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Table of Content

    20 November 2013, Volume 49 Issue 6
    Discontinuous Riemann-Hilbert Problem for Analytic Functions in Multiply Connected Domains
    WEN Guochun
    2013, 49(6):  937-944. 
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    Though the general discontinuous Riemann-Hilbert problem for analytic functions in simply connected domains was solved, the general discontinuous Riemann-Hilbert problem for analytic functions in multiply connected domains has not been completely solved. The author proposes a well posed-ness of general discontinous Riemann-Hilbert problem for analytic functions, and proves the uniqueness and existence of solutions for the problem.
    Diagnostic Analysis of Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Characteristics over the Pearl River Delta
    HE Qichao,CAI Xuhui,SONG Yu,HU Min
    2013, 49(6):  945-954. 
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    Based on the data of 460 automatic weather stations in the year of 2006, after quality control and data organization, meteorological field of the whole year was calculated by Calmet model. On the basis of hourly wind field and 72-hour trajectory, the diffusion state of Pearl River Delta (PRD) area was divided into three types (systematic wind field, local atmospheric circulation and feeblish systematic wind field). Based on this classification and further classification of atmospheric transmission trajectories, the characteristics of atmospheric diffusion, and atmospheric transmission trajectories and reach in PRD area were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of atmospheric transmission and diffusion of the PRD region obviously change with seasons and are highly influenced by sea-land breeze. The best diffusion condition is in winter while worst in Autumn. Additionally the transmission trajectories are markedly distinct between different types and seasons.
    Research on the Characteristics of Wind Energy Resources over Huangang Wind Farm in Jiangsu Province
    WANG Yefang,LI Chengcai,SHI Guangming,LI Jian,LI Wusheng,LI Shuyong,WANG Wei
    2013, 49(6):  955-963. 
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    Based on the analysis of wind data measured at one wind measurement tower over Huangang Wind Farm in Jiangsu Province from Dec. 2010 to Nov. 2011, it was calculated that at 10, 50, 70 and 80 m heights the annual average wind speed was 4.0?6.1 m/s, the annual average wind power density was 80.4?238.4 W/m2, the annual effective wind power density was 116.5?262.5 W/m2, the annual effective hours were 5777?7845 h, and the annual effective wind energy density was 679.3?2041.5 (kW?h)/m2. In addition, the dominant wind directions were NNE, N and NE, the sum of them took up nearly 30% of the full year wind directions, the wind energy density of the dominant wind directions accounted for almost 50% of the full year wind energy density, and the wind speed was mainly ranging from 3 to 8 m/s, about 80% of the full year wind speeds. Overall, wind energy resource was abundant in this region. Especially the hub height of the already built wind turbines had the wind power density of more than 250 W/m2, and the effective hours took up nearly 90% of the full year. Therefore, wind energy resource had a great value of development and utilization in this region.
    Fractured Reservoir Modeling Method Based on Discrete Fracture Network Model
    LANG Xiaoling,GUO Zhaojie
    2013, 49(6):  964-972. 
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    According to the problem of the fractured reservoir modeling, an approach of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model of fractured reservoir is discussed. The proposal of the DFN fracture model is built by dividing into the large and small-mid scales of fracture. Firstly, with the deterministic modeling method, the large scale of fracture model is built with the 3D seismic data. Secondly, based on the well fracture density, length, dip and azimuth, which are calculated from well core observation and image log calibrations, using the prediction of fracture from the seismic attribute volume as constraints, the whole area fracture density distribution model is built. And then, taking the fracture density model as constraints and using the stochastic modeling method, the small-mid scale of fracture model is generated from fracture density model. The constraint for inter well fracture density is realized. Finally, integrated with the large and small-mid scales of the DFN models, the comprehensive discrete fracture network fracture model and the models of fracture porosity and permeability are established in Z Area. This model reflects the characteristics of reservoir fracture in three-dimensional space, which provides the foundation of geological for the numerical reservoir simulation in Z Area.
