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Table of Content

    20 July 2013, Volume 49 Issue 4
    Investigating 2D Fluid Dynamics after the Ship-Bridge Pier Collision by Numerical Simulation
    LUO Xiongping
    2013, 49(4):  579-584. 
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    A 2D process of a plane-movement object (boat) moving around a static one (bridge pier) is investigated by combining incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with immersed boundary methods. The fluid’s effects on the boat and the boat’s track are mainly studied. The results show that the drag and lift curve lines oscillate with finite amplitudes at the beginning and approach to periodic micro vibrations soon. The boat rotates clockwisely at first, and then the speed becomes smaller and smaller, and later it changes to an anticlockwise rotation. Finally the boat’s stern moves away from the pier, and it won’t impact with the pier. The boat’s trajectory agrees with that from the real boat experiments.
    Estimation and Assessment of the Urban Building-Scale Solar Energy Potential
    Lü Yang,ZHANG Xianfeng,LIU Yu
    2013, 49(4):  650-656. 
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    Combining the quantitative inversion of remotely sensed data and GIS 3-D analysis techniques, a new model for calculating and assessing building-scale solar energy potential is built up. Specifically, the planar projection method is applied to determine the position and range of the building shadows, implementing real-time shadow simulation. The relative coordinate system and “inclusion-exclusion principle” are used to calculate the non-shadow areas of the building. The FY-2D and FY-3A satellite data are used to derive the direct normal irradiance in a regional scale, and the solar radiant power received by the roofs and facets of a specific building is then estimated using the proposed model. The solar radiation energy is summed up and the triangulated irregular network method is used to visualize the spatial distribution of the calculated energy data. A building community in Urumqi City, Xinjiang is selected as the study area to test the proposed model. The result shows that the proposed model can provide an effective and valuable tool for solar energy estimation and energy-wise planning on a building scale.
    Furongian (Late Cambrian) Palaeoscolecid Cuticles from Hunan Province, South China: the Growth Impact on the Worm Cuticle
    DUAN Baichuan,DONG Xiping
    2013, 49(4):  591-602. 
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    Newly recovered palaeoscolecid cuticle fragments in 3-D preservation from the Furongian (upper Cambrian) of Hunan Province, South China are reported. Two form new genera and two form new species, Hunanoscolex campus gen. et sp. nov. and Ornatoscolex hunanensis gen. et sp. nov. are described. Most of the specimens are juvenile individuals. The great variation of annulus width in Hunanoscolex campus indicates growth of the worm, which allows us to examine the growth impact on the worm cuticle. The worm grows by adding more sclerites to each annulus. The spacing of plates in the same row gets looser. The new microplates and platelets remain constant in size and ornamentation but the ornamentation of plate may change. These observations give better understanding of the intraspecific variation of the worm cuticle, and may enhance the taxonomy accuracy of palaeoscolecid cuticle fragments.
    Isolation, Identification, and Metabolic Characteristics of a Quinoline Degrading Bacterium
    ZHENG Zhongyuan,ZHAO Cui,WEN Donghui,TANG Xiaoyan
    2013, 49(4):  683-688. 
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    A bacterial strain, BW004 that utilized quinoline as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source, was isolated from the activated sludge of the coking wastewater treatment plant in Wuhan Iron and Steel Group, Hubei Province, China. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. according to the 16S rRNA sequencing. The optimum degradation conditions determined by response surface methodology (RSM) were pH 7, rotation 180 r/min, and temperature 30.0℃. The degradation experiments revealed that BW004 could degrade 200?1000 mg/L of quinoline over 98.8% within 4?12 hours. During the degradation, quinoline was first transformed to 2-hydroxyquinolin and 2,8-dihydroxyquinolin, and ammonium was released promptly as the final product of heterocyclic nitrogen; then the dual-ring structure was destroyed and all organics were mineralized in 12?24 hours.
