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Table of Content

    20 November 2021, Volume 57 Issue 6
    A Regularization Based Nonlinear Self-Interference Suppression Method for Full Duplex Communication Systems
    GUAN Pengxin, WANG Yiru, ZHAO Yuping
    2021, 57(6):  991-996.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.094
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    The nonlinear effect of power amplifier causes the strong nonlinear self-interference signal in the co-time co-frequency full duplex communication system, which reduces the communication performance of the system. A joint self-interference suppression method based on regularization is proposed. Taking into account both the multipath channel and the nonlinear characteristics of power amplifier, the proposed scheme can eliminate the linear and nonlinear self-interference signals, and alleviate the numerical instability of the traditional algorithms. To analyze the performance of the method, a simulation platform is built. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed scheme has higher gain than the traditional linear and nonlinear cancellation schemes.
    Research on Indonesia Ms 7.4 Earthquake Based on Data of Zhangheng-1 Electromagnetic Satellite
    YANG Chao, YONG Shanshan, WANG Xin’an, LIU Cong
    2021, 57(6):  997-1005.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.097
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    Taking the Ms 7.4 earthquake in Indonesia on September 28, 2018 as the background, this paper uses the sliding quartile (IQR) algorithm, sliding principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) algorithm to study the space-time electromagnetic data in the epicentral area by using the X, Y and Z components of ULF magnetic field observed by Zhangheng-1 electromagnetic satellite.The results show that the three algorithms can effectively extract the anomaly before the earthquake. 1) The mean value of X, Y and Z components began to appear anomaly 7 days before the earthquake. The anomaly degree of Y and Z components increased gradually with the approaching of the earthquake occurrence time, and reached the peak value 2 days before the earthquake. The maximum anomaly degree of Y component reached 0.7 nT, and then slowly disappeared after the earthquake. 2) 5 days before the earthquake, the anomaly of the principal component began to appear, the proportion of the first principal component decreased sharply by more than 15%. The proportion of the second and third principal components increased sharply, and the anomaly lasted for 3 days. 3) 9 days before the earthquake, the proportion of 13 and 25 Hz power spectral density anomalies appeared at the same time, 13 Hz proportion increased by 35%, 25 Hz proportion decreased by more than 40%. 13 Hz proportion appeared positive anomalies and 25 Hz proportion appeared negative anomalies, of which the largest positive anomaly reached 0.1, the largest negative anomaly reached ?0.15. The anomalies disappeared after the earthquake. According to the solar geomagnetic activity in the same period of time, the comprehensive analysis shows that the above electromagnetic anomalies can be used as precursors of earthquakes in Indonesia.
    Impact of Temporal and Spatial Resolution of CALMET on the Simulated Concentration Fields of CALPUFF
    KANG Ling, ZHU Hao, HUANG Qianqian, LIU Xinjian, LIN Hongtao, CAI Xuhui, SONG Yu, ZHANG Hongsheng
    2021, 57(6):  1006-1018.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.081
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    The hourly WRF forecast wind fields with a resolution of 1 km is used as the input of the CALMET diagnostic model to generate wind fields with different temporal and spatial resolutions, which drive CALPUFF to obtain concentration fields with a resolution of 50 m per minute. The impact of the temporal and spatial resolution of CALMET meteorological fields on the concentration fields and the calculation time of each scheme are analyzed. The results show that satisfactory wind field and concentration field can be obtained even with coarse temporal and spatial resolution at stable wind direction and high wind speed conditions. The temporal and spatial resolution has a significant impact on the wind and concentration fields when the wind direction changes and the wind speed is low. The difference between concentration fields driven by various meteorological schemes can be as high as 40%. During the transition of the wind field, the accuracy of the concentration field will worsen with finer meteorological grid if the modeling time step of CALMET is greater than 30 minutes. The longer the modeling time step is, the more significant the deviation of the concentration field is. Considering the calculation time and the accuracy of the concentration field simulation, CALMET meteorological scheme with a time step of 10 min and a grid resolution of 400 m is recommended in the emergency early warning of air pollution accidents.
