tectonic discrimination diagrams based on major and trace elements of fine-grained sedimentary rocks suggested that Gaofan Group exhibited characteristics of an active continental margin. However, sedimentological analyses indicated that it was deposited in a passive continental margin with littoral and neritic facies. This contradictory conclusion may suggest that the tectonic discrimination methods derived from plate tectonic theory may not be applicable for studying the sedimentary tectonic background during the Paleoproterozoic period.
    Paleo-sandblows and Their Represented Paleoseismic Events in the Taoyuan Basin, Yunnan Province
    CHANG Zufeng, LUO Lin, LIU Changwei, LI Jianlin
    2024, 60(2):  227-238.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.097
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    Based on the results of field geological surveys and stratigraphic dating data, the paleo-sandblows and their represented paleoseismic events developed in the upper strata of the Taoyuan Basin were analyzed. More than ten paleo-sandblow traces were outcropped in the 7-km-range from Taoyuan to Xialinong region in the Taoyuan Basin. The sandblows and their deposits are featured by mushroom-shape, umbrella-shape, sac-shape and skewed cup shape. Their large scale and wide distribution indicated that there was a strong sandblow eruption events related to paleoearthquake. The width of sandflow depositsis several meters, and the thickness is tens of centimeters to one meter. The largest one is 8 meters wide, and 1–1.5 m in the thickness. It is common to observe 1.0–4.5 m long, 0.25–0.35 m in diameter, and 0.8 m in width sand veins. The paleosol layer with good continuity is generally developed at the depth of 1.5–3.0 m below the ground, which is the ground surface at that time. These sand veins and sandflow deposits are generally developed above and below this layer. According to the 14C dating results of the top of the paleosol layer and the bottom of the overlying strata of the sandflow deposits, it is speculated that the time of the paleoseismic event forming the sandblows is 13030±40–12120±40 aBP, and its magnitude is at least greater than 7. The Chenghai-Binchuan fault was a strong active fault in the late Quaternary period, which triggered this Taoyuan earthquake.
    Study of the Tooth Replacement of Chaohusaurus brevifemoralis from the Lower Triassic of Chaohu, Anhui Province
    GU Shulun, JIANG Dayong, ZHOU Min
    2024, 60(2):  239-248.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.002
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    A specimen of Chaohusaurus brevifemoralis (GMPKU-P-3086) from the Lower Triassic in Chaohu City, Anhui Province is examined by using high-resolution CT scan data to create a 3D reconstruction. The reconstructed models include models of teeth, premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. Through observation and measurement of the model, and comparison with the specimen, the following new features of this basal ichthyosauriformes were found. 1) the implantation is subthecodont based on the presence of a dental groove with shallow sockets at the bottom. 2) the sizes and shapes of the teeth vary periodically and appear as an odd-even alternate pattern. 3) the anterior teeth form a single row, with the replacement tooth setting on the distal position of the functional tooth. 4) Two rows of teeth at the distal parts of the dentary and maxilla are firstly found in Chaohusaurus. The lingual row comprises replacement teeth for the labial row, and each replacement tooth lies disto-lingual of its predecessor. These dental features found in Chaohusaurus brevifemoralis are consistent to that of the Early Triassic ichthyosauriformes, such as Grippia and Utatsusaurus, which might represent a primitive condition of the dental character of ichthyosauriformes and reflect a broad geographical distribution of crunch feeding guild.