    Qualitative Geographic Information Retrieval Method and Implementation
    LIU Lei,GAO Yong,LIN Xing,WU Lun
    2013, 49(6):  1017-1024. 
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    The authors present a new approach for modeling qualitative geographic information retrieval based on the qualitative representation, semantic matching and qualitative reasoning methods. Information in web document and user queries are represented and extracted by a new qualitative method considering the thematic and geographic semantics synthetically. The novel retrieval method is used to retrieve the qualitative geographic information to support the semantic matching and results ranking. Finally, a prototype system is implemented to evaluate this research. Through these works, the geographic information retrieval technology is much adaptive to human commonsense cognition and behaviors. The efficiency of geographic information retrieval is improved with the qualitative representation and qualitative spatial reasoning method.
    Late Quaternary Movement Characteristic of Jiali Fault in Tibetan Plateau
    SONG Jian,TANG Fangtou,DENG Zhihui,XIAO Genru,CHEN Weitao
    2013, 49(6):  973-980. 
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    By field investigation and the comprehensive analysis of the GPS observation data, some new recognitions were obtained about the late quaternary movement characteristic of Jiali Fault. The Jiali Fault isn’t an overall dextrall strike-slip. Its movement features and rates are variable in different tectonic parts. Jiali Fault can be divided into three sections by Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS). The fault in west area of the EHS is the northwestern segment of Jiali Fault, the fault in Yigong-Tongmai area on the top of the EHS is the middle segment, and the fault in the southeast area of the EHS is the southeastern segment. The northwestern segment is right-lateral compressive movement, with a strike slip rate of 3.2?5.8 mm/a. The middle segment has weak dextral compressive movement, with a strike slip rate of 1.3?2.0 mm/a. The southeast segment is left-lateral compressive movement, with a strike slip rate of 3.7?4.0 mm/a.
    Mechanics of Muglad Basin in Central Africa Rift Systems: A Paleostress Field Modeling
    ZHANG Qinglian,HOU Guiting,PAN Xiaohua,WAN Lunkun,LIU Jiguo
    2013, 49(6):  981-985. 
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    Based on the geological setting of Muglad Basin during the Early Cretaceous, using linear elastic theory with two dimensional finite element modeling, through the analysis of the stress field, the result of stress field modeling offered a reliable evidence to the mechanics of Muglad Basin. The modeling results suggest that Muglad Basin is a passive rift basin that developed under the joint influence of strike slipping and tension force. This viewpoint reveals that strike-slipping and extensional process coexisted in African Continent during the Early Ceta- ceous. Muglad Basin is formed and developed under the joint influence rather than simply of the strike slipping.
    Discovery and Neotectonic Significance of Fault Scarps on Alluvial Fans in the Middle of Northern Piedmont of the Zhongtiao Mountains
    TIAN Jianmei,LI Youli,SI Supei,Lü Shenghua,WANG Yiran
    2013, 49(6):  986-992. 
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    A fault scarp striking NW290° is identified through aerial photo examine and field survey. Differential GPS measure and DEM analysis show that the height of this scarp ranges from 3 to 13 m. This height difference is mainly related to different ages of geomorphology surfaces: the higher scarps can be found in the older alluvial fans and lower scarps in the younger ones. In addition, the fan-shaped fluvial deposition in the hanging wall also influences the scarp height on the alluvial fan of the same period, and the depositional effect goes weaker when farther away from the streams, hence higher the scarp is. Trench investigation suggests that at least two paleoseismic events occurred along this fault scarp in the southwest of Yuxiang County since the end of Late Pleistocene. The first event happened between 16720±70 and 7700±40 aBP, and close to 16720±70 aBP; the second event is between 7700±40 and 7020±40 aBP, with an over 2.2 m vertical displacement, suggesting that this is a Holocene fault scarp. The vertical rate of the fault activity is about 0.9 mm/a through comparative studies.