    Experimental Study on the Turbulence Characteristics and Flux Acquisition of PM2.5
    REN Yan, LI Qianhui, ZHANG Hongsheng, KANG Ling
    2021, 57(6):  1019-1026.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.082
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    The authors use the high-frequency sampling function of the fine particle mass concentration measurement instrument E-Sampler and the eddy covariance method to calculate PM2.5 concentration fluctuation and turbulent flux of the multiple pollution events of the Dezhou city atmospheric environment experimental station in Shandong Province from December 27, 2018 to January 7, 2019, and the turbulence characteristics of PM2.5 concentration are discussed. The results show that the mean value of the turbulent flux of PM2.5 concentration during the observation period is 0.026 μg/(m2·s). The transmission direction of the turbulent flux of PM2.5 concentration in different pollution processes is different, indicating that the sink or source property is not static. With the increase of turbulence statistical characteristic quantities (such as turbulent kinetic energy, standard deviation of horizontal wind speed, standard deviation of vertical wind speed, horizontal wind speed, momentum flux and sensible heat flux), the vertical flux of PM2.5 decreases exponentially, namely, it decreases sharply, and then changes little with the increase of each variable. With the increase of the concentration of PM2.5, the absolute value of the turbulent flux of PM2.5 shows an increasing trend. The turbulent vertical flux of PM2.5 concentration is related to the PM2.5 concentration and the intensity of turbulence. The normalized standard deviation of PM2.5 concentration and the stability parameter ζ = z/L follow the -1/3 power relationship under unstable conditions, that is σc/C* = 6.7(-ζ)-1/3. Under stable conditions, the experimental results are relatively discrete. In addition, the variance spectrum curve of PM2.5 concentration satisfies the -2/3 power exponential rate in the high frequency range, and the covariance spectrum curve of the PM2.5 concentration and the vertical wind speed satisfies the ?4/3 power exponential rate in the high frequency band. The result shows that 1 Hz high-frequency sampling function of E-Sampler can obtain continuous and effective turbulent flux of PM2.5 concentration.
    Spatial-temporal Distribution of Aerosol Optical Depth over Northeastern China During 2000‒2019
    HAN Yang, KANG Ling, SONG Yu
    2021, 57(6):  1027-1034.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.084
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    Using MCD19A2, a new product of MODIS with high temporal and spatial resolution(daily; 1 km × 1 km), spatial-temporal distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over northeastern China during 2000?2019 were studied and analyzed. The results showed that the average AOD of the northeastern China in recent 20 years is 0.23, and have changed little. 2003 is the year with the highest AOD (0.38), which is mainly affected by spring drought, sand blowing, straw burning and other factors. In terms of spatial distribution, there is a decreasing trend from south to north. Liaoning province is higher than Jilin province and Jilin province is higher than Heilongjiang Province. AOD high-value areas are concentrated in the urban agglomeration of south-central region of Liaoning Province and other areas with dense population and developed industry. Low-value area is distributed in the greater Hinggan Mountains, lesser Hinggan Mountains, Changbai Mountains and other mountainous areas. Seasonal distribution of AOD; Higher in spring and summer, lower in autumn and winter. The results can be used to study the effects of aerosols on the atmospheric radiation balance or to simulate the concentration of particulate matter.
