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Table of Content

    20 March 2016, Volume 52 Issue 2
    Clone, Expression and Function Analysis of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Gene from Chlorella variabilis NC64A
    YANG Jinshui, GAO Quanxiu, LI Zhaosheng, XING Guanlan, YUAN Hongli
    2016, 52(2):  187-192.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.148
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    To reveal the function of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) on algae lipid production, DGAT from Chlorella variabilis NC64A was cloned and expressed by E.coli BL21 (DE3). The results showed that the DGAT gene was 894 bp and was coded 297aa. The apparent molecular weight of DGAT was 33 kDa and the pI was 9.48. Conserved domain analysis showed that it belonged to the Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) super family and the amino acids of H68, L71, F76, R94, I97 and GAA (144–146) could form special acyl acceptor binding pocket to bind acyl of ACP or CoA and served as the catalyst in the synthesis of TAG. Sequence analysis showed that DGAT shared a 32% and 24% homology with SsPDAT and AtPDAT respectively. Thin layer chromatography showed that DGAT had PDAT enzyme activity, which may promote the membrane lipid degradation and couple TAG synthesis under nitrogen starvation.

    A Non-invasive Fault Attack on FPGA-based Cryptographic Applications
    LIAO Nan, CUI Xiaoxin, LIAO Kai, WANG Tian, YU Dunshan, CHENG Yufang
    2016, 52(2):  193-198.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.126
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    A non-invasive, high-efficient and low-cost fault attack is realized on FPGA-based cryptographic applications. Based on the setup failures in critical paths, faults are injected into the FPGA devices by lowering the supply voltage. Then the encryption key can be retrieved efficiently with an appropriate fault model. In the attack experiments, the full 128-bit key of AES is retrieved correctly with only 8 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts within a few minutes, by using a power supply and a personal computer, based on the FPGA platform.

    NB-MAFIA: An N-List Based Maximal Frequent Itemset Algorithm
    SHEN Gehui, LIU Peidong, DENG Zhihong
    2016, 52(2):  199-209.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.125
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    Abstract The authors propose an efficient algorithm, NB-MAFIA, for mining maximal frequent itemset using NList, which uses node list of prefix tree to represent itemsets. By using N-List, itemsets’ support can be efficiently computed because of the high compactness of N-List and the efficiency of the method to intersect two N-Lists. Meanwhile, the authors employ some search space pruning strategies and superset checking strategy to improve NB-MAFIA. To evaluate NB-MAFIA, the authors compare proposed algorithm with two state-of-the-art algorithms on a variety of real and synthesis datasets. Experimental results show that NB-MAFIA is efficient and outperform the baseline algorithms in most case. Especially, NB-MAFIA is more efficient on dense datasets.

    Impact of the Uncertainty of the Remotely Sensed AOD and Ångström Exponent on the Calculation of Ultraviolet Index
    RAO Junfeng, ZHANG Xianfeng, PAN Yifan
    2016, 52(2):  210-218.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.114
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    The research is to assess the uncertainty of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent products retrieved from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data by means of comparing them with ground measured data in Hong Kong in the period of 2005 to 2013. Further analysis of how these uncertainties are spread into the calculation of UV Index (UVI) is conducted based on a radiative transfer model. The results indicate that the maximum values of UVI uncertainty caused by MISR/AOD uncertainty are 0.55 and 0.36 in summer and winter, respectively. The maximum of UVI uncertainty caused by Ångström exponent uncertainty are 0.13 and 0.11 in summer and winter, respectively. Compared with the UVI exposure grades put forward by the World Health Organization, the uncertainty of both AOD and Ångström exponent can cause at most one grade deviation in the worst situation. In this sense, MISR/AOD and Ångström exponent products are reliable as input in the calculation of UVI.

