Based on meteorological data, MODIS remote sensing image data and NCEP reanalysis data, the forward trajectories of dust storms in different seasons at different altitudes (500, 1000, and 1500 m) over the Mu Us Desert from 2000 to 2019 were simulated by HYSPLIT model, and was compared with the dust information identified by remote sensing image to determine the influence range of dust storm in the Mu Us Desert. The results show that: 1) In the past 20 years, the number of dust storms in the Mu Us Desert decreased slowly, with 143 dust storms months and 387 dust storms days. Since 2004, the frequency of dust storms has gradually decreased. 2) Seasonal climatic conditions have great influence on the moving path of dust storms in the Mu Us Desert. The frequency of dust storms is higher in spring and lowest in autumn. 3) The main areas affected by dust storms in the Mu Us Desert include northern Shaanxi Province, northern Shanxi Province, northern and central Hebei Province, northern and central Shandong Province, Beijing, Tianjin, eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Northeast Three Provinces. The affected areas abroad include North Korea, North Japan and the border between Russia and China. The affected sea areas include Bohai Sea, Northern Yellow Sea and sea of Japan Northwest. The comparison between remote sensing image and HYSPLIT model provides an effective tool to verify and enhance the understanding of dust transport, diffusion and deposition process, so as to provide scientific reference for disaster prevention and mitigation decision-making and sand source control.