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Table of Content

    20 March 2019, Volume 55 Issue 2
    Extending Timed Abstract State Machines for Real-Time Embedded Software
    SHAN Jinhui, ZHANG Lu, WANG Jinbo, ZHANG Tao
    2019, 55(2):  197-208.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.005
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    According to the deficiency of Timed Abstract State Machine (TASM), TASM is extended with the data type of arrays, a loop rule named “while”, and some operators such as “%”,“&”, “|”, “^”, “>>”, “<<”, etc. The syntax and semantics of the extended TASM are defined. The extended TASM is applied to actual real-time embedded software to validate its effectiveness for requirements modeling.

    Earthquake Prediction Research Based on Data of ETA
    WANG Xin’an, YONG Shanshan, HUANG Jipan, Lü Yaxuan, ZHANG Xing, LIANG Yiwen
    2019, 55(2):  209-214.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.007
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    Through the analysis of data of AETA (a system of earthquake precursory signals), before and after Jiuzhaigou Ms 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan Province on August 8, 2017, the result shows that there were 13 AETA stations which captured the associated abnormalities of 36 AETA stations stalled in Sichuan Province, and 9 of which were close related. A typical wave (SRSS wave) of electronic-magnetic disturbance average value found in 11 stations of the 13 stations, had a feature of changing synchronously with the time of sunrise and sunset. An abnormal stripe was found before and after Jiuzhaigou earthquake by PCAETA algorithm applied in SRSS of the 11 stations. Furthermore, the abnormal stripe is also found in Mianning Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Bureau station during August 12 to November 20, in 2017. It is concluded that AETA system can capture close related precursory abnormalities at multiple stations before earthquake and the abnormal stripe of SRSS wave is an obvious and specific earthquake precursory characteristics.

    Retrieval of Precipitation by Using Himawari-8 Infrared Images
    SUN Shaohui, LI Wanbiao, HUANG Yipeng
    2019, 55(2):  215-226.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.101
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    Using the matched data between infrared images of the geostationary meteorological satellite Himawari-8 and the product 2AGPROFGMI of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), the matched infrared brightness temperature (BT), brightness temperature difference (BTD) and surface precipitation are connected by pixel to pixel. Further more, because of the advantage of the more channels of geostationary meteorological satellite, two-dimensional and three-dimensional lookup tables of rain rate (RR) are established with the matched infrared brightness temperature, brightness temperature difference and surface precipitation. The lookup tables which can identify the rain rate of different grades are found by the retrieval tests. The three-dimensional lookup tables (BT10.4, BTD12.4-10.4, BTD6.2-7.3) show higher probability of detection (POD=0.8817) and lower false alarm rate (FAR=0.4042) when detecting the rain, so it can identify the areas of rainfall.

    Combining GPM DPR with S-Band Radar to Retrieve RSD
    CHEN Xintao, LIU Xiaoyang
    2019, 55(2):  227-236.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.009
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    For solving the dual-value problem of RSD raindrop size distribution retrieval algorithm using GPMCO DPR data, a solution is put forward: combining the observation data of S-band weather radar and GPM-CO DPR to provide determinant for the dual-value problem. On the basis of completing the retrieval algorithm, the radar simulation program, Quickbeam, is utilized to validate the algorithm, and actual observation data is utilized to validate the algorithm as well. The results of theoretical validation show that the correlation coefficients between retrieved data and input data are over 0.99, and the results of validation with actual observation data show that the retrieved RSD can reflect the raindrop distribution situation of the rainfall process. The algorithm can help to solve the dual-value problem to o certain degree.

    Impact of EnKF Surface and Rawinsonde Data Assimilation on the Simulation of the Extremely Heavy Rainfall in Beijing on July 21, 2012
    MENG Zhiyong, TANG Xiaojing, YUE Jian, BAI Lanqiang, HUANG Ling
    2019, 55(2):  237-245.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.004
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    Regarding the forecasting errors of operational models for the high-impact extremely heavy rainfall event in Beijing on July 21, 2012, this work examines the impact of assimilating surface and rawinsonde observations using EnKF data assimilation system on the simulation of rainfall distribution and the surface features in the initiation period of the rainfall in Beijing, and reveals the possible reasons for the forecasting errors. Results show that data assimilation significantly improves the simulation of rainfall distribution, confirming that the cyclonic vortex is the key influencing system of the heavy rainfall event, which was proposed by previous researchers based on observations and sensitivity analyses. This work also reveals that the surface low and its associated inverted trough are the direct producers of the rainfall in Beijing. These results indicate that the reason of the failure of the operational models in this extremely heavy rainfall is the large forecasting errors in the strength and location of the cyclonic vortex and the associated inverted trough eastward of the surface low.