    Research on the Effectiveness of Fractures in Sinian-Cambrian Dolomite Reservoir in Tarim Basin
    ZHANG Peng,HOU Guiting,PAN Wenqing,QI Yingmin,Chen Yongquan,ZHANG Qinglian,MENG Qingfeng
    2013, 49(6):  993-1001. 
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    Combining the core observation and related logging data of the drillings in Sinian-Cambrain stratum, the dolomite reservoir section fractures were studied. It shows that fractures have a connected effect on native holes and some secondary holes, and plays a certain role in the transformation of the dolomite reservoir. After studying the relation between the fracture efficiency and fracture opening degree or fracture dip angle in four blocks of the Tarim Basin, Tazhong Area,Yaha Area, Yingmaili Area, and Bachu area, it is concluded that dolomite fractures which have narrower opening degree and higher angle have a higher effectiveness, and such kind of fractures play an important role in the transformation of dolomite reservoir.
    A New Species of Qianichthyosaurus (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from Xingyi Fauna (Ladinian, Middle Triassic) of Guizhou
    YANG Pengfei,JI Cheng,JIANG Dayong,Ryosuke Motani,Andrea Tintori,SUN Yuanlin,SUN Zuoyu
    2013, 49(6):  1002-1008. 
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    A new species of Qianichthyosaurus Li, 1999 from the Zhuganpo Member of the Falang Formation (Ladinian, Middle Triassic), Wusha Town, Xingyi City of Guizhou is described here, namely Qianichthyosaurus xingyiensis sp. nov. The recognition of the new species revises the diagnosis of the genus: tooth size relative to the skull width slightly below 0.1; ulna peripheral “shaft” notched or largely reduced; hindlimb nearly equal or longer than forelimb; tibia peripheral “shaft” notched or largely reduced. Qianichthyosaurus xingyiensis sp. nov. differs from the type species in having relatively longer snout (snout length/skull length over 60%); humerus radial facet being prominently larger than ulnar facet; unenclosed obturator foramen on pubis; fibula posterior process on the posterior margin and the ischium sub-triangular lacking shaft. The new species is stratigraphically older than Q. zhoui, the specimens of which were exclusively known from the Wayao Member of the Falang Formation (Carnian, Late Triassic). Along with askeptosaurid thalattosaur Anshunsaurus and shastasaurid ichthyosaur Guizhouich- thyosaurus, the occurrence of Q. xingyiensis sp. nov. in Xingyi Fauna suggests a closer relationship between Xingyi Fauna (late Ladinian, Middle Triassic) and Guanling Biota (Carnian, Late Triassic).
    Rapid Pliocene Uplift of Western Kunlun: Evidenced by the Heavy Mineral Assemblages and Detrital Rutile Geochemistry
    YAN Shuyu,ZHANG Jinjiang,SONG Yan,LI Benliang,WANG Xiaoxian,WANG Meng
    2013, 49(6):  1009-1016. 
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    The heavy mineral assemblages and detrital rutile geochemistry of Cenozoic sandstone at Kekeya profile near the western Kunlun Orogenic belt were analyzed. Two mineral sections were identified based on the contents and features of the heavy mineral assemblages: stable and unstable heavy mineral segment, which were divided by the bottom of Atushi group (N2a). These implied a rapid uplift in the western Kunlun in the Pliocene. The content of detrital rutile derived from metapelitic decreased, while that derived from metamafic increased with rising of the profile. This result suggests that basement rocks were denudated and deposited due to rapid uplift and erosion. The metamorphic stages of detrital rutile were mainly amphibolite/elogite and granulite facies, which may result from a differential uplifting of the Western Kunlun. Since Oligocene, the west part is higher than the eastern part and becomes the main provenance area.
    Integration of the GIS with Criminal Probability Model and Its Application
    XIAO Han,DU Yonghui,XU Jinze,CHEN Xiuwan
    2013, 49(6):  1025-1030. 