    Pore Structure Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Deep Sandstone Reservoirs: A Case Study of Guaizihu Depression in Yin’e Basin
    PENG Mou, LI Jianghai, YANG Bo
    2024, 60(2):  249-264.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.001
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    This paper takes the deep sandstone of Bayingebi Formation in Guaizihu Sag of Yin’e Basin as the research object. Based on the basic characteristics of the reservoir, this article uses the constant rate mercury intrusion method to distinguish pores and throats and quantitatively characterize the characteristic parameters of pores and throats. Combined with scanning electron microscopy and casting thin section method, the morphological characteristics of pores and throats are qualitatively characterized, and the differences in microscopic pore structure are analyzed. In addition, different pore types are classified according to the fractal dimension of pore throat, and the main factors affecting the development of reservoir pores are discussed. The results show that the reservoir rock types in this area are mainly feldspar lithic sandstone with low compositional maturity. The average porosity of sandstone reservoir in the study area is 10.8%, and the average permeability is 1.17 mD, which belongs to low porosity and ultra-low permeability reservoir. Reservoir space types are mainly primary intergranular pores, dissolution pores and microfractures. The average pore radius is 195 μm, and the average throat radius is 3.5 μm. The pore structure types of the reservoir are divided into micro pore small throat type, small pore small throat type and large pore coarse throat type. The study area generally has the characteristics of relatively large pore-throat ratio, good pore-throat configuration relationship is an important factor affecting reservoir physical properties, and the main controlling factors affecting pore development are the combined effects of early diagenesis, organic acid dissolution and hydrocarbon filling. After relatively weak compaction and cementation transformation, the original debris provides a material and spatial basis for later dissolution, and the thick organic-rich mudstone at the top and bottom of the reservoir provides a source of organic acid dissolution and hydrocarbon filling. 
    Investigation of Ground Deformations in Mining Areas Using the Adaptive DS-InSAR Method Combined with Land Cover
    ZHANG Zhiliang, ZENG Qiming, YANG Ligong
    2024, 60(2):  265-276.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.003
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    Traditional multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) technology commonly employs a global single threshold in selecting valid pixels. In mining areas where there are significant temporal and spatial decorrelation effects or where the deformation gradient is large in a short period, the issue of sparse measuring points and inadequate spatial sampling frequently arises, further causing the incomplete acquisition of ground subsidence information. Here, we take 22 scenes of ALOS-1 images covering the Datong mining area as an example and use the adaptive distributed scatterer InSAR combined with land cover (ADSI-CLC) method to measure the long term time series of ground deformations in this area. The results indicate that the spatial-temporal distribution pattern of the deformation measurements obtained by ADSI-CLC method is similar to that of the StaMPS-SBAS method, and has a good correlation with mining facilities on high-resolution optical remote sensing images. However, the ADSI-CLC method can significantly increase the number and spatial distribution density of measuring points, identifying approximately four times as many distributed scatterers (DS) points as the StaMPS-SBAS method in this study area. Specifically, the consistency between the two methods is high in areas with zero deformation or minor deformation. In regions with large deformation, the StaMPS-SBAS method cannot effectively obtain deformation measurements, while the ADSI-CLC method can derive deformation measurement results that are consistent with the funnel-shaped spatial distribution characteristics caused by mining activities, because of the increased number of measuring points. These results indirectly verify the reliability and effectiveness of the ADSI-CLC method in the ground deformations monitoring of the mining areas. Overall, the ADSI-CLC method can provide more detailed temporal and spatial deformation information, and can be used to monitor and warn the surface stability in mining areas.
    Distribution Characteristics and Influence Mechanism of Total Organic Carbon Profile in Karst Reservoir
    LI Li, ZHOU Zhongfa, ZOU Yan, KONG Jie, WANG Cui, ZHANG Fuqiang, WANG Yanbi
    2024, 60(2):  277-288.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.012
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    In order to explore the vertical distribution characteristics and influence mechanism of organic carbon in the deep water reservoir, taking the southwest karst hinterland reservoir (Pingzhai Reservoir) as case study, water samples were collected at different points during thermodynamic stratification and mixing periods, using mathematical statistics, correlation analysis, relative water column stability (RWCS), to analyze the influence of thermal conditions and hydrodynamic differences on the spatiotemporal and cross-sectional distribution on total organic carbon (TOC). The results show that the thermocline is present in spring, summer and autumn, and the thermocline thickness varies by season. TOC concentration is 0.44–5.65 mg/L, and the annual mean value is 2.16±0.99 mg/L. The seasonal variation pattern of TOC concentration is summer>winter>spring>autumn. There is the seasonal difference of the response between TOC and water environment in Pingzhai Reservoir. Exogenous carbon storage in summer, autumn rainfall dilution, microbial decomposition and sediment release in winter, and algae propagation, biological carbon pump effect in spring are the main causes of the seasonal change of TOC concentration. The fluctuation amplitude of TOC and physicochemical factor profiles in different deep water points are mainly driven by three different hydraulic characteristics. RWCS mainly affects the sedimentation rate of substances such as organic carbon, which results in the difference of TOC concentration and physicochemical factor profile distribution.