    Correction of Measured Speed of OTT-Parsivel on Unstable Platform
    LIU Junhui, LIU Xiaoyang, TANG Jishun, LI Aiguo, WANG Pengfei
    2021, 57(6):  1035-1044.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.075
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    Aiming at the problem that the measurement results of OTT-Parsivel in elevated environment are prone to error due to the influence of ambient air flow, the authors propose the detection test of OTT-Parsivel on unstable platform, proposes the quality control method under different levels of wind speed, gives the measurement speed correction model, and gives simulation and error analysis. Based on the summer precipitation process in Beijing in 2020, several precipitation cases are analyzed by using the measured data of OTT-Parsivel, three-dimensional ultrasonic wind thermometer and dynamic inclination sensor at 280 meters. The results show that the proposed model has a good correction effect on the vertical falling velocity of raindrops, the velocity distribution of each dimension tends to be normal distribution, and the number of effective particles can increased by 6%. When the horizontal wind speed exceeds 8 m/s, the availability of OTT-Parsivel raindrop spectrometer measurement data is improved.
    Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution at Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Beijing
    TANG Jishun, LIU Xiaoyang, LIU Junhui, LI Aiguo, WANG Pengfei
    2021, 57(6):  1045-1057.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.085
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    Based on three laser optical Parsivel disdrometers installed at different heights on meteorological tower, the vertical distribution characteristics of raindrop size distribution (DSD) and the influences on rainfall measurement by radar in the lower atmospheric boundary layer were investigated, during 31 precipitation episodes in Beijing from June to August 2020. The results show that the break-up process is dominant from 280 m to 140 m, which leads to the decrease of large scale raindrops and the increase of small scale raindrops. Whereas, from 140 m to ground, the collision-coalescence process is dominant on the falling path of raindrops, which leads to the decrease of large and small scale raindrops and the increase of medium scale raindrops. Because of the great influence on DSD by break up, large scale raindrops in convection rain decrease rapidly with height. The DSD of convective rain in Beijing is different from oceanic-like cluster and continental-like cluster. Due to the change of DSD with height, characteristic parameters of rainfall vary nonlinerly. A Z-R mismatch error would be caused when using ground precipitation data for correction of the meteorological radar rainfall estimation, which is heavier in stratiform and light rain.
    Heavy Minerals Characteristics, U-Pb Geochronology and Provenance Analysis of Neogene Shawan Formation in Chepaizi Uplift, Junggar Basin
    LI Yan, WU Chaodong, ZHANG Xuecai, XIE Lihua, LENG Jiaxuan, GUAN Xutong
    2021, 57(6):  1058-1070.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.080
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    Based on the petrological characteristics, sandstone detrital composition, analysis of heavy minerals assemblages and U-Pb zircon age, the sedimentary characteristics and provenance evolution of Sha 1 member of Neogene Shawan Formation in Chepaizi Uplift are discussed. The results show that there were double-provenance systems of north and south in Chepaizi Uplift and Sha 1 member of Shawan Formation was dominated by coarse clastic deposits. In the sedimentary period of first sand group of Sha 1 member, the Zaire Mountains was the northern provenance, with small-scale fan delta deposits. The Central Tianshan and North Tianshan orogenic belts were the southern provenances, with braided river delta deposits. In the sedimentary period of second sand group of Sha 1 member, the sediments derived from the Central Tianshan were weakened, while those from the North Tianshan were strengthened, and the water body of the basin was deepened. Small shore-lake beach bars were distributed in front of the southern braided river delta. The main reason for the variation of the provenance in the south may be that the Tianshan experienced a strong extrusion and uplift process in the middle Miocene due to the remote collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, resulting in the uplift of the North Tianshan, which provided the provenance for Chepaizi Uplift.
