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Table of Content

    20 September 2013, Volume 49 Issue 5
    Evaluation of Terrestrial Hydrocarbon Source Rocks and Oil Source Correlation in Triassic and Jurassic in Northeastern Sichuan
    ZHANG Wei,GUAN Ping,HAN Dingkun,MENG Qianxiang,XIE Xiaoqin,JIAN Xing,LIU Ruobing
    2013, 49(5):  826-838. 
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    Through systematic organic geochemistry analysis, the main hydrocarbon source rocks of terrestrial formation in northeastern Sichuan are systematically evaluated, sources of oil are determined by carefully comparison of geochemical characteristics between source rocks and oil, and accumulation characteristics are identified. Analysis results indicate that terrestrial formations, such as Group Xujiahe, Ziliujing and Qianfoya, develop vast effective, even rich source rocks with high organic matter abundance, and the average TOC values of different districts and groups range from 0.41% to 2.99%. Type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ are widely distributed, and source rocks are high mature to over mature with Ro ranging from 1.3% to 2.0%. Generally, hydrocarbon source rock of terrestrial formation in northeastern Sichuan has high hydrocarbon generation potential, which could be favorable main source rocks of middle and lower Jurassic terrestrial unconventional oil and gas in research area. Comparison of geochemical characteristics between source rocks and oil and accumulation characteristics analysis demonstrate that middle and lower Jurassic terrestrial unconventi onal oil and gas are generated from terrestrial sources with few marine sources, which proves that oil and gas migration difficulty caused by the extremely tight terrestrial reservoirs leads to in-source or near-source accumulation. Oil and gas in group Qianfoya are from Ziliujing source rocks and that in group Ziliujing are from both Ziliujing and Xujiahe source rocks in Yuanba-langzhong. Oil and gas are all from Xujiahe source rocks in Xuanhan-daxian. Lower Jurassic shale can fill the requirements for shale gas, while middle and lower Jurassic tight sandstone can fill the requirements for tight sandstone oil.
    Theoretical Model of Non-linear ICP Co-registration Based on Fast Approximation of 1st Polynomials Extension
    ZUO Zhiquan,LIU Zhengjun,ZHANG Li
    2013, 49(5):  867-872. 
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    In order to avoid the drawback of the traditional ICP (iteration closest point) method for co-registration, a non-linear least squares co-registration model is proposed, which is based on minimizing the sum of squares of the Euclidean distances between two overlapped surfaces. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can be used for the co-registration of cloud points collected by the airborne laser scanner, and the experimental results are comparable with those of traditional methods. The experimental results imply that the proposed method has a good performance for transformation parameters estimation in 3D point clouds co-registration procedure. Especially, the non-linear co-registration method can achieve the best estimated value with only 6 to 7 iteration time. It is much faster than traditional method in practice, and can be treated as an extension for traditional co-registration theory of iteration closest point in the field of computer vision.
    Morphology of Keichousaurus hui from the Middle Triassic of Xingyi, Guizhou Province with Comments on Its Reproduction Mode
    FU Wanlu,ZHANG Xuan,JI Cheng,JIANG Dayong,SUN Zuoyu,HAO Weicheng
    2013, 49(5):  839-846. 
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    On the basis of detailed morphological description and anatomy comparison of two specimens of Keichousaurus hui, the diagnostic characters of Keichousaurus hui have been reconfirmed: small upper temporal fenestra, large orbits, thickened proximal end of ribs and extremely broad ulnae; and more morphological information of Keichousaurus hui is added. The sexual dimorphism of three adults and the ontogenetic stage of a juvenile have been identified through the measurement of different bones. Furthermore, from the paleogeographic information and observation of the embryos, it’s inferred that the reproduction mode is most likely viviparous, but the possibility of ovoviviparity cannot be totally ruled out.
    Application of ASTER Data in Hydrothermal Alteration Mapping and Prospecting Prediction: Take an Example of Banlashan Molybdenum Deposit, Inner Mongolia
    SUN Yi,LAI Yong,YAN Cong
    2013, 49(5):  847-858. 