    A Synthetic Study on Full Seismic Waveform Inversion for One Dimensional Velocity Structure
    CUI Congyue, WANG Yanbin
    2019, 55(2):  246-252.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.029
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    A conjugate gradient full waveform inversion program is coded to verify the effectiveness of full seismic waveform inversion and to study its characteristics. Firstly, a one dimensional inhomogeneous model is inverted using one source and one receiver. Then, by modifying different parameters of the inversion, the factors that affect the inversion result are discussed. It is shown that full waveform inversion can produce accurate result when data is abundant. The number of sources and stations is the primary factor that affect the inversion result. Multiscale inversion and better initial model can significantly improve the stability of the inversion. Noise applied to the observed seismogram can cause small scale disturbance on the result, though large scale characteristics of the result remain more or less unaffected.

    A Method for Estimating the Site-Transfer-Function from Subway Vibration Data
    SONG Zihao, HAN Xiaoming
    2019, 55(2):  253-261.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.027
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    A correlation-stack method is proposed to estimate the site effect in urban city and its accuracy is proved by simulated data. The method estimates the site-transfer-function from subway vibration data. It eliminates the disturbance of the other urban environmental vibration successfully, which offers a new approach for estimating the site effect.

    Stratigraphy, Geochronology and Tectonic Signification of the Permian Volcanic-Sedimentary Rock Series in Airgin Sum Area, Inner Mongolia
    WANG Shichao, XU Bei, WANG Zhiwei, ZHANG Jiaming, LI Jin
    2019, 55(2):  262-276.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.026
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    Several rift basins developed in the western part of Xing’an-Mongol orogenic belt during late Paleozoic, in which volcanic-sedimentary series is important to understand the late Paleozoic tectonic evolution, however, there is not a clear space-time distribution of the series. Stratigraphy and geochronology of Xilimiao Formation have been researched to understand the basin filling process and tectonic setting. According to the field sections, Xilimiao Formation can be divided into three segments. Upper and lower segments are composed of crystal tuffs and rhyolitic lithic crystal tuffs, and middle segment are dark sedimentary rocks. The zircon 206Pb/238U age of 282±2 Ma achieved from the rhyolitic tuff of upper segment represents the forming age. The two peak ages of 304 Ma and 450 Ma represent the upper limit of the sedimentary event, the forming age of early Paleozoic orogenic belt, respectively, and the 870 Ma represents the age of Neoproterozoic basement. The data of middle detrital rocks indicate that the forming age of Xilimiao Formation was between 304?282 Ma, older than Zhesi Formation. Provenance of the detrital zircon from the middle Xilimiao Formation provides sedimentary evidence for transform process from compress of the middle Paleozoic orogenic belt to extension of the late Paleozoic rift basin.

    Salt Structure Formation Modeling Controlled by Structure Inclination Angle: Take the Lower Congo Basin as an Example
    WANG Dianju, LI Jianghai, CHENG Peng, LIU Zhiqiang, YU Fahao
    2019, 55(2):  277-288.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.095
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    Based on the data of three seismic work areas in the Lower Congo Basin, nine typical salt-related tectonic patterns are summarized in the basin and the distribution pattern of salt structures is confirmed. Established with the base tilt angle as a single variable based on the discrete element numerical simulation method, and evolution results of the structure and motion vectors are obtained. With the increase of the basement inclination angle, the flow velocity of salt rock and its overlying sediments gradually increases, and the subsequent terrigenous sediment transport distance is also longer. The basement inclination mainly has three kinds of control effects on the salt rock flow: differential compaction as the master control, differential compaction and gravity gliding combined, gravity gliding as master control. These three control effects are all affected by the basement inclination angle and appear in turn with the change of the angle. Based on the analysis results above, control pattern of basement inclination on salt rock flow in the passive margin basin of the South Atlantic is established.