    Characteristics of Low Wind-Speed Meteorology in China
    GUO Mengting, CAI Xuhui, SONG Yu
    2016, 52(2):  219-226.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.116
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     Based on the surface data of NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), the wind data of 345 stations during 1985 to 2014 are chosen, the characteristics of low wind-speed meteorology and the distribution of low wind-speed’s mean percentage in China are analyzed. Harbin, Urumqi, Beijing and Chengdu are chosen from 345 stations as representative cities, and the characteristics and annual variabilities of low wind-speed’s percentage are studied. The results show that: 1) The probability of occurrence of low wind-speed is about 40% in China during recent 30 years, as for the four representative cities, Harbin is the lowest (25%), Chengdu is the highest (60%); 2) Time-of-day occurrence: during the period of midnight and early morning, the probability of occurrence of low wind-speed is high; 3) Monthly occurrence: from September or October to next year January, the probability of low wind-speed maintains at a high level, the lowest probability happens in April; 4) Persistence, 36% low wind-speed condition can last at least 3 hours in China, in the four cities, 20% low wind-speed conditon can lasts at leat 12 hours in Chengdu; 5) Distribution, the probability of low wind-speed is high in the South and the inland, while it is low in the North and the coastal; 6) Annual variabilities, Harbin has increasing trend, while other three stations’s long-term trend is not obvious.

    Comparison of the Forefin of Chaohusaurus and Its Taxonomy Meaning, Early Triassic, Anhui Province
    ZHOU Min
    2016, 52(2):  227-233.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.077
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    Due to the low number and bad preserved condition of the specimens, the anatomical features of Chaohusaurus have not been described in detail. As a result, there is a controversy about the membership of this genus. Based on some new specimens housed in the Geological Museum of Peking University, there are two styles of the forefins compared with the holotype, with differences in skeleton morphology and the mesopodial ossification. The cluster analysis of those specimens shows that there are two groups. Measurements of the forefins suggests that there are two trendlines, so the conclusion that Chensaurus xiaoxianensis and Chensaurus faciles are junior synonyms of Chaohusaurus geishanensis is not appropriate. There are at least two species of Chaohusaurus in Chaohu. Clarifing the diversity of this genus is of significance to the comparison of the Early Triassic ichthyosaurs in the world and the study of the early evolution of basal ichthyosaurs.

    Structural and Behavioral Characters of the Early Triassic Ichthyosauriformes from Chaohu, Anhui Province, and Their Implications on the Origin of Ichthyopterygia
    LU Hao, JI Cheng, NI Peigang, ZHOU Min, FU Wanlu
    2016, 52(2):  234-240.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.115
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    Ichthyosaurs, firstly appeared at the end of the Early Triassic. The previously reported Ichthyosaurs show very high level of adaptability to life in water, and their osteology shows structural characters that are fully adapted to life in water without any terrestrial characters that can relate them to their terrestrial ancestor. Two specimens are studied, one belonging to Cartorhynchus and the other to Chaohusaurus with embryos found from the Lower Triassic (Olenekian) of Chaohu, Anhui Province, South China. Based on studies of the number of presacral vertebra (i.e. 31), the ratio of snout length to skull length (i.e. 0.35), the ratio of forelimb length to presacral vertebra length (i.e. 0.45), and comparisons of these measurements and morphological characters with the derived Ichthyosaurs, Cartorhynchus is considered to be primitive in structural features and to have an amphibianlike habit. Combined with the analyses of the embryo-bearing specimens of the Early Triassic Chaohusaurus and the Jurassic Stenopterygius, Chaohusaurus appears more derives than Cartorhynchus in body structural characters and is fully adapted to life in water; however, Chaohusaurus retained a head-first birth posture when giving birth to offsprings. Therefore, during the evolution of Ichthyosaurs from terrestrial ancestors to marine types, the adaptive structural characters (such as flipper, and elongate snout) and the adaptive behavioral characters (such as the mode of reproduction) might have evolved in different tempo, and the former changed earlier.

    Nonlinear Characterization Method of Fracturing Stimulation Scale on Heterogeneous Reservoir by Combining Logging and Seismic Data
    DU Shuheng, SHI Yongmin, XU Qi, FANG Yuanyuan, SHENG Yingshuai
    2016, 52(2):  241-248.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.079
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    After two infilling adjustment and repeated fracturing on the third type of Chaoyanggou oil field, effective drive systems are still unable to be established in part of the reservoirs, and the measure effect and oil recovery degree is poor. Considering the insufficient understanding on fracture extending and fracturing stimulation scale of heterogeneous reservoir, 3D modeling on reservoir are performed by combining logging and seismic data and the asymmetric cracks are predicted based on elastic theory. Concepts named “relative stress” and “stimulation ratio” are raised, and the nonlinear relation between these two parameters is given. The scale of “relative stress” which could produce the supporting fracture is confirmed, and the fracturing stimulation scale could be judged. It would play important role on the layers selecting during the late development of oilfield and eventually to improve oilfield recovery degree.