    Changes of Sense of Place in Historic Conservation Areas under the Representations of Social Perception Data: A Case Study of Nanluoguxiang (2008–2022)
    XIANG Lanlin, ZHANG Junchu, YAN Yuhan, MA Beibei
    2024, 60(2):  289-305.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.020
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    This paper takes the changing practice of Beijing Nanluoguxiang Historic Conservation Area in the past fifteen years as the research object, analyzes the stages difference of the change of its sense of place according to the characteristics of the social perception network data in 2008–2022, and constructs the conceptual model of the change of Nanluoguxiang’s sense of place. This paper first establishes an exclusive thesaurus for the evaluation of historic conservation area, and based on the grounded theory method, three main dimensions of the sense of place are obtained from the text coded in the exclusive thesaurus: place cognition, place dependence and place identity. Based on the data analysis of the change curves of the proportion of the main categories of high-frequency words in the past years, the characteristics of the emergent words, the social semantic network, and the proportion of the commercial business in Nanluoguxiang, combined with the theory of the adaptive cycle of social ecosystems, the four phases with obvious differences are extracted: the stabilization period in 2008–2009; the growth period in 2010–2014; the reconstruction period in 2015–2018; and the adjustment period in 2019–2022. The paper concludes with an analysis of the sense of place change in historic conservation area from the perspective of capital, pointing out that economic capital needs to synthesize social capital and cultural capital in order to better adapt to development and maintain dynamic balance in the cycle.
    Characterization of the Phage Community Structure in Typical Tributaries of the Yellow River
    WANG Bingxue, WU Zongzhi, CHEN Tianyi, LIU Shufeng, LIANG Enhang, LIU Tang
    2024, 60(2):  306-314.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.060
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    Metagenomics was used to analyze the phage community structure in the water and sediment of Huangshui River, Weihe River and Luohe River, and the diversity, host and functional potential of the three tributaries of the Yellow River were compared. The results showed that 99.77% of the unknown vOTUs (viral Operational Taxonomic Units) identified from the metagenome could not be clustered with the NCBI Refseq database, indicating a high degree of species novelty in the phage community. A total of 158 genera belonging to 15 families were detected in three tributaries. The endemic phage genera were the most in Huangshui River and Pbi1virus, Badnavirus, Ea214virus and Gammabaculovirus were detected only in this tributary. The phage community structure of the three tributaries was significantly different and the spatial heterogeneity was greater in the sediment samples. Diversified auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) indicated that phages might be involved in the cycling of nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus in Huangshui River, Weihe River and Luohe River, but there was no difference in the distribution of AMGs in the three tributaries. The host range of phage community spanned 18 prokaryotic phyla, mainly including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota and Bacteroidota. About 1.8% of the phages might infect hosts across phyla. Phages infecting Planctomycetota were enriched in water and sediments of Luohe River, while Chloroflexota-infected phages were relatively abundant in the sediments of Weihe River. There was a significant correlation between the bacterial and phage community and the consistency was higher in water samples.
    Mixotrophic Denitrification of Actual Tail Water from Wastewater Treatment Plant Treated by PHBV-Pyrite Based Constructed Wetlands
    XU Zhengyang, ZHOU Qi, JIA Lixia, WU Weizhong, XING Chuanhong
    2024, 60(2):  315-328.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.006
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    Taking the tail water of a large wastewater treatment plant in Xinxiang city, Henan Province of China, as the research object, the deep nitrogen and phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands (CWs) for this tail water was studied. Polyhydroxybutyrate valerate (PHBV) and pyrite were selected as the main functional fillers of wetland system to construct a mixotrophic denitrification system by combining heterotrophic denitrification and autotrophic denitrification. Water quality index monitoring and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to explore the removal performance and microbial community structure. The PHBV+pyrite experimental group and PHBV+ceramite control group were set up for continuous operation for 77 days. Results show that when hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 2 hours, NO3-N, TN, TP and COD concentration are 8.39±1.72 mg/L, 10.41±1.58 mg/L, 0.37 mg/L and 15.7 mg/L, respectively, the average effluent TN concentration reaches at 2.22 mg/L, TP concentration reaches 0.28 mg/L and COD concentration is 32.7 mg/L. The nitrogen removal efficiency of CWs in PHBV+ pyrite group (78.55%) is obviously better than that in PHBV+ceramite group (51.25%), basically meeting the surface water environmental quality standard (GB 3838–2002) Class V. Analysis of the microbial community structure shows that the PHBV + pyrite group advantage bacterium in artificial wetland are autotrophic bacteria Desulfobacter and heterotrophic bacteria unclassified_k__norank_d__Bacteria, the abundance are 23.98% and 12.30% respectively. Mixotrophic denitrification is achieved through coordination of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, in which autotrophic denitrification led by Desulfobacter related to sulfur metabolism may play a major role in systematic nitrogen removal. These results can provide reference for the engineering practice of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in tail water of PHBV+pyrite-based CWs.
    Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds of Tai’an Urban Area in Autumn
    WANG Lu, ZHOU Xu, LIU Yuehui, LIU Hui, ZHANG Yinglei, FAN Guangyu
    2024, 60(2):  329-340.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.007
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    The preconcentration/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with FID detector method was used to observe the 115 atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Tai’an urban area in autumn 2020. The average volume fraction of VOCs during the observation period was (67.50±25.55)×10−9, dominated by alkanes (34.86%) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (32.03%). The atmospheric chemistry reactivity of VOCs was estimated using ozone formation potential (OFP) and the OH radical loss rate (LOH), respectively. The OFP of Tai’an in autumn was (241.50±6.91)×10−9, mainly contributed by OVOCs (39.92%) and aromatics (33.03%). The calculated LOH was 7.34±0.33 s−1, which was dominated by OVOCs (56.32%). The contribution of VOCs to the potential for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was estimated using the fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC), and the results showed that SOA formation potential was (366.58±37.80)×10−9, dominated by aromatics (98.79%). The results of the characteristic species ratio analysis showed that the VOCs of Tai’an in autumn were influenced by local sources such as traffic-related emissions, solvent use and combustion sources. The source apportionment results showed that the contribution of motor vehicle emissions to VOCs was the highest at 26.1%, with the contributions from gasoline vehicle exhaust emissions and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions being 19.4% and 6.7%. The contribution of solvent use and industrial sources to VOCs was comparable at 20.1% and 19.9%, respectively. The contribution of stationary combustion sources and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) use was 16.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Biogenic sources contributed the lowest percentage of 5.4%.
    Distributions Characteristics of Nutrients and Corresponding Ecological Effects in Dongting Lake
    LIN Jie, LI Bin, CHEN Qian
    2024, 60(2):  341-349.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.008
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    Based on monitoring data of monthly average COD, TN, and TP concentrations at Chenglingji hydrological station in Dongting Lake from 1990 to 2015, the intra-annual variation, inter-annual variation patterns of nutrients in the water column of Dongting Lake were systematically studied by trend analysis, and further revealed their stoichiometric ratio characteristics and discussed the effects of nutrient concentrations and structure on algal growth. The findings showed that the intra-annual variation patterns of average COD, TN, and TP were similar, indicating that the nutrient content in dry season was higher than that in wet season. However, as for multi-year trend, the annual average COD, TN, and TP in Dongting Lake showed a significant increase since 1990, while C:N and C:P ratios decreased and N:P ratio increased over time. The average C:N:P ratio in the water column of Chenglingji station in Dongting Lake was 13:18:1, and redundancy analysis showed that nutrient concentrations and stoichiometry ratios in the water would affect algae growth, with C:N, C:P and COD playing a dominant role. During the study period, the overall nitrogen and phosphorus content of the water column in Chenglingji station was generally high and has already met the algae growth demand. In order to avoid adverse ecological consequences such as harmful algal bloom events, external nitrogen and phosphorus inputs should be controlled to maintain the stoichiometric ratio balance in the water column of Dongting Lake.