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    An advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data were evaluated for the hydrothermal alteration mapping of the Banlashan cryptoexplosive breccia type molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia. Relative absorption-band depth (RBD) and simple band combination method in visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands were used to fetch the information about lithological distribution. Principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to get alteration information of clay, chlorite, carbonate and limonite. Thermal infrared (TIR) bands were used to get information of silicification and potassic alteration. An eastward propylitization, carbonate and argillic alteration zone was defined in the Banlashan deposit. Combined with field research, ASTER data are good at characterizing the alteration area of both porphyry deposits and breccia-type deposits. With VNIR and SWIR bands, argillic, propylitic and carbonic alterations in a single deposit can be effectively discriminated, and TIR bands can be used to detect surface silica and potassic alterations on a larger scale. It is less effective to detect Fe-oxide alteration, which only has identified characteristics in the VNIR bands.
    Dissolution Response Mechanism of the Carbonate Mineral with the Increase of Depth and Its Reservoir Significance
    YANG Yunkun,LIU Bo,QIN Shan,LUO Ping,GAO Jixian,HE Yunlan,ZHANG Xuefeng
    2013, 49(5):  859-866. 
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    Based on the chemical thermodynamics, the dissolution response mechanism of the calcite and dolomite with the increase of depth in the CO2-beared fluid and H2S-beared fluid was studied by the method of numerical simulation. The result indicates that the dissolution of calcite is always more evident than dolomite in same conditions. The amount of gas confined in the dissolution system is another important factor which influences the dissolution of carbonate mineral except the temperature, pressure, partial pressure of the acid gas and the component of fluid. When the amount of confined gas is relative large, with the depth increases, the dissolution amount curve shows an increase followed by a decline. And the dissolution pore in the dolomite is more developed than that in the calcite. When the amount of confined gas is relative short, both minerals’ dissolution amount curves declines tonelessly.
    Efficient Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater by a Newly Isolated Bacterium under High Salinity Condition
    DENG Ruonan,CHEN Qian,NI Jinren
    2013, 49(5):  880-884. 
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    A bacterium capable of phosphorus removal was isolated. Through morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Salinivibrio sp. (named HG-1). Salinity tolerance and phosphorus removal efficiency under different salinity conditions of the strain were further investigated. The results showed that HG-1 grew well with the salt content varying from 1% to 13% and achieved the highest phosphorus removal efficiency under salt content of 3%. Furthermore, the single-factor and orthogonal experiment results indicated that the optimal phosphorus removal performance was obtained under the conditions with an initial pH of 6.5?7.0, C/N ratio of 9, temperature of 30°C and inoculation ratio of 10%. Under such a condition, the phosphorus removal efficiency could reach 100% in 24 hours. The strain HG-1 can independently complete phosphorus removal process, and thus could provide a novel and promising alternative for biological phosphorus removal under high salinity conditions.
    Numerical Simulation of Shear Strain-Localization on Rock Specimen under Uniaxial Compression to Verify the Maximum Effective Moment Criterion
    SHEN Falong,ZHANG Jinjiang
    2013, 49(5):  873-879. 
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    Based on the strain softening theory, the authors present a simulation of the development from localized ductile zone to crenulation cleavage in specimen which can be used to verify the theory of MEMC. With the FLAC3D, the rock specimen with the shape parameters and the stress of loading rate ruled by corresponding standard regulations were designed. The numerical simulation of the forming process of the localized shear belts under the uniaxial compression shows that the conjugate angle of the shear belt is 107.7° after strain softening, verifying the MEMC and explaining the random behavior expression of the contour map of shear strain on the cross section.
    Analysis of Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential and Cost for China’s Power Generation Sector
    LIAO Xiawei,TAN Qingliang,ZHANG Wen,MA Xiaoming,JI Junping
    2013, 49(5):  885-891. 