    InSAR Atmospheric Effects Analysis of ASAR Image Mode Products
    CUI Xi’ai,ZENG Qiming,TONG Qingxi,JIAO Jian,LIANG Cunren
    2013, 49(4):  643-649. 
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    Atmospheric effect represents one of the major limitations of repeat-pass InSAR technique for precise land deformation measurements. To solve this problem, an approach is developed to remove the atmospheric effect on InSAR measurements based on the JPL/Caltech Repeat Orbit Interfeormetric PACkage (ROI_PAC) that performs the InSAR processing. As an example, the Image Mode (IM) mode data covering the Bam of Iran from the Envisat ASAR instrument is chosen to test the approach. The InSAR results without atmospheric correction and that with atmospheric correction are compared from three individual aspects respectively. The results show that the atmospheric phase affects the removal of the residual orbital fringes and the error of the InSAR LOS (line of sight) displacement reduce about 20 mm after the atmospheric effect is removed. It indicates that the removal of the atmospheric effect can improve the accuracy of the InSAR measurement results.
    A Complete Method Based on Successive Difference Substitution Method for Deciding Positive Semi-definiteness of Polynomials
    HAN Jingjun
    2013, 49(4):  545-551. 
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    The successive difference substitution method is studied. The author obtains an upper bound for successive difference substitution times of positive semi-definite polynomials on Rn+. A necessary and sufficient criterion for these polynomials is achieved by using this result. The procedure based on the above arguments always terminates. A new kind of successive difference substitution matrices are proposed.
    Design and Implementation of 16-bit RISC MCU for Medical Electronics Applications
    WANG Teng,XIE Zheng,ZHAO Yueming,WANG Xin’an,HU Ziyi,ZHANG Xu
    2013, 49(4):  552-562. 
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    By analyzing the application demand of the medical electronics, an MCU architecture named PKU-DSPII with application specific instruction set is proposed. Multilevel storage structures with direct memory access controller (DMAC) and abundant system control modules and peripheral interfaces are integrated in the MCU, which supports three booting modes including self-updating mode. PKU-DSPII is implemented with CSMC 0.18μm technology and LQFP package while the die area is 3.2 mm×3.2 mm and the measured power consumption is 96.9 mW at working frequency of 100 MHz.
    A Low Latency Implementation Scheme of Serial RapidIO Endpoint
    WU Fengfeng,JIA Song,WANG Yuan,ZHANG Dacheng
    2013, 49(4):  570-578. 
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    A low latency endpoint implementation scheme compliant with specification V1.3 is described. A novel architecture is proposed where most modules in transmitting and receiving paths are designed to work in cut-through modes with the purpose of generating short and fixed latencies. To the transaction interface, requests and responses can be issued from different user-defined ports and sent through the proposed sharable transfer paths. Concurrent transactions can be kept in order by safety arbitration mechanisms. Furthermore, abandoned packets can be cancelled by the enhanced four-queue buffers to prevent invalid transmissions. To the 1x/4x serial physical interfaces, reliable transmissions of packets and control symbols are achieved. Crucial link managements including flow control, error detection and recovery are also supported. Compared with the reference designs, the proposed scheme can achieve lower latency and higher throughput performances. Furthermore, the feasibility and effectiveness have been confirmed by FPGA verifications. Therefore, this scheme is considered applicable in the next-generation high speed embedded interconnections.
    A New Radar Target Recognition Method Based on Wave-Coefficients
    JIANG Xiaomin,XIA Mingyao
    2013, 49(4):  563-569. 
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    A new target recognition method based on wave coefficients is proposed, which entails expressing the scattering fields as a sum of cylindrical waves and using the distinctive coefficients as the feature vector. The investigation shows that the scattering coefficients are good target features. The coefficients are dependent on the incident angle, however, if the appropriate frequency range is chosen, the sensitivity to azimuth angle will be greatly decreased, leading to a smaller template database. The orientation of the target can be estimated to a certain degree of precision. It can be determined that wave-coefficients in the template database should be fetched to compare with the feature vector of the unknown target, thus effectively reduce the time of recognition process. Numerical simulations of four 2-D targets are conducted and ideal recognition performances are acquired, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Simulated Annealing Based Inversion of Hydraulic Fracture Parameters
    ZHANG Hongliang,HE Chuan,TAN Yuyang,ZHANG Bo,ZHANG Baoping
    2013, 49(4):  585-590. 