    Prediction of Tibetan Plateau Permafrost Distribution in Global Warming
    JIAO Shihui, WANG Lingyue, LIU Gengnian
    2016, 52(2):  249-256.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.112
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    Area and condition variation of three kinds of permafrost in 2099 are simulated by integration of temperature data and modern permafrost distribution in Tibetan Plateau. The conclusions shows that in condition of 1.8ºC rising of annual average air temperature, the total area of permafrost will be 83.4% of today, the continuous permafrost will shrink to the east of 76.6°E, the sporadic permafrost melts greatly in southeast of plateau, and the mountainous permafrost has obvious degeneration in Pamirs and Himalaya Mountain area. While in condition of 4ºC rising of annual average air temperature, the total area of permafrost will be 73% of today, the continuous permafrost will shrink to the east of 77.4°E, the sporadic permafrost degenerates slightly in middle area, the mountainous permafrost melts greatly in Qilian Mountain, and it only could be found in some high altitude places such as Pamirs, Himalaya Mountain and Hengduan Mountain. In condition of 6ºC rising of annual average air temperature, the total area of permafrost will be 50.8% of today, the continuous permafrost will shrink to 78°E, the sporadic permafrost only could be found in middle-west area, the mountainous permafrost appeares in some extremely high area slightly.

    Terrace Sequences and Their Formation Ages in Pantang-Heiyukou Area, Northern Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge, China
    LIU Yunming, LI Youli, ZHOU Baohua
    2016, 52(2):  257-264.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.139
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    Based on field work, four Quaternary terraces are found according to overlapped loess sequences at Pantang-Heiyukou area and its surroundings in northern Chinese Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge. These four terraces, which are 12, 50, 80 and 130 m above present the Yellow River level respectively, are all rock-seated terraces. The thicknesses of overlapped loess from the lowest terrace to the highest Quaternary terrace are about 20, 33, 37 and 43 m respectively. ESR dating samples were collected from river sediments on T2, T3 and T4. ESR dating result reveals that the formation ages of these three terraces are 0.609, 0.876 and 0.97±0.107 Ma in turn from T2 to T4. In order to corroborate the dating results, powder samples and oriented samples were collected from sections on T3 and T4. Paleomagnetic result shows that section bottom on T3 does not reach the boundary of B/M (Brunhes/Matuyama), which means a formation age younger than 0.78 Ma. This age is younger than that gotten from ESR dating. The bottom age of T4 section reaches an age of 1.07 Ma, which is a bit older than ESR dating result but within its range. The formation ages of the terraces are in accord with other terraces in upper and lower reach of the Yellow River such as Lanzhou and Sanmenxia which suggests river terraces controlled by tectonic movement exist universally in the domain of the Yellow River. A Late Tertiary section was resampled and measured as an improvement to former works. The result is used to discuss the incision rate of different terraces in this region.

    A Qualitative Method for Geographic Information Retrieval
    GAO Yong, JIANG Dan, LIU Lei, LIN Xing, WU Lun
    2016, 52(2):  265-273.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.113
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    A qualitative method is presented for geographic information retrieval (GIR) to support qualitative representation, semantic matching, reasoning and ranking. The novel approach can avoid semantic information lost in current quantitative GIR methods. Information in documents and user queries are represented by propositional logic, which considers the thematic and geographic semantics synthetically. The similarity between documents and queries can be divided into thematic similarity and geographic similarity. The former is calculated by the weighted distance of proposition keywords in domain ontology, and the latter is further divided into conceptual similarity and location similarity which are measured by geo-ontology and spatial semantic respectively. Represented by propositions and information units, the similarity measurement takes evidence theory and fuzzy logic to obtain a general similarity from all sub similarities. This novel method retrieves qualitative geographic information from web and ranks documents semantically, which is consistent with commonsense, and thus can improve the efficiency of geographic information retrieval technology.

    Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Value of Plain Afforestation in Beijing
    TANG Xiumei, PAN Yuchun, GAO Bingbo, GAO Yunbing
    2016, 52(2):  274-278.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.151
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    Based on research progress on economic value of ecosystem services, taking the plain afforestation data in Beijing as the study area, this paper explores the ecosystem service value evaluation of the 6.67×104 hm2 plain afforestation area. Shadow engineering method, opportunity cost method and opportunity cost method are used. The results show that, the total plain afforestation ecosystem service value is about 325.89×108Yuan. The importance of each ecological service function, in descending order: climate regulation function, air purification function, function of fixing carbon and releasing oxygen, solid soil fertilizer function, reduce the noise function, the function of water conservation. The results provide reference for further promoting the Beijing plain afforestation project construction and the ecological compensation policy and determine the ecological compensation standard.

    Changes of Ecosystem Structure in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Ecological Barrier Area during Recent Ten Years
    MOU Xuejie, ZHAO Xinyi, RAO Sheng, HUANG Qi, CHAI Huixia
    2016, 52(2):  279-286.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.108
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    By using spatial dataset of ecosystem types, ecosystem transfer matrix and dynamic degree methods, the changes of ecosystem structure and spatial distribution in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecological barrier area were analyzed during recent ten years. The results show that: 1) The ecosystem structure of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecological barrier area is relatively stable, 69% of the total land area is grassland ecosystem. 2) There are increase or decrease both in ecological and un-ecological land use, the wetland increases 2660.9 km2, the grassland cuts 1377.5 km2, the urban expands 224.6 km2, the farmland reduces 163.4 km2, and the desert reduces 1388.5 km2. 3) The change rates of urban and farmland, which are significantly influenced by human activities, are distinctly higher than the wetland. For example, the urban area increases rapidly with an average annual growth rate of 2.88% and the farmland decreases 0.64% per year on average from 2000 to 2010, however the average annual growth rate of wetland is only 0.44%. 4) The overall transfer of ecosystem is small and only for 0.5% of entire study area. The areas of grassland shift to wetland and the desert shift to wetland are larger and contribute 69% to entire ecosystem transfer. 5) Both natural and human factors are the driving forces of ecosystem change, among which climate change is the main factor causing the increase of wetland area; the rapidly growth of population and GDP causes the urban expanding, but the development of industry and mining industry is the deep reason for the expansion; the increase of grazing capacity is the main cause of the grassland degradation , but the ecological protection projects play a rather positive role in grassland ecosystem recovery.

    Characteristics of Distribution of Soil Microorganisms in Dexing Copper Ore Deposit
    YANG Shiqin, HAO Ruixia, WU Feng, JIANG Yuan
    2016, 52(2):  287-294.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.110
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    To study the effect of long-term mining on the microbes in the environment, the soil sampled from Dexing copper ore deposit and its surrounding environment was chosen to be the object of this study. The distribution characteristics of microorganisms in soil were analyzed, and the spatial dependence of between microorganisms and heavy metal elements in surface soil was discussed by using microbial culture method, nucleic acid sequence analysis method and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that 13 kinds of microbes were isolated from the soil samples in Dawuhe-Gukou riverbank and Zhujiacun. The bacteria isolated from the soil samples in Dawuhe-Gukou riverbank and Zhujiacun had a certain similarity in type and distribution layer; however, to fungi, the similarity between Dawuhe-Gukou riverbank and Zhujiacun was not obvious. The microbial distribution and heavy metal element content in the soil profile had a certain relationship, but not to a simple linear relation, also influenced by various environmental factors.

    Empirical Research on Environmental Attitude of Non-consumptive Wildlife Tourism: A Case Study of Dolphin Discovery Center (DDC) in Bunbury, Australia
    CONG Li, WU Bihu, ZHANG Yujun, David Newsome
    2016, 52(2):  295-302.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.295
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    The study site is the Dolphin Discovery Center (DDC) in Bunbury, Australia. Based on New Environmental Paradigm, combined with cluster analysis and variance analysis to examine the extent of environmental attitude for DDC and demographic differences, the main conclusions are as follows. Firstly, taxonomies were proposed according to different environmental attitudes, and wildlife tourists are classified into anthropocentrism, neutrally and ecological-centre. Wildlife tourists’ environmental attitudes are ecologically-centered. In addition, tourists’ demographic characteristics differences in environmental attitude are examined. Gender and education have significant differences in non-consumptive environmental attitude (p≤0.05). Age, income and family status all do not have significant differences in environmental attitude (p≤0.05). Last, travel behaviours, information source from personal experience and willingness to revisit have a significant difference in the environment attitude (p≤0.05), and travel companion, spending and time stayed and satisfaction have no significant difference (p≤0.05). This study is likely to have a deep understanding of wildlife tourists and the complex process of tourists’ interaction with wild animals and is of great significance for wildlife tourism destination management.