    Geomorphological Characteristics of the Quaternary Volcanoes and Their Tectonic Implications in Aershan Region, Central Greater Khingan Range
    MA Yuxuan, LI Jianghai, CHEN Yaohua
    2019, 55(2):  289-298.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.012
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    Based on ZY-3 high resolution satellite image and digital elevation model (DEM), the authors obtained volcanic geomorphology features in Aershan volcanic region by means of satellite image interpretation, the relief degree of surface and surficial-slope analysis. According to the results of the study, 19 Quaternary volcanos were found. They could be divided into five categories. The landforms can be divided into four classes according to relief degree of surface. Low position middle mountain is the main type (39.61%), followed by low position low mountain (36.24%). 80% of the long axis direction of the elliptical volcanic cones are ranging from 45° to 75° with a median value of 58.5°. It is parallel to the NE-trending volcanic chain of Xiaodonggou volcano-Shihaogou basin volcano-Yanshan-Gaoshan. The horseshoe-shaped craters are in the direction of NE, SW and NW. The median difference between NE and SW horseshoe-shaped craters is about 180°. The NW horseshoe craters are almost parallel to NW faults. The authors predict that there are NE faults controlling volcanic eruption and distribution. Thereby an inference can be drawn that the NE-trending fractured zones were controlled by Mesozoic basement faults in the study area, and provided the channel for magma to approach. Fracture controlled the magma ascending and the formation of NE-trending volcanic apparatus, and eventually affected the distribution of volcanic cones and morphology.

    Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes to Warming and Dominant Species Removal along Elevational Gradients in the Alpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Ankuo, WANG Wei, ZENG Hui
    2019, 55(2):  299-309.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.092
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    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of warming and dominant plant species removal on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) along elevational gradients (3200 m and 4000 m) in the alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that GEP was higher than ER at both elevations, indicating that both ecosystems were a net C sink during the growing season in 2017. At a lower elevation (3200 m), warming did not have a significant effect on ecosystem C flux due to water limitation caused by warming. At a wetter high elevation (4000 m), warming significantly stimulated ecosystem C fluxes, on average, the warming-induced increase in GEP (2.30 mg CO2/(m2·s)) was higher than that in ER (0.62 mg CO2/(m2·s)), leading to an increase in NEE. Dominant plant species removal did not have a significant effect on ecosystem C flux at either elevations, probably due to the compensatory effects of the remaining species, because the removal on above ground biomass (AGB) or below ground biomass (BGB) was not significant at both elevations. There was no significant interaction between warming and dominant species removal on the ecosystem C fluxes at either elevations. The results reveal the importance of soil moisture in mediating the response of ecosystem C flux to climate warming in alpine meadow ecosystems, and removal of a single dominant plant species may not have a significant impact on ecosystem C flux in species-rich regions.

    Ecological Security Assessment and Countermeasures of Water Environment Based on Improved Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Case Study of Xingtai City
    LI Yuping, ZHU Chen, ZHANG Luxuan, WANG Yanchao, WU Zhijie, NIU Xuran
    2019, 55(2):  310-316.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.096
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    Based on the improved analytic hierarchy process, the authors adopted a 3-scale (0, 1, 2) matrix method to establish regional water ecological security assessment system including 3 layers and 24 indicators according to the real conditions of water environment in Xingtai City. The ecological security assessment system could analyze the influence factors of water environmental security status and evaluate the security situation in Xingtai City. The results showed that the five top influence factors were sewage treatment rate, annual precipitation, wastewater total amount, industrial waste water discharged and urban residential domestic sewage in the 24 indicators. The composite evaluating indexes of the water environment ecological security were within the bandwidth of 0.36 to 0.63, which indicated that the water environment ecological security was still in severe with general or poor state. Some coping strategies and suggestions were put forward to water environmental safety in Xingtai City. The research would provide a theoretical basis for water resource sustainable utilization and a reference for the similar natural condition areas.

    Water Source Apportionment of Pollutions in Shenzhen Bay Basin
    SONG Fang, QIN Huapeng, CHEN Sidian, ZHAO Zhijie
    2019, 55(2):  317-328.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.097
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    By using pollution source survey data, sewage treatment plant data, sediment monitoring results and SWMM, this study estimated the non-point source and overflow load of the basin. By analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of major pollutants, the following results were obtained. 1) The chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorous (TP) loads in Shenzhen River basin in 2015 were 36760 t/a, 5715.65 t/a and 494.36 t/a, respectively. The COD, NH3-N and TP loads of the point source were 26300 t/a, 5496.9 t/a, and 463.55 t/a. The point source accounts for 72% of COD, 96% of NH3-N, and 94% of TP of the whole year. The COD, NH3-N and TP loads of the non-point source were 8608 t/a, 99.8 t/a and 18 t/a. The COD, NH3-N and TP loads of the overflow in rainy season (April to September) were 1894.05 t, 118.95 t and 12.81 t. 2) The COD, NH3-N and TP loads in Shenzhen Bay basin in 2015 were 116.5 t/d, 15.75 t/d and 1.412 t/d; the sewage outlets and the leakage sewage to tributary were the largest proportion of all source during the dry season. The COD, NH3-N and TP loads of the point source were 71.94 t/d, 15.06 t/d, and 1.27 t/d during the dry season. During the rainy season, the non-point source COD accounted for the largest proportion (34.21%), followed by and the leakage sewage to tributary and the sewage outlets, which were 28.73% and 22.3%. 3) Due to a large amount of pollutant load were transported into the waterbody, the pollutant load from non-point source and overflow considerably effected the water quality during the rainy season that could not be ignored, especially in the rainy days, and it took a long time to return to normal water quality.