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    The authors propose a simulated annealing (SA) based inversion method to calculate hydraulic fracture parameters. A synthetic tilt data is used to demonstrate the accuracy of this new approach when inversing the hydraulic fracture parameters such as central position, azimuth, dip and volume. Compared with conventional gradient-based approaches or Bayesian inversion method, the new SA-based method can not only estimate the fracture parameters effectively, but also enlarge the objective function’s convergent region significantly. It relieves the accuracy requirement on initial guess, so that its applicable scope is extended significantly, and any prior fracture information to start with is unnecessary. This study provides algorithmic foundation for the real-time calculation of fracture parameters during hydraulic fracturing.
    Study of the Genesis of Permian Volcanic Reservoir in Yuenan Region Tarim Basin
    PAN Wenqing,ZHANG Wei,YU Hongfeng,YU Hongjiao,ZHANG Zhenghong,GUAN Ping,JIAN Xing
    2013, 49(4):  603-613. 
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    Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry method such as thin section, cast thin section, scanning electron microscope observation, cathodoluminescence, energy spectrum and major element experiment were used to analyze the genesis of Permian volcanic reservoir in Yuenan Region, Tarim Basin. It is found that Permian volcanic reservoir, dominated by secondary pore space can be regarded as favorable reservoir because the porosity of the primary pore space can reach 14% and 13.1×10?3 μm2 respectively. Genesis of the secondary pore and cracks is the weathering, whose intensity increases with the depth decreasing. The porosity and the permeability is positively correlated to weathering. The thickness of weathering effect can reach at least 220 m. The weathering dissolution and leaching process take priority of weak plane, such as large number of primary pores, cooling contracted crack, cryptoexplosion fracture which generate in the cooling of volcanic and cleavage crack, twin stitch of primary mineral. Weathering sequence of feldspar phenocryst and matrix is found in rhyolite, weathering products are mainly illite, with small amounts of montmorillonite, and the entire sequence of clay minerals growth process is preserved. Weathering can modify substantially pore structure on the basis of primary porosity, and improve the porosity and permeability greatly, which is the main controlling factor of Permian volcanic reservoir of Yuenan Region, Tarim Basin.
    Characteristic and Origin of “Spherical Particle” in Basite of Tarim Basin
    LIU Ruijuan,GUAN Ping,JIAN Xing,TIAN Wei
    2013, 49(4):  614-620. 
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    Characteristic and origin of “spherical particle” are studied based on contrast analysis of petrography and carbon and oxygen isotope of “spherical particles” in basite drawn from well and typical amygdules in basalt sampled in the field. Results show that “spherical particles” and amygdules are significantly different in microscopic and carbon and oxygen isotopic characteristics although they are similar in macroscopic feature. “Spherical particles” are characterized by non-oscillatory zoning, obvious recrystallization in the rim, and different carbon and oxygen isotopic values in different “spherical particle” of the same sample. Amygdules are characterized by oscillatory zoning, big crystalline particle, and similar carbon and oxygen isotopic values in different amygdule of the same sample. It can be concluded that “spherical particle” stems from magma capturing pieces of sedimentary carbonate, rather than secondary minerals filling vent. As a result, the basite drilled from the Cambrian and Carboniferous strata is intrusive rock, and volcanism may not occur in related strata.
    Sedimentary Record of Historical Flood Events through Tang and Song Dynasty in Luoyang City
    XU Junjie,MO Duowen,ZHOU Kunshu,WANG Hui
    2013, 49(4):  621-627. 