    Space-Time Differentiation of Rural Territorial Multifunction of Beijing
    TANG Linnan, PAN Yuchun, LIU Yu, TANG Xiumei
    2016, 52(2):  303-312.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.150
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    Cased in 13 districts of Beijing, the paper gives a systematic analysis on the space-time differentiation of rural territorial multifunction about five functions such as economic development, agricultural production, social security, ecological services and tourism and leisure, and discusses the function orientation in the future. The results show that the distribution of rural regional function is obviously different. The economic development and social security function mainly locate in suburban plains, agricultural production function nearly locates in outer suburb, and ecological service function and leisure tourism function focus on the exurban mountain. Influenced by economic development, geographical location, terrain conditions, related policy and so on, the differences of the spatial interval development of function degree obviously exist among the three regions of suburban plains, outer suburbs plain and exurban mountains. In the future, combined with current development and differentiation of various district, government should give a proper arrangement to develop the rural territorial multifunction of the 13 districts comprehensively and coordinately.

    Economic Feasibility of Recycling Thin-film Photovoltaic Modules in Shandong Province
    LI Mo, TONG Xin
    2016, 52(2):  313-319.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.153
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    This paper takes Shandong Province as example, one of the most aggressive regions in solar energy adoption in China, to examine the economic feasibility of recycling thin-film PV modules. Based on China 8760 electric power grid model and potential of solar demand, total installed capacity of solar photovoltaic cells and spatial distribution in 2050 are estimated. Benefit-cost analysis is conducted for the recycling of CIGS thin-film PV modules through the material flow analysis under three scenarios: 1) economy of scale, with one centralized recycling facility serving the whole province; 2) convenience for users, with two large recycling facilities closed to most populated cities, i.e. Jinan and Qingdao; 3) producer responsibility, four major PV producers in Shandong take back the end-of-life products and build recycling facilities close to their plants. The result shows that solution 3 has cost advantage in take back transportation. The paper discusses the potential to encourage producer responsibility in the PV manufacturing sector, and its implication in the entire energy industry.

    Performance of Low Carbon for Campus Canteen: A Case Study in the Campus Cafeteria in Peking University
    HUANG Bowei, Lü Bin
    2016, 52(2):  320-326.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.320
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    The study uses the ecological footprint method to evaluate carbon emissions from campus’s daily food on the canteen. The result shows a high carbon emissions generate. In order to keep the sustainable development and the green campus, using local resource for example, produce from farmers in the community can reduce carbon emissions output. The authors advise some strategy to reduce the footprints and get to more sustainable. Key words campus canteen; ecological footprint; performance of low carbon; eco-label; Peking Univesity

    Comparative Studies on Climate Change Reporting with Content Analysis
    WU Tong, XU Jianhua
    2016, 52(2):  327-335.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.124
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    The authors used media content analysis to study reports on climate-related issues from four quality newspapers (New York Times, The Guardian, The Australian, and China Daily). The news media reporting was analyzed, including coverage, frame, and source on international climate negotiation during the COPs from 1997 to 2012. Reporting attitude of China in New York Times, The Guardian, and The Australian for the period of Dec. 2009 to Jun. 2013 was also investigated. Results show that high coverage appears during conferences where important accord, agreement, or declaration are made; the frame used is well aligned with their stand points in international climate negotiations; and the reporting attitude toward China in New York Times, The Guardian, and The Australian is overall negative, but positive on domestic policy and international cooperation.