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    Based on the relevant planning objectives, life-cycle emission reduction capacities and costs of eight categories of emission reduction technology of China’s power sector are analyzed. The results indicate that the total emission reduction capacity amounts to 2099.0-2070.3 MtCO2e. The emission reductions generated by hydropower and nuclear power are the biggest, accounting for 62.90% to 63.34% together. The total cost is projected to be 330.76 billion RMB. The lowest cost, by hydropower, is -783.0 billion RMB, while the highest, by biomass power, is 168.75 billion RMB. The average unit cost of reducing emissions is between 157.6 to 159.8 RMB/tCO2e. Hydropower and nuclear power have the lowest unit abatement costs, -104.3- -104.8 RMB/tCO2e and 13.2-13.3 RMB/tCO2e respectively, while natural gas power has the highest, 958.8?1598.0 RMB/tCO2e. Overall, the hydropower and nuclear power generate relatively low unit abatement costs and big emission reduction capacities. Thus, China should focus on the development of these two types of new energy in the future.
    Responses to External Ammonium Source by the Ammonia Oxidation Microorganisms from Hangzhou Bay
    SUN Renhua,WEN Donghui
    2013, 49(5):  908-914. 
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    A simulated cultivation was carried out in lab, using the sediment and seawater samples collected from the discharge-receiving sea near an industrial park in Hangzhou Bay. The samples were collected from two sites-one was near to the outlet (site A) and the other was far from the outlet (site B). Ammonia oxidation was stimulated and enhanced by the addition of ammonium in the sediment-seawater microsystems. After 35-day cultivation, all of the external NH4+-N was removed, but NO3--N accumulated in the aqueous solution. The PCR-DGGE detection, based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene, showed that ammonia oxidation was coupled with bacterial instead of archaeal pattern. Under the shock load of ammonium, the numbers of Bact-amoA bands increased from 1 to 7 (site A) and 5 (site B), indicating that the abundance of ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) increased. However, the Arch-amoA bands stayed the same, which showed that the community structure of ammonia oxidation archaea (AOA) kept unchanged.
    Equity Assessment on Urban Green Space Pattern Based on Human Behavior Scale and Its Optimization Strategy: A Case Study in Shenzhen
    ZHOU Xiang,ZHANG Xiaogang,HE Longbin,ZENG Hui
    2013, 49(5):  892-898. 
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    Integrating the basic theories of landscape ecology, the concept of equity of urban green space pattern is put forward to explore an equity assessment method oriented on human behavior scale. The authors choose Shenzhen as a case study, using the method of neighborhood analysis on ArcGIS platform, to assess the equity of urban green space pattern in four scenarios and carrying out discussions on its optimization strategy. The results show that: 1) spatial differentiation exists obviously in equity on urban green space in Shenzhen; 2) the big differences between absolute equity (E) and relative equity (E*) on urban green space pattern indicate that the configuration of the residential land could affect the equity of urban green space pattern in some extent; 3) the different results under two behavior scales demonstrate that trip distance could impact the equity of urban green space pattern; 4) the equity assessment results could be used to guide the optimization of urban green space pattern and provide reference for urban green space system planning and management.
    Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents and Fine Root Biomass under Different Vegetation Types and Building Densities in Shenzhen City
    MENG Linghan,ZENG Hui1,XIONG Yanmei,GUO Dali
    2013, 49(5):  899-907. 
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    Three urban parks along a building density gradient (indicating a gradient of human disturbance) in Shenzhen were chosen as the sampling sites, and in each park, three vegetation types (lawn, high forest and Lichi forest) were selected to sample soils, with a rural forest of Wutongshan as the reference. The results showed that soil bulk density and pH value in the urban sampling sites were higher than those of the rural forest, exceeding the optimal range of plant growth. Soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations and fine root biomass in urban sampling sites were lower than those of rural forest. However, soil phosphorus concentration in urban sampling sites was higher than those of rural forest, particularly indicated by phosphorus eutrophication in Lichi forests. Soil carbon concentration, nitrogen concentration and fine root biomass were positively related to each other, indicating that urban plant growth may be constrained by soil nitrogen, and that fine root inputs may have contributed substantially to soil organic matter. The results suggest that soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and root biomass in urban green lands were affected by vegetation type and building density. The results may have important implications for green land construction and management: lawns are able to accumulate soil carbon and nitrogen rapidly in the shallow soil layer, and Lichi forests are better to accumulate soil carbon and nitrogen concentration in deeper soil layer. In addition, aboveground litter should not be removed in urban high forests in order to increase soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations.