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    DDM profile lies outside the south gate (Dingding Gate) of Luoyang City (capital as Sui and Tang Dynasty), Luoyang Basin, Henan, China. Based on measurement and analysis of grain size, major element contents, the authors investigate sedimentary process of the profile and the historical flood events from Tang to North Song Dynasty in Luoyang. Grain size compose, the cumulative probability and frequency distribution curve indicate that there are three flood events in section 4, 6, 7; the major element contents result of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 percentage changes reflects the migration of quartz, kaolin, and magnetic minerals and environment changes; the increase of quartz and decrease of kaolin and magnetic minerals in the bottom of section 6 and 7 prove the historical flood events reflected by the result of grain size analysis. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are two large-scale floods in the early and middle Tang Dynasty; there is a more serious sheet flood deposits process in North Song Dynasty. The sedimentary record is very consistent with historical documents.
    Extracting Municipal Construction Zones from High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Image
    GUO Zhou,DU Shihong,ZHANG Fangli
    2013, 49(4):  635-642. 
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    QuickBird image covering part of Beijing City is taken as a source. Object-oriented image analysis method is used to extract automatically the MCZ (municipal construction zones). On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of MCZ, a method combining low- and high-resolution images is presented. At low-resolution image, the crude extents of MCZ are identified; at high-resolution image, the crude extents are refined further. Compared with the visual interpretation result, the precision is about 89.7%, and the miscarriage of justice rate is about 27.6%.
    Analysis on Environmental Proxies of the Holocene Loess Profile near Taosi Site in Linfen Basin
    LI Tuoyu,MO Duowen,HU Ke,WANG Haibin,GUO Yuanyuan,ZHANG Yifei,REN Xiaolin
    2013, 49(4):  628-634. 
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    The ZLTC (Zhongliangtiechang) profile lies outside the north wall of Taosi Site in Linfen Basin, Shanxi, China. Based on systematic measurement and analysis of grain size, magnetic susceptibility, Rb/Sr ratio and CaCO3, and combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages and the archaeological data, the authors investigate the regional environment change during the Holocene and the relationship between environment and human activities. The results show that, during the early Holocene (10.5 to 9.6 kaBP), the East Asian winter monsoon intensity is weak, and the intensity of weathering and pedogenesis enhances remarkably, thus the climate turns from cool-dry to warm-wet; during the early-middle Holocene (9.6 to 4.9 kaBP), the intensity of weathering and pedogenesis is at its maximum in the profile, thus the climate is warm-wet; during the middle-late Holocene (4.9 to 2.5 kaBP), the intensity of weathering and pedogenesis diminishes gradually, thus the climate turns to warm-dry; during the late Holocene (2.5 kaBP to present), the East Asian winter monsoon intensity is strong, the intensity of weathering and pedogenesis is weak, thus the climate turns to cool-dry. The warm-wet climate correlates well with the development of culture, while the vegetation degradation could be influenced by climate and human activities in cool-dry period.
    Block Harris Based Mosaic Method for Aerial Video
    YANG Yubo,CHENG Chengqi
    2013, 49(4):  657-661. 
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    A mosaic method for aerial video based on the block Harris feature was proposed, which is able to cope with the problem of high computation and low accuracy of the current mosaic methods. This method overcomes the shortages of the traditional SIFT method, since it can save the matching time and improve the accuracy. First, block Harris feature extraction method is used to obtain a better distributed of the feature point. Then, pyramidal Lucas-Kanade algorithm is used to match the feature points. After that, an improved RANSAC method is used to calculate the affine parameter accurately. Experimental results show that our method can do mosaic quickly and correctly.
    An Evaluation of the Temporal Representative of MODIS Application for Particulate Matter Assessment over Eastern China
    LI Qian,LI Chengcai,YANG Dongwei,SHI Guangming,GAO Ling,LI Ying,MAO Jietai
    2013, 49(4):  662-672. 