    Prediction and Path of Carbon Peak in Shannan Region of Tibet Based on Multi Scenario Analysis
    ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Jinbo, JIANG Shaorui, GUO Huaicheng, WANG Shuhang, FU Zhenghui
    2024, 60(2):  350-356.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.095
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    This study takes Shannan City in Tibet as the research object, and proposes peak paths and specific policy suggestions based on the prediction results of carbon emission peak values in different scenarios by constructing a GM-ImPACT model. The results show that, the current economic growth rate coupled with strong emission reduction strategies is the optimal path for Shannan City to achieve carbon peak. Shannan City is expected to achieve carbon peak 10 years ahead of schedule in 2024, reducing its total carbon emissions by 20.72%, and its carbon emission intensity will drop by 7.89 percentage points higher than the national level. The proposed model framework could be applied to explore the optimal path of carbon peak for other cities.
    Index System Construction of Aesthetic Culture and Functional Evaluation on Colored Leaf Forests in the Pearl River Delta, China
    WANG Chun, HAO Zezhou, SUN Bing, LI Le, GAO Bingtao, ZENG Wei, CHEN Yong, WAN Lixin, KE Huan, PEI Nancai
    2024, 60(2):  357-364.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.013
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    To address the key issues in the evaluation of the aesthetic and cultural functions of commonly used colorful foliage tree species in southern China (focusing on Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Foshan cities in the Pearl River Delta), the authors initially constructed a system of evaluation indicators with 3 criterion layers (B1–3), 9 subcriteria layers (C1–9) and 27 indicator layers (D1–27) and established a comprehensive indicator method, based on literature combing and theoretical practice, the method of expert evaluation (Expert Survey Method) and the principle of hierarchical analysis. The paper mainly aims to effectively evaluate the aesthetic and cultural functions of the colorful leaf forests in the Pearl River Delta, to clarify the key points of conservation and development of cultural ecosystem services in the forest city agglomeration, to enhance the compatibility and practicality of colorful forest construction technology with the construction of a beautiful bay area, and to expand the theoretical connotation and application technology of urban forestry and human habitat.
    Evaluation of Urban Livability and Key Driving Forces in Shaanxi Province under “Five-in-One” General Layout
    FAN Yanxiang, LEI Sheping
    2024, 60(2):  365-376.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2023.052
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    Taking Shaanxi Province as an example, this paper uses the entropy-weighted TOPSIS method to evaluate and analyze the urban livability of 10 prefecture-level cities based on the “Five-in-One” general layout, and uses the principal component analysis method to study the key driving forces for improving the livability of cities in the region. The results show that Xi’an City has high livability and is quite different from other cities, but on the whole, there is still much room for improvement in the livability of each city. The livability of Shangluo, Ankang and Tongchuan cities has always been at a low level. The driving forces for improving urban livability in Shaanxi Province vary in different periods. From 2011 to 2015, key driving components are political, economic and social, and the key driving factors are public service level, economic development level, grassroots political service level, resource supply level, and industrial structure optimization level. From 2016 to 2020, the key driving components have changed to economic, cultural, social and ecological civilization, and the key driving factors are communication and cultural exchange environment, public service level, soil erosion control level, common prosperity level, sewage treatment efficiency, and opening-up level. The driving factor of public service level plays an important role in the improvement of urban livability in both periods.
    Research Status of Gait Biomechanical Characteristics after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and Reconstruction
    LU Yiqun, WU Yue, LIU Zhenlong, REN Shuang
    2024, 60(2):  377-392.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2024.015
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    The gait biomechanical characteristics and rehabilitation treatment measures of trunk, hip, knee and ankle in different moving planes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fracture and reconstruction were reviewed. The results showed that after ACL fracture and reconstruction, the gait biomechanical abnormalities were found in all joints, and the knee joint biomechanical abnormalities were manifested in all three motion planes; the ankle joint abnormalities were mainly concentrated in the sagittal plane. The hip joint and trunk abnormalities were more common in the coronal plane. It is suggested to make targeted and long-term rehabilitation treatment plan according to the biomechanical characteristics of each joint and the different ACL fracture and postoperative period. At present, conventional rehabilitation training can not completely restore the normal gait after ACL fracture and reconstruction. Neuromuscular control training and holistic rehabilitation training of trunk, hip, knee and ankle should be added.