    A Man Drives as He Lives: Why Inconsiderate Driving Happens?
    WANG Qiuhong,CHANG Shiqing,XIE Xiaofei
    2013, 49(5):  921-927. 
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    Inconsiderate driving behavior is always attributed to environment or others, but is barely considered as the personal issue. This study investigated the fundamental effects of personality on inconsiderate driving behavior by adopting a questionnaire and a decision-making experiment. Results suggests that personality could significantly predict the behavior even the effects of situational factors were controlled. Meanwhile, when situational factors are similar, personal behavior shows consistency across situations. The conclusion strongly supported the thought of “a man drives as he lives”.
    Degradation Mechanism of Three Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds by a Microbial Consortium
    ZHANG Yin,ZHENG Zhongyuan,ZHAO Cui,ZHANG Yongming,LIU Rui,WEN Donghui
    2013, 49(5):  915-920. 
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    A microbial consortium M19, originated from four degrading bacteria for degrading pyridine (Shinellazoogloeoides BC026), quinoline (Pseudomonas sp. BW004), and carbazole (Pseudomonas sp. BC039 and BC046) were used to explore the simultaneous degradation mechanism of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs). The experimental results showed that the simultaneous degradation efficiency of the three NHCs by M19 was higher than those by any single strain. The intermediate products from quinoline degraded by M19 were the same as those by BW004. All four bacterial strains grew well in the media containing three NHCs, and the quinoline degradation gene (qorL) and carbazole degradation gene (carAa) had been held and expressed. The mechanism of NHCs’ simultaneous degradation by M19 was the simple superposition of the 3 degradation processes carried by each strain, however, the strains benefited from each other due to the rapid reduction of toxicity from NHCs.
    Impacts of Land Use Changes on Water Resources: A Literature Review
    MAO Xiyan,MENG Jijun
    2013, 49(5):  928-936. 
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    The authors introduce the development of relative researches on land use hydrological effects, and explore the sources of uncertainty of current studies. Generally, current researches, in the aspect of contents, focus on more kinds of land use forms in variable scales. Furthermore, they progress to analyze the impacts of land use allocation and distinguish the impacts between land use and climate change. As for the methods, physical-based distributed hydrological model and scenario analysis are widely used in current researches. Meanwhile, the land use/cover change models such as CA and CLUEs are employed by more and more researches. On the trajectory to modeling the complexity of linkage between land use and water resource, current researches are confronted with an increasing uncertainty so that it would be critical to quantify the uncertainty. What’s more, the potential contradiction between the objectives of land use planning and water resources management and the feedback of water resources to land use changes in the long run are worthy to be taken into consideration.
    Almost Simple DD-groups
    LIU Yanjun,SONG Xueling,XIONG Huan
    2013, 49(5):  741-753. 
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    The main purpose is to investigate almost simple DD-groups. It proves that the almost simple group G is not a DD-group unless G is one of the following groups: 1) M22, J2, Co1, Fi'24, McL, Th, B, and the automorphism group of M12 or J2; 2) A5, A6, A7, A9, A10, A16, S5, Aut(A6), S8, S10, or An(62≤n≤205); 3) L3(2), Aut(L3(3)), or L2(q) for q=4, 5, 7, 9, 11.
    Bit Allocation Algorithm for Joint Spatial-Temporal Scalabilities in H.264 SVC
    PANG Yan,LIU Jiaying,GAO Liangcai,GUO Zongming
    2013, 49(5):  754-764. 
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    A bit allocation algorithm on joint spatial-temporal (S-T) scalabilities layers is proposed for H.264 SVC. Taking account of the characteristic of SVC encoding procedure, a two-step model-based bit allocation scheme is developed. Along spatial/temporal scalability dimension in each step, the bit allocation issue is formulated as an optimization problem. Then, the rate and distortion (R-D) models for dependent spatial and temporal layers are derived separately, where the complicated inter-layer dependencies are sufficiently considered. Finally, using the Lagrange multiplier method, the proposed algorithm can be solved numerically with derived R-D models. Experimental results show that the new R-D models result in a highly efficient bit allocation scheme, which outperforms the JSVM benchmark by a significant margin, and the average coding gain achieves 1.22 dB.