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    The PM10 mass concentration from 428 ground sites in Eastern China in 2011 were used to investigate the temporal representative of satellites carrying MODIS for air quality monitoring. The daily, monthly, seasonal and yearly averaged ground measurements of PM10 mass concentration at the time when the satellite data is available (SATPM) were compared with the corresponding 24 hours averaged ground measurements (ALLPM). The data with the Aqua-MODIS time are more close to ALLPM than those with Terra-MODIS time, and most relative errors fall into the range of ±20%, indicating a high reliability of temporal representative on Aqua time. Data from both satellites were incorporated together through a linear fitting to get the validated daily and yearly SATPM. The results show a better correlation and own lower root mean square errors (RMSE) with ALLPM. Because PM2.5 is more correlated with optical observations, the results are also of significant implications for the reliability of PM2.5 retrieval from satellite.
    Retrieval on Mass Concentration of Urban Surface Suspended Paticulate Matter with LIDAR and Satellite Remotesensing
    LI Qian,LI Chengcai,WANG Yefang,LIN Changqing,YANG Dongwei,LI Ying
    2013, 49(4):  673-682. 
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    The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol extinction coefficient profiles from Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), surface relative humidity data and particulate matter (PM) mass concentration data over Yuan Long, Hong Kong in 2008 were used in the remote sensing of surface suspended particulate matter mass distribution. LIDAR data were used to get the relationship among surface aerosol extinction coefficient, LIDAR AOD and aerosol scale height, which was further applied in the retrieval of the distribution of surface aerosol extinction coefficients with satellite AOD. After considering relative humidity effect, the correlation between satellite estimated aerosol extinction coefficients and the corresponding surface PM mass was investigated. Finally, the surface PM mass distribution was obtained by synergy usage of satellite and LIDAR measurements. The results show that the correlation coefficients between the estimated aerosol extinction coefficients and the surface PM mass are 0.57?0.86 for PM2.5 and 0.59?0.78 for PM10, respectively. The Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) between estimated PM and surface measured PM mass are 11.64?25.34 g/m3 for PM2.5 and 24.64?91.64 g/m3 for PM10. Satellite remote sensing provides a promising way in atmospheric suspended particulate matter monitoring. The 1-km resolution AOD product is more suitable for describing the pollution in the urban areas with complicated topography.
    Relationship between Shrub Species Richness and Climate Across Central Inner Mongolia, China
    DAI Shuang,WANG Xiangping,LIU Chao,WU Xian,LI Qiaoyan,WANG Min
    2013, 49(4):  689-698. 
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    To test several important hypotheses on geographic diversity patterns of shrub communities in hyper-arid to semi-arid climates, including the water-energy dynamic hypothesis, the richness-productivity hypothesis, the freezing tolerance hypothesis, and the metabolic theory of ecology, the authors sampled 28 sites along an 1100 km transect across the shrub communities of Inner-Mongolia plateau, China. The climatic data and normalized difference vegetation index were used to examine whether community species richness could be well explained by different climatic factors or productivity. Different growth forms (shrub and herb) and different water ecotypes (xero-, mesoxero- and meso-plants) were also analyzed separately to examine how the richness-climate relationships differed among functional groups. It was found that species richness patterns for most ecological groups could be well explained by water-energy dynamic, the simultaneous availability of water and energy was critical in shaping shrub biome diversity patterns in the study area. Observed richness patterns were contrary to the prediction of the metabolic theory of ecology, suggesting that the hypothesis cannot explain diversity patterns in arid regions. The results also did not support the freezing tolerance, and showed that the richness-productivity hypothesis might be applicable for only some of the ecological groups (and thus the generality of this hypothesis was rejected). The response of species richness to climate or productivity gradient showed great differences among functional groups, suggesting that the ecophysiological characteristics of species and interspecific interactions have important influence on community richness patterns, in addition to climate and productivity. Understanding the community assembly rules may be critical for improving the ability to explain geographical diversity patterns.