    Spring Predictability Barrier Phenomenon in ENSO Prediction Model Based on LSTM Deep Learning Algorithm
    ZHOU Pei, HUANG Yingjie, HU Bingyi, WEI Jun
    2021, 57(6):  1071-1078.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.114
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    A LSTM (long-short term memory) model is applied to the prediction of the Nino3.4 index, and the spring prediction barrier (SPB) issue has been further investigated in the LSTM model. The results show that the model can predict the trend of the Nino3.4 index well, yet revealing different performance in different El Nino events. For the 1997/1998 El Nino and 2015/2016 El Nino, which are strong EP El Nino events, the model performes well on the prediction of Nino3.4 index trend and peaks, and anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) reaches more than 0.93. But for the weak CP El Nino events, e.g. the 1991/1992 El Nino and 2002/2003 El Nino, it shows relatively poor performance on the prediction of the peak. In the growing period, the maximum season growth rate of prediction error are in AMJ quarter, which indicates obvious SPB phenomenon. However, in the decaying period, the maximum have similar distribution in the same type of events: for the weak CP El Nino events, the maximum are in AMJ quarter, indicating obvious SPB phenomenon; for strong EP El Nino events, the maximum are in other quarter, indicating that there is no SPB phenomenon. The differences in the performance among individuals may be related to the development characteristics of the event itself (such as event type and intensity).
    Phase Transitions and Compressibility of Ilvaite at High Pressures
    WU Shenhui, HUANG Shengxuan, QIN Fei, QIN Shan
    2021, 57(6):  1079-1086.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.115
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    The high-pressure phase stability and compressibility of a natural orthorhombic symmetry ilvaite are investigated up to 39.5 GPa at room temperature using diamond anvil cell (DAC) combined with in-situ synchrotron radiation single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Experimental results show that ilvaite undergoes a structural transition from an orthorhombic α-phase (Pnam) to a monoclinic β-phase (P21/a) at 19.2 GPa. This structural transformation from α to β phase is displaced without any obvious discontinuity in volume across the transition. The pressure-volume data of ilvaite are described by the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding K0=118(4) GPa, V0=671.9(5) A3K0′=6.6(7) for α-ilvaite and Kr=157(3) GPa, Vr=599.3(6) A3, K0′=4(fixed) with a phase transition pressure Pr=19.2 GPa for β-ilvaite. In addition, the axial compression coefficients for both α- and β-ilvaites are determined, and the mechanism of the pressure-induced Pnam to P21/a phase transition is discussed in the views of crystal structure and the anisotropy of compressibility.
    Study on Metallogenic Mechanism of the Tremolite Jade Deposit in Jiubagou, Qinghai Province
    LI Yifan, LAI Yong
    2021, 57(6):  1087-1100.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.116
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    Jiubagou tremolite jade deposit in Golmud district is one of the typical Kunlun jade deposits. The metallogenic mechanism and age of this deposit are determined based on the systematic study of field geological characteristics, mineral chemistry, ore body occurrence, geochemical characteristics of ore-bearing strata and intrusion, and diagenetic age. The metallogenic intrusive rock is dominated by porphyritic two-mica monzogranite with a zircon U-Pb age of 427.1±4.7 Ma. Actinolite is developed in skarn of magmatic hydrothermal metasomatism, while tremolite is developed in the tremolite jade. They have obviously different mineral chemical characteristics. Combined with the whole rock trace element characteristics of magma, wall rock, the tremolite jade and the skarn, it is proposed that the magma intrudes into the siliceous dolomite and causes the contact thermal metamorphism, which leads to the direct metamorphism between the dolomite and the siliceous mass and forms the tremolite deposit.
    Dimensionality Reduced Virtual Event Method to Suppress Internal Multiples for Land Seismic Data
    XIE Fei, AN Shengpei, ZHU Chenghong, LIU Jiahui, HU Tianyue
    2021, 57(6):  1101-1107.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.083
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    As the land internal multiples could not been obviously attenuated, the authors develop the dimensionality reduced virtual event method to suppress the internal multiples in pre-stack land seismic data. Compared with the traditional virtual event method, the authors apply the virtual event method trace by trace on the pre-stack gathers after accurate dynamic correction to predict internal multiples. It achieves dimensionality reduction, greatly reduces the amount of calculation, and no longer requires a regular and dense enough distribution. Meanwhile, this method introduces a weighted reference trace with high signal-to-noise ratio to participate in the cross-correlation and convolution operations of the pre-stack gathers, which improves the prediction accuracy of the virtual event method. This method is applied to actual land seismic data in western China and achieved obvious effect when suppressing internal multiples.