    Design and Implementation of Dynamic Reconfigurable Digital System of an Underwater Acoustic Modem
    WU Lingjuan,CUI Xiaoxin,YU Dunshan
    2013, 49(5):  765-772. 
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    A dynamic reconfigurable digital system is proposed. By defining modulation and demodulation as reconfigurable modules, the proposed modem changes its modulation scheme and data rate according to underwater channel estimation results to provide low bit error rate and low energy consumption communication. The digital system is implemented on Xilinx XUPV5 FPGA board. Hardware and software co-verification show that the digital system works correctly and can be reconfigured to 2FSK and 2PSK mode. Compared to traditional FPGA development approach, dynamic reconfigurable design method improves flexibility of algorithm design and saves resource utilization of the digital system.
    Analysis on the Knowledge Structure and Evolution Path of Core Authors in Domestic Cloud Computing Research Areas
    WANG Jiandong,LIU Yang,WANG Jimin
    2013, 49(5):  773-782. 
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    Based on visual analysis method, the authors analyzed the emergence background and history of cloud computing research. Firstly, the core authors group of cloud computing research area was determined, and a co-word network was constructed using published literature bibliographic data of these authors in the last ten years. Then the community structure sampling algorithm and G-N clustering algorithm were introduced to analyze the overall distribution of the research field. Through counting the membership degree of a keyword to specific research groups, the authors made a comparative analysis on core groups’ research features. Finally, the migration path of core group’s research interest after and before entering this field was analyzed, and the domestic development of cloud computing was divided into several basic stages.
    Temporal and Spatial Variation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height over Hainan Island and Its Adjacent Sea Areas
    ZHANG Zhenzhou,CAI Xuhui,SONG Yu,KANG Ling,HUANG Xin,LI Qinyi
    2013, 49(5):  783-790. 
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    As a significant parameter in atmospheric environmental studies, atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) is of great importance in research about pollutants transportation and diffusion, cloud microphysical process, model parameterization and so forth. Based on the WRF modeling in Hainan Island, the temporal and spatial variation of ABLH is analyzed. The results show that, the mean ABLH in the northern part is relatively bigger in spring and summer, about 500?600 m; while in the circular coasts from northwest to east, southeast that is bigger in autumn and winter, about 500?700 m. However, in south central coteaux the mean ABLH keeps a low value of about 200?500 m and variations of differ seasons are very little. There is a good correspondence between prevailing background wind and factors that benefit the sea breeze developing. Mean ABLH in surrounding sea appears such seasonal characteristics low in autumn and winter with a value of 500?800 m but high in spring and summer with that of 100?500 m. The ABLH inland comes to its maximum of above 1800 m in spring and summer but that offshore 1300?1500 m in autumn and winter. The diurnal characteristics inland appears very much like that in typical land surface, while in coastal zone deeply influenced by prevailing wind, the daily variation of atmospheric boundary layer presents maritime characteristics under the circumstances of onshore background wind but terrestrial on occasion of offshore wind.
    Impact of Subtropical Pacific SSTA on the Equatorial Ocean
    WANG Lu,YANG Haijun
    2013, 49(5):  791-798. 
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    Using a fully coupled climate model, the impact of subtropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) at different longitude bands on the equatorial Pacific is quantitatively studied. Both equatorial SST responses and equatorial thermocline responses to the western, central, and eastern subtropical Pacific (20°?30°N) SSTA are comparable. This work emphasizes the key role of atmosphere-ocean coupling in the subtropical impact on the equatorial thermocline. An indirect mechanism is proposed, which is much faster than the “oceanic tunnel”, in the subtropics-equator coupling, that is, the atmospheric cyclone responding to the subtropical SSTA produces anomalous upwelling in the interior region, while anomalous downwelling occurs in the equatorward flank. The thermocline warming produced by this anomalous downwelling propagates equatorward, and warms the equatorial thermocline.