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    By considering the influencing factors such as time and distance, crime rate, population, police, geography and environment, victims’ occupation, etc, the authors use mathematical modeling to establish the evaluation function of crime probability in the research area, calculate the probability of crime, and then combine it with GIS-related technology to get the most likely crime areas, namely, the geographic portrait of crime. The authors conduct method validation and analysis through examples. This new probabilistic crime model could provide geospatial data for detecting serial criminal cases and narrow down the scope of police surveillance. This new investigative technique with high precision is suitable for various geographic regions and helpful for detecting serial criminal cases.
    Marginalization of Agricultural Land Use in Hilly Areas and Its Explanation from the Livelihood Strategy of Farmers: A Case Study on Youyang County
    HUA Xiaobo,YAN Jianzhong,ZHOU Chunjiang,CHEN Lan
    2013, 49(6):  1047-1055. 
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    The authors take the Autonomous County of Tujia and Miao Nationality of Youyang, Chongqing, as an example, and adopt the method of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) to study the livelihoods of rural households in six typical towns. Based on the investigated data and the statistical yearbooks, the study demonstrates the marginalization of agricultural land and presents the responses of farmers to agricultural land use. The results are as follows. During the recent 10 years, the sown area of farm crops and the year-end cultivated area in common use are decreasing. Geographic, geomorphic, and anthropogenic factors have resulted in the abandonment of agricultural lands. Moreover, potential natural disasters threaten agricultural production, including sowing and cultivation. For the diagnosis factors mentioned, it can be predicted that land marginalization has emerged in Youyang. Agricultural land use, especially the marginalization of agricultural land, has been driven by farmer’s livelihood strategies and their agricultural land management behavior. The integrative factors, such as threats of geographic environment, small-scale agricultural business, and bad agricultural production conditions, have influenced this behavior as well. Consequently, the livelihood strategies of farmers have become diversified. The fact that income from agricultural production is comparatively low and that the main labor force of agricultural production engages in the secondary and tertiary industries are the primary causes of the shortage of rural labor force and the marginalization of agricultural land. Imitating the process of the county and studying the micro response of the farmer can explain the microcosmic interaction between the marginalization of agricultural land use and farmers’ livelihood.
    Effects and Drawbacks of Environmental Impact Assessment in Avoiding NIMBY
    HE Yi,ZHAO Zhijie
    2013, 49(6):  1056-1064. 
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    According to the difficulties in dealing with town and country planning, management and movement caused by NIMBY (Not in my back yard), the effects and relevant issues of EIA (environmental impact assessment) in avoiding NIMBY were analyzed based on Xi’erqi case of kitchen waste treatment station in Beijing and the relevant data analysis. The results showed that EIA provided ways for information disclosure and public participation, and in such a way EIA actually improved the degree and range of participation of affected group. However, drawbacks such as low degree of familiarity, lack of trust, less integrity of system and standards, deficiency of technology were still the main restrictive factors of EIA in solving NIMBY problem. Further recommendation and implementation were provided based on related research of EIA effectiveness and NIMBY: foster trust among participants, perfect the laws and institutions system, optimize conceptual design and operating platform of EIA, strengthen technology research of EIA.
    Spatial Interaction of Urban Residence and Workplace: An UrbanSim Application in Yichang, China
    SHI Jin,TONG Xin,ZHANG Hongmou,TAO Dongyan
    2013, 49(6):  1065-1074. 
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    UrbanSim was used to explore the spatial interaction of urban residence and workplace in Yichang City of Hubei Province. The simulation of urban spatial dynamics from 2010 to 2015 highlighted that the population and employment in Yichang would agglomerate towards the urbanized areas along the Yangtze River. The authors built a coupling mechanism between the residential and employment location choices in the models by sharing several independent variables so as to reveal the interaction between households and jobs at micro-level, which was previously absent in the operational model of UrbanSim.
    Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ onto Biochars Derived from Pyrolysis of Four Kinds of Biomasses
    DAI Jing,LIU Yangsheng
    2013, 49(6):  1075-1082. 
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    Four kinds of raw materials including sawdust, rice bran, rice straw and corn stalk were used to produce the biochars by pyrolysing at temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700℃ under the protection of the nitrogen atmosphere and the adsorption characteristics of these biochars for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were investigated in detail. Experimental results show that the biochars produced at 700℃ are more effective than those produced at the other temperatures for all these raw materials to remove Pb2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solutions, and the rice straw biochar (C700, i.e. the rice straw biochar obtained at 700℃) has the highest adsorption capacity among these biochars. The adsorption capacities of C700 for Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 126.58 and 60.61 mg/g, respectively. The composition of mineral phase, the surface morphology and the BET surface area of the biochars are analyzed by XRF, SEM and BET surface area analyzer. The XRD patterns of biochars after adsorption of heavy metal are analyzed, which illustrates that the Langmuir isotherm model fits the experimental data of Pb2+ and Cd2+ adsorption by these four kinds of biochars, and the XRD patterns suggest that carbonate, phosphate, silicate and/or sulfite containing Pb2+ or Cd2+ are present in these biochars after adsorption.
    Analysis on the Precipitation Anomalies in Southwest of China from 2009 to 2011
    LI Pengfei,ZHAO Xinyi
    2013, 49(6):  1083-1097. 
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    The southwest of China has suffered a great drought since 2009. The authors chose five provinces (Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou) as the study area, by using the daily precipitation data from 1970 to 2011 of the 126 meteorological stations in the five provinces, the ten-day precipitation variation rates from 2009 to 2011 for the five provinces were calculated. The results indicated that the precipitation variation rates were negative in most time of the three years. The precipitation reduced at those years, and the decrease of precipitation was most serious in the period from October to March, which are the dry season of this area, therefore, such situation exacerbated the drought degree. The drought had some rules in the spatial distribution that the drought often happened from the Guangxi province first, and then spreaded to the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and the drought also ended from the Guangxi province. In addition, through the regress analysis, it was found that the precipitation of the five provinces was influenced by the West Pacific subtropical high and the Tibet plateau barometric pressure, and the effects of the different circulation parameters on the precipitation were not the same.
    Research on Structural Characteristic of Destination’s Virtual Network: The City of Huangshan as a Case Study
    ZHANG Yi,CAO Jingjing,QI Lina,WU Bihu
    2013, 49(6):  1098-1104. 
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    Taking the destination of Huangshan as a case study, its virtual network is examined to explore the structural characteristics based on complex theory. The results show that it is a sparse network with small world effect; its degree distribution follows power law with exponents between 1 and 2; its nodes tend to link the other nodes with different types, and the interconnection of the nodes is not influenced by distance and degree. Huangshan tourism network is compared with random network, WWW and other tourism web networks for exploring the relationship between virtual and real tourism networks. The authors argue that the network of tourism websites is not only an information network but also a social network and it can be seen as a close representation of its real network in the web space. In this sense, the structural characteristics of the web graph of a destination directly reflect the features of its real network.
    Design and Insertion of Hardware Trojan Based on Finite State Machine
    LI Lei,SHANG Zijing,FENG Jianhua,ZHANG Xing,AN Huiyao
    2013, 49(6):  1105-1110. 
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    According to the hardware Trojans inserted during design and fabrication, the authors provide a new model of Trojan. New model is based on a finite state machine which is more difficult to trigger and detect than those based on combinational circuits. Also, the locations in target circuits to insert Trojans are considered to avoid being detected using path delay fingerprint method. S349 circuit from ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits is chosen as the target circuit. Functional simulations are performed and delay information is simulated. The results show that this type of hardware Trojan is difficult to activate and the insertion method is effective to hide delay information.
    Numerical Simulation of Electromagnetic Scattering by Moving Objects Based on Relativity
    JIA Shouqing,XIA Mingyao
    2013, 49(6):  1111-1117. 