    Optimization of Rural Residential Land from the Urban-Rural Linkage Perspective: A Case Study of Chongqing
    YANG Xin, HE Xianhua, MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei
    2016, 52(2):  336-344.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.132
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    This paper studies the spatial distribution of rural residential land of the town of Yihe, Shilong and Runxi in Chongqing, and optimizes the spatial pattern based upon their urban-rural linkages. According to the intensity of urban-rural linkage derived from gravity model, the three towns are categorized into three types of rural areas, namely industrial expansion area at urban fringe, ecological conservation districts in the suburbs and agricultural districts in remote mountainous areas. The authors construct an evaluation system, consisting of general index and featured index. Every plaque of rural residential land is classified as developing, adjusting or removing according to the result of evaluation. Three modes of optimization are concluded from the case study. The proposed method of spatial optimization focuses on the diversity of rural development and deals with challenges for rural areas in contemporary China. It contributes to a balanced urban-rural development and provides scientific evidence for the New-Type urbanization plan.

    Effects of Environmental Factors on Degrading Bacterial Biofilm Formation
    ZHANG Nan, XIONG Fuzhong, WEN Donghui, YU Cong, LI Qilin
    2016, 52(2):  345-353.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.244
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    The authors investigated how environmental factors (pH, temperature, incubation time and concentration of pollutants) effected three NHCs degrading strains’ biofilm forming. The results show significant effects of pH, temperature and incubation time on biofilm formation. The optimum environmental conditions for forming the maximum amount of biofilm is: pH=7, temperature 35°C, and incubation time 36 hours for BC026; pH=8, temperature 35°C, and incubation time 48 hours for BW001; and pH=7–9, temperature 40°C, and incubation time 36 hours for BW004. There is no significant impact on biofilm formation of any degrading bacterium exposed to 0–1600 mg/L of pollutant concentration.

    Constructing Chinese Remote Associates Test (RAT) with Application of Item Response Theory
    XIAO Wei, YAO Xiang, QIU Yongtao
    2016, 52(2):  354-362.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.123
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    The aim of the current study is to construct the Remote Associates Test (RAT) in Chinese version, which is based on the theory of associative creativity. Item response theory (IRT) with Binary Logistic Models was used for item selection. Participants were 2659 middle-school students from Guangdong, Gansu, and Hubei Province. Based on the principle of Criterion-Referenced Test, the item difficulty was limited between ?3.00 and 3.00, the item discrimination was limited between 0.30 and 2.50, and the item information was above 0.20. In addition, the RAT scores were positively correlated with scores on the Torrance Test of Creativity, Runco Test, and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. Results of RAT were also positively correlated with teachers’ evaluations of creativity and could significantly predict middle-school academic performance. Potential applications of RAT are also discussed.

    Logic Based Formal Verification Methods: Progress and Applications
    CHEN Gang, YU Linyu, QIU Zongyan, WANG Ying
    2016, 52(2):  363-373.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.131
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    In recent years, formal methods have undergone a fast development. The authors give a brief review on the formal methods used in software and hardware verification. The main thread of the analysis consists of descriptions of logical systems and their related verification techniques and tools. The purpose is to help engineers to select formal tools and apply them to their work. This paper starts with a review of automated proving techniques based on propositional logic and temporal logic, including SAT, BDD, model checking, and SMT. For first order logic based theorem provers, the authors discuss ACL2, VDM method and B method. Among proof assistants which are based on higher order logics, the authors pick HOL, PVS and COQ. Advancements in commercial formal verification tools are discussed.

    Development and Trend Analysis of Wastewater Resource Recovery Research Based on Bibliometrics Methods and Data during the Period 1995–2014
    ZHANG Li, LIU Yangsheng
    2016, 52(2):  374-382.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.152
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     For better understanding the global trend in wastewater resource recovery and reflecting major nation’s scientific capability and influences on the world’s science community in the field, a bibliometric analysis was conducted using the literatures in the Science Citation Index (SCI) database during the period 1995–2014. Results indicate that: 1) among all articles included by the SCI, water recovery from wastewaters account for the largest percentage with 72.0% of all related research fields. 2) The mainly involved subject areas are Environmental Sciences, Engineering Environmental, Water Resources, Engineering Chemical, Biotechnology Applied Microbiology, and so on. The number of the Environmental Sciences articles has the largest annual growth. 3) The topranked countries of both the total number of articles and the average impact factor are USA, Spain, and India. However, China has the fastest growth rate of publishing articles only. 4) Three research institute including University of California System, India Institute of Technology, and Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Cientificas are the most abundant research institutes in this field. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and Tsinghua University were the two toppest institutions in China that have advance its international influence in recent years.