    Emotional Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Park Users: A Case Study of South China Botanical Garden and Yuexiu Park
    FU Hongpeng, WANG Zhifang, JIE Hua, WANG Lu
    2021, 57(6):  1108-1120.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.092
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    The authors take Guangzhou South China Botanical Garden and Yuexiu Park as examples to analyze the emotional perception characteristics of urban park users, and explore the influencing factors and driving mechanisms of urban park users’ emotional perception based on the structural equation model. The results show that the positive emotions of park users are relatively high, but positive emotions and negative emotions exist independently. For coarse-grained emotions, landscape elements have direct and indirect influences on emotions. For fine-grained emotions, landscape elements mainly affect users’ fine-grained emotions by forming landscape functions. In different types of parks, there are differences in the factors and mechanisms that affect users’ different types of emotions and different granular emotions. This results can propose targeted improvements to the planning and design of parks, and provide a certain reference for the research on user emotional perception in other types of urban spaces.
    Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Pattern Evolution of Rural Territorial Multi-Functions in Wannian County, Jiangxi Province
    WANG Yanan, PU Jinfang, GAO Yang, WANG Shu
    2021, 57(6):  1121-1132.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.073
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    Taking 128 administrative villages in Wannian County, Jiangxi Province as the research object, from 2010 to 2018 as the research time point, this paper constructs multi-functional evaluation index system of rural areas from three dimensions — production function, living function and ecological function, quantitatively measures the functional intensity of rural areas, and systematically analyzes and depicts the temporal variation and spatial differentiation process of the functional intensity of rural areas in Wannian County by the methods of trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation and cold hot spot analysis. The results show that from 2010 to 2018 the time difference and spatial differentiation characteristics of various functions index in rural areas of Wannian County were obvious and the local agglomeration effect was significant, but the overall regional differences narrowed. In the future, it is important to classify development of regional villages and enhance their leading function so as to achieve sustainable rural development.
    Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Transportation in China: Empirical Analysis Based on Two-level Econometrics Method
    WANG Jingtian, MA Xiaoming
    2021, 57(6):  1133-1142.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.086
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    This study constructs a two-level influence factor model on the carbon emission amount and intensity of China’s transport sector. Econometric methods including Johansen co-integration analysis and error correction model are used for empirical analysis. The results show that the transport sector’s emissions are mainly affected by factors including economic development level, transport sector structure, transportation equipment energy efficiency, transportation management, infrastructure system intensity and so forth. Empirical analysis shows that the impact elastic coefficients of gross domestic product, proportion of railway transport, vehicle fuel consumption, telephone ownership rate per one hundred people and road network length are 0.74%, -2.60%, 2.01%, -0.68% and 0.17% respectively. Under business as usual scenario in terms of economic development, increasing the proportion of low-carbon transportation modes such as railway, lowering fuel consumption of conventional vehicles, promoting new-energy vehicles and accelerating the development of smart transportation can all contribute to controlling the amount of carbon emissions from the transport sector.
    Spatial Fitness of Urban Public Resources and Population Distribution: Taking Shenzhen as an Example
    WANG Hongliang, WU Jiansheng, GAO Yining, LIU Lu, YANG Weishi, PENG Zifeng, GUAN Qingchun
    2021, 57(6):  1143-1152.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.088
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    Based on the support of the new data environment, the spatial adaptability of urban public resources and population distribution in Shenzhen is analyzed from two aspects of adaptability and matching relationship by using various spatial quantization methods, such as kernel density estimation, nearest neighbor analysis, multidistance spatial clustering, cooperative location quotient and two-step mobile search. The results show that the spatial adaptability of public resources and population distribution in different cities has obvious similarity, which is similar in spatial morphology, distribution pattern and proximity effect. Spatial matching relationship between urban public resources and population distribution is different. The non-matching characteristics of urban public resources and population density indicate the “mismatch” and “dislocation” relationship between supply and demand of urban public resources. Aiming at the spatial adaptability of resource elements, the optimization suggestions for three kinds of public resources, such as park green space, school education and health care, are put forward from two scales of city and community.