    Study on New Composite Flocculants in Dewantering of Dredged Sediments and Solidification of Heavy Metals
    GUO Lifang, CHI Yaoling, ZHAO Huazhang
    2019, 55(2):  329-334.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.002
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    The chemical conditioners polymerized ferrous sulfate (PFS), poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) (PAM) and a self-made compound flocculant (S003) were used to investigate the dewatering effect on the actual polluted river sediments by simulating actual engineering conditions in the laboratory. The water content of dewatered cakes was 60.22% and 64.77% in the sediment conditioned with PFS and PAM, while the water content was 52.67% with S003. Compared with PFS and PAM, S003 achieved a faster settling rate and removed more turbidity. S003 achieved the best dewaterability of sediments because it had inorganic composition as sediments skeleton and organic compounds with bridging effect, contributing to form large dense flocs with porous structure, which speeded up the sediment settling rate and improved the filtration performance of sediments. In addition, the leaching rates of Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd in the solidified products were reduced by 55.8%, 92.1%, 89.2%, 61.4%, 34.2% and 56.3% respectively after conditioning with S003. It demonstrated that S003 greatly improved the sediment dewateribility and had excellent stabilizing effect on heavy metals.

    Clustering of Lake Variables Based on Pattern Recognition Method
    REN Tingyu, LIANG Zhongyao, CHEN Huili, LIU Yong
    2019, 55(2):  335-341.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.001
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    The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) and random forest (RF) method were integrated to recognize water quality patterns of nine water quality indicators for 63 lakes in China for 11 years (5110 data). The SOFM was built firstly to cluster lakes to identify the pollution conditions. Then, the RF was used to explore the good-offitness of water quality variables on the clustering result and to determine the important water quality indicators. The result of SOFM shows that the lakes can be clustered into three types. And the result of RF shows that permanganate index and chlorophyll a can determine the pollution condition when the classification accuracy is 80%. The integrated method can identify the water quality indicators reflecting the pollution conditions from complex data. In practice, the method can be used to determine the pollution conditions and direct the monitoring indicators.

    Evaluation the Effects of Wind Erosion Control Projects in Typical Sandy Area Based on RWEQ Model
    ZHANG Hanbing, GAO Yang, CUI Yanzhi
    2019, 55(2):  342-350.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.010
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    The revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) is used to calculate the spatial and temporal changes of the wind erosion in Horqin Left Back Banner from 2010 to 2016, to evaluate the implementation effect of “Double Ten Million Mu” comprehensive management project in Horqin sandy land carried out by Tongliao Government. The results show that the wind erosion decreases significantly in Horqin Left Back Banner from 2010 to 2016, and the total wind erosion decreases from 38.93 million tons in 2010 to 18.83 million tons in 2016, down by 51.63%. The average wind erosion in the project implementation area is higher than the average wind erosion in Horqin Left Back Banner, which shows that the project construction achieves remarkable achievements and reduces the erosion effectively in the project area with high wind erosion. Project area construction has certain extraterritorial effect, and the positive effect of the project construction works not only within the project area, but also in the surrounding areas. The effective range is about 3 km far from the project area. After two years of project implementation, the relative wind erosion coefficient of different distance buffers decreases, and the closer to the project area the buffer is, the more positive effects it behaves.