    Cause Analysis of Strong Wind in Xinjiang on February 28, 2007
    HUANG Haibo,CHEN Chunyan,TAO Zuyu
    2013, 49(5):  799-805. 
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    A strong wind blowed the train down and made great casualties in Xinjiang on February 28, 2007. The cause of this strong wind is analyzed based on the conventional meteorological data, anemometers along the railway and WRF model. The results show that the strong pressure gradient between Junggar Basin and Turpan Basin provided favorable dynamic conditions for the development of the strong wind. It was a downslope windstorm, the origin of this windstorm couldn’t be attributed to either the effect of narrow or the downward- tansporting of upper momentum, two factors might have made it such a damaging storm. 1) Vertically propagating gravity wave returns to the surface with strong wind after it is reflected many times by critical level and/or inversion layer. 2) The strong pressure gradient enables gap flow to be forced through valley more quickly in the range, accelerates the surface wind when the airflow drops sharply along the steep terrain.
    Study of the Main Reasons Causing the Western Pacific SST Anomaly
    SONG Yangyang,WANG Zhifu,LIU Zhengyu
    2013, 49(5):  806-812. 
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    Applying lead/lag correlation analysis on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in different regions, the main reasons that cause the Western Pacific SST anomaly were investigated. Based on the theories of Pacific-East Asian teleconnection and Indian Ocean capacitor effect, the pointwise maximum correlation of SST anomaly in the Western Pacific with that in the Eastern Pacific and the Tropical Indian Ocean was analyzed, as well as the corresponding lead-lag time (in month). According to the mechanisms mentioned above, the SST variations of the Eastern Pacific or the Tropical Indian Ocean are expected to lead SST variations of Western Pacific by 2?3 months as the response time of ocean is very long. The results show that the SST anomaly in the Western Pacific leads the Eastern Pacific by 1?2 months (under the conditions of both El Nino and La Nina) and leads the Tropical Indian Ocean by 3?4 months. This indicates that neither the Eastern Pacific nor the Indian Ocean is the main reason that causes the SST anomaly of the Western Pacific. The reason that causes SST anomaly of the Western Pacific is very complicated and may be caused by many different factors.
    Reconstruction of Understanding System for the Redevelopment in Fault- Block Multilayer Reservoir: Case of Hetan Oilfield in Zhanhua Sag
    LI Xuan,SHI Yongmin,TANG Liangtian,YANG Cheng
    2013, 49(5):  813-818. 
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    In view of the problems of Hetan Oilfield in Zhanhua Sag such as multiple oil-bearing series, strong heterogeneity, scattered remaining oil distribution, and aging gathering and transportation system, the authors follow the principle of redevelopment to old oilfield, take the reconstruction of new understanding system of underground reservoirs as the target. 3D seismic data, core data and well log were applied to carry out fine structure research of fault block oilfield and fine reservoir research. Based on the research, through the comprehensive technology application of monitoring data, history of injection-production condition, numerical simulation and reservoir engineering method, the residual oil potential was evaluated and quantified accurately. Taking the idea of adjustment while understanding, the effect of oilfield development achieves initial improvement, the requisite material foundation of the redevelopment is clear and the redevelopment plan is worked out. All this lay the foundation for improving the level of reservoir development and enhancing the recovery ratio.
    The Geological Feature and Fracturing Layer Optimization in Beach-Bar Sandbody Reservoir of Dongying Depression
    YANG Cheng,SHI Yongmin
    2013, 49(5):  819-825. 
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    Due to the severe lateral variation of the reservoir, thin thickness of the layer, poor regional connection of the sandbody and different oil saturation, well stimulation effect varies much in beach-bar sand reservoir of Dongying Depression. Combing current fracturing technology, the authors analyze factors controlling fracturing effects from the following 4 aspects including oil saturation, petrophysical properties, pay zone thickness and reservoir fluid saturation. It indicates that fluid saturation is the most influential factor in fracturing. An empirical chart is established for optimized layer selection, which can be reference for similar beach-bar sandbody reservoirs in fracturing in the future.