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    An accurate numerical method for electromagnetic scattering by moving objects based on the theory of relativity is proposed. It includes space-time transforms, electromagnetic field transforms, and electrodynamics of arbitrary reference system. Scattering simulation is carried out in the target reference system and the results in the radar reference system can be got by transforms of relativity. Five examples are calculated to validate Doppler effects, the relativistic effects, and the micro-Doppler effects. The effect of non-inertial system is taken into account in the example of accelerated motion. They are compared with case of inertial system and show that the acceleration will also impact the returned wave. Results of examples show that an object moving in arbitrary forms can be simulated accurately using the proposed method.
    Cytotoxic Metabolites Produced by Penicillium lanosum NT-121 Isolated from Sludge
    MA Yanrong,TIAN Congkui,NI Jinren
    2013, 49(6):  1118-1120. 
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    To explore a new route of high value utilization about the waste biomass resources of current environmental pollution, to expand the source of new microbial strains for drugs screening, the antitumor activity of secondary metabolites of the fungus P. lanosum NT-121 was researched as an example. Three bioactive metabolites produced by P. lanosum NT-121 were isolated by a bioassay-guided separation procedure using liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography and recrystallization methods. The structures of these compounds obtained were identified as 5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (1), quercetin (2) and terrain (3) through spectroscopic methods and comparing with the related references. The antitumor activity of compound 1, 2 and 3 was assayed by the MTT method using K562 cells and they inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells with the IC50 values of 45.8 μg/ mL, 563.8 μg/ mL and 6.5 μg/ mL, respectively. The compounds isolated have not been found in the metabolites of P. lanosum so far and compound 1 and 3 could inhibit K562 cells.
    Identifying the Influence of Water Chemistry on Chlorophyll a in Lake Dianchi: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis
    YAN Xiaopin,LI Yuzhao,LIU Yong,YANG Yonghui,ZHAO Lei,GUO Huaicheng
    2013, 49(6):  1031-1039. 
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    An integrated approach of absolute principle components score-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were developed to understand the influence of water chemistry variables on chlorophyll a (Chl a) in Lake Dianchi. The SEM result was further validated with the artificial neural networks (ANN) model. It proved that there was a good agreement on the results of the various models. The model results demonstrated that, among the water chemistry factors, physical factors (T > DO > SD > pH) had the greatest influence on Chl a; whereas nutrients had little influence. In severely polluted water with chronically high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations like Lake Dianchi, the change of nutrients concentrations will not significantly influence on Chl a, while the sensibility of N is higher than P. Therefore, nitrogen load reduction should be put in priority for eutrophication control in Lake Dianchi.
    Assessing the Vulnerability of Ecosystem Services of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area Based on Radial Basis Function Network
    LIU Jinlong,MA Cheng,WANG Yang,FENG Zhe,LI Shuangcheng
    2013, 49(6):  1040-1046. 
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    The authors put forward the concept of vulnerability of ecosystem services, and carries a case study in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area. The changes of ecosystem services were calculated from 2001 to 2009 in this region, and radial basis function network was used to assess the potential impacts of ecosystem services to land use change and the adaptive capacity of human-beings based on the 9 training data chosen from 164 counties. The results show that the average ecosystem services value of study area has declined 184.36 yuan/ha from 2001 to 2009, and the positive potential impacts of ecosystem services to future land use change declines from southeast to northwest, and the middle shows the least; the districts near big cities such as Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan have the best adaptive capacity, which has a positive correlation with GDP; and by integrating potential impacts and adaptive capacity, the study gives the spatial pattern of the vulnerability of ecosystem services: the districts near Bohai Sea turn out to be the least vulnerable; the plain in the southeast and mountains in the northwest are worse; and the districts near Taihang Mountains in the west are the most vulnerable. Of all the residents living in this region, 92.4% range between 2 to 4 in the classification of vulnerability.