    Semi-Captive Habitat of Wildlife Tourists with Different Demographic Characteristics: Deep Ecology Perspective
    CONG Li
    2019, 55(2):  351-359.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.011
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    To understand the interaction mechanism between human and ecotourism in wildlife tourism, taking Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding and Research Base in Chengdu, Sichuan Province as an example, the environmental attitudes of wildlife tourists was analyzed based on demographic sociology and demography. Quantitative analysis methods such as cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to measure the environmental attitudes of wild tourists who visited the semi-captive habitats on the basis of the new ecological paradigm scale. According to their different degrees of performance, wildlife tourists are divided into three categories — nearecocenters, near-anthropocentrists and neutrals, and the main environmental attitude of the semi-captive visitors are near-ecocentrism. In addition, the study analyzed the differences of the socio-demographic characteristics of the population towards environmental attitudes using the one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe post-hoc comparison. The result showed that the respondents in the China Panda Base with different gender, age, income,
    education level, and family background have significant differences in environmental attitudes. This result has certain practical significance for the planning and management of wildlife tourism destinations.

    Thio-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-Modified Porous Glass-Ceramics as New Sorbents for Palladium (II) Separation from Wastewater
    TAO Huchun, HUANG Shuaibin, GU Yihan, ZHANG Lijuan, ZHU Lili
    2019, 55(2):  360-366.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.100
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    Thio-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-modified porous glass-ceramics (TAMPG) were prepared through reuse of waste glass for efficient palladium (II) separation from wastewater. Novel TAMPG-1, TAMPG-2, TAMPG-3 were obtained by immobilizing organic ligands 2-thiophene formaldehyde, 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto the surface of porous glass-ceramics made from waste glass. Optimal conditions for effective palladium (II) adsorption were investigated with respect to pH, temperature, initial concentration and contact time. Owing to cheap raw materials, good adsorption properties, great recycling potential, excellent selectivity and stability, an economically viable method was proposed for efficient palladium (II) separation from wastewater.

    Evaluation of Health and Economic Benefits from “Coal to Electricity” Policy in the Residential Sector in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region
    ZHANG Xiang, DAI Hancheng, JIN Yana, ZHANG Shiqiu
    2019, 55(2):  367-376.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.098
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    This study evaluated the impacts to the air quality, health and economy from achieving the “coal to electricity” goals, replacing residential coal with clean energy such as electricity, in the Jing-Jin-Ji region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) during the 13th Five-Year period under different heating technology choices and electricity supply sources based on an integrated model combining with scenario analysis. The results indicated that the PM2.5 concentration in the three regions reduced by 6–15 μg/m3 with the implementation of the residential “coal to electricity” policy, which can avoid 22.2 thousand cases of premature death and 607.8 thousand morbidity cases. It could create 18.73–19.87 billion Yuan social net benefits in the Jing-Jin-Ji region in 2020 if three regions achieved the policy goal under the same pathway. Based on the net benefit analysis of three regions, this study gave the policy implication that Beijing and Hebei should adopt the “air source heating pump with the renewable electricity supply” pathway, while the Tianjin should adopt the “regenerative electric heater with the renewable electricity supply” pathway. The net benefits would reach to 20.34 billion Yuan if all three regions implemented the plans that maximized their own net benefits.

    Identifying the Impetus of Chinese Household Consumption of Carbon Emissions in Structural Path Analysis
    ZHANG Qiongjing, TIAN Yushen, MA Xiaoming
    2019, 55(2):  377-386.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.099
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    Based on environmental input-output analysis, the authors try to identify the impetus of Chinese household consumption of carbon emissions in structural path analysis (SPA). The results indicate that, in 2012, most of the carbon emissions of Chinese household are indirect emissions, mainly from power, services, agriculture, food, wholesale and retail, transportation, postal. Carbons emissions from fertilizer and pesticide production in chemistry contribute a lot to the agricultural sector, therefore agricultural policies should properly limit the use of those chemical productions to reduce the emission. In addition, the difference of the income and consumption structure between urban and rural residents is the key factors which lead to the gap between of their carbon emission.

    Root Traits Variation in Inner Mongolia Grassland of China
    MA Fang, ZENG Hui, LI Hongbo, MA Zeqing, GUO Dali
    2019, 55(2):  387-396.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.003
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    The authors measured root morphological and architectural traits of 22 different dominant plant species across 16 Inner Mongolia grassland sites along soil water gradients, and analyzed the response of these root traits (diameter, length, SRL, RTD, BrIntensity and BrRatio) to four environmental factors (MAT, MAP, Soil N and Soil C). The results showed that variation of absorptive root diameter, tissue density and specific root length among different species was 7, 9, and 15 times, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between root diameter and lateral root length, but negative correlation between root diameter and root branching intensity. Responses of both absorptive and non-absorptive roots to precipitation and soil nitrogen were species-specific. When using different combinations of root traits to describe plant adaptation strategies, different species’ root traits respond to environmental changes with different degrees and direction of variation, resulting in a diversity of plant adaptation strategies.