    Water Conservation Function of Mountainous City in Western Yunnan: A Case Study of Baoshan City
    CHEN Wenhua, XU Juan, LI Shuangcheng
    2021, 57(6):  1153-1160.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.087
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    Taking Baoshan City of Yunnan Province as an example, the spatial distribution of regional water conservation function was evaluated based on Budyko water balance model using the global monthly precipitation, temperature data (900 m resolution), MOD17A3 NPP data and HWSD-v1.2 soil data. The results show that the spatial distribution of water conservation is mainly affected by the uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, and the barrier of Gaoligong Mountain plays an important role in water vapor distribution. The unit water conservation and total water conservation of different land types are forest > shrub grassland > cultivated land > water area > construction land. It is very important to enhance the ability of forest conservation. The most important area of water conservation in the study area accounts for 14% of the total area and is concentrated in the west side of Gaoligong Mountain. The water conservation capacity of most areas in the east side is relatively low, which exerts much stress on water conservation.
    Dust Storms Forward Trajectories and Influence Range over the Mu Us Desert
    HU Wenjie, MA Li, WU Xiuqin, ZHANG Kebin
    2021, 57(6):  1161-1171.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.089
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    Based on meteorological data, MODIS remote sensing image data and NCEP reanalysis data, the forward trajectories of dust storms in different seasons at different altitudes (500, 1000, and 1500 m) over the Mu Us Desert from 2000 to 2019 were simulated by HYSPLIT model, and was compared with the dust information identified by remote sensing image to determine the influence range of dust storm in the Mu Us Desert. The results show that: 1) In the past 20 years, the number of dust storms in the Mu Us Desert decreased slowly, with 143 dust storms months and 387 dust storms days. Since 2004, the frequency of dust storms has gradually decreased. 2) Seasonal climatic conditions have great influence on the moving path of dust storms in the Mu Us Desert. The frequency of dust storms is higher in spring and lowest in autumn. 3) The main areas affected by dust storms in the Mu Us Desert include northern Shaanxi Province, northern Shanxi Province, northern and central Hebei Province, northern and central Shandong Province, Beijing, Tianjin, eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Northeast Three Provinces. The affected areas abroad include North Korea, North Japan and the border between Russia and China. The affected sea areas include Bohai Sea, Northern Yellow Sea and sea of Japan Northwest. The comparison between remote sensing image and HYSPLIT model provides an effective tool to verify and enhance the understanding of dust transport, diffusion and deposition process, so as to provide scientific reference for disaster prevention and mitigation decision-making and sand source control.
    Housing Class of the Migrants in China
    CAO Jiyang, GONG Yue
    2021, 57(6):  1172-1182.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2021.090
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    Using the Survey of Social Integration and Mental Health of Migrants in 2016 and housing price data, this article analyzes the characteristics and spatial pattern of housing ownership to discuss the structure, influencing factors and mechanisms of the housing class. The results show that the housing ownership of migrants forms the characteristics of non-agricultural hukou (household registration) and high-educated floating population occupying a large number of urban housing, showing a spatial pattern of differentiation along the “Hu Huanyong line”. China’s migrants has formed a “three-class five-level” housing class structure. Hukou and social security system still prevent the migrants from realizing the transition of housing class; some of them basically realize the accumulation of housing assets by relying on their personal socioeconomic conditions and mobility factors. System changes, urban scale, and urban-rural differences work together to intensify the differentiation of urban housing classes, and ultimately lead to the involution of the lower housing class and the accumulation of advantages of the upper housing class.