    Research on the Impacts of European Union Aviation Carbon Trading on China’s Aviation Passenger Transport
    XU Xiaohu,LIAO Xiawei,MA Xiaoming
    2013, 49(4):  699-706. 
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    A risk analysis model was established to predict Chinese aviation passenger ticket price changes from 2012 to 2020 due to the EU aviation carbon trading policy. Then the authors analyzed the impacts to aviation passenger transport fee, income, profits and carbon dioxide emissions, and discussed the influence on air travel and the airline industry. The results show that 1) the emission reduction caused by European Union (EU) aviation carbon trading policy is limited; 2) aviation passenger prices, airline fee, and carbon emission reduction would increase, and insufficient quota, income reduction, profit loss would be aggravated gradually. There would be 200 million loss till 2020.
    MCR Based Model for Developing Land Use Ecological Security Pattern in Farming-Pastoral Zone: A Case Study of Jungar Banner, Ordos
    LI Jing,MENG Jijun,MAO Xiyan
    2013, 49(4):  707-715. 
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    The research seeks to develop a land use ecological security pattern for the Jungar Banner in Ordos, which is a typical farming-pastoral zone with great vulnerability. The spatial-temporal dynamic change of land use during the past 30 years is analyzed firstly with physical geographical information, socio-economic statistics and multi-year land use data. Then the Minimum Cumulative Resistance (MCR) model is employed to build the suitability map of curial land use forms with GIS technology. Through judging the suitability for different land use forms from one land use unit to another, regional land use ecological security pattern is developed, which provides the basis for the management. This research extends the application of MCR models as well as its result is significant for regional sustainable land use.
    Research of Geomechanical Parameter Modeling in Sulige Gasfield
    LI Guangquan,QIN Xiaoshuang,SHI Yongmin,ZHANG Leilei
    2013, 49(4):  716-720. 
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    Based on Sulige Gas Filed, the function between normal logging data and geomechanical parameters can be determined using the method of multiple regression. Depending on the function and geologic statistical method, the geomechanical parameter model can be created. The geomechanical parameter model can provide support for the fracturing design to reduce the error and risk. It is beneficial to improve the accuracy of the hydraulic fracture morphology and decrease the development risk of gasfield.
    Low Voltage SRAM Cell Suitable for Bit-Interleaved Structure
    JIA Song,XU Heqing,WANG Yuan,WU Fengfeng,LI Tao,XU Yue
    2013, 49(4):  721-724. 
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    A single-ended nine-transistor (9T) SRAM scheme is proposed for sub-threshold operation. The new SRAM cell provides high stability using disturb-free read operation. With a new write mechanism, the cell can solve the pseudo-read problem. Thus, the bit-interleaved structure can be used to address the multiple bit soft-errors problem. Simulation result shows that the SRAM cell can provide 100 mV read static-noise-margin (SNM) and 70 mV worst half-select SNM, when the supply voltage is 300 mV.
    Review of the Metallogenesis of the Endogenetic Rare Earth Elements Deposits Related to Carbonatite-Alkaline Complex
    SONG Wenlei,XU Cheng,WANG Linjun,WU Min,ZENG Liang,WANG Lize,FENG Meng
    2013, 49(4):  725-740. 
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    The geological characteristics and mineralization of the endogenetic rare earth elements (REE) deposits related with carbonatite-alkaline complexes are reviewed. The REE deposits mainly include primary magmatic and hydrothermal types. The former is relatively rare, and REE minerals crystallized from carbonatite magma. The REE minerals in hydrothermal deposits are intergrowth with calcite, fluorite, barite, quartz. They occur as ore veins intruding carbonatite-alkaline complexes and wall rocks, or as fracture or void filling fine-grained, polycrystalline aggregates overprinting earlier carbonatitic minerals. Previous researches showed that REE mineralization was controlled by the crystallization and accumulation of carbonate minerals during carbonatitc magma-hydrothermal processes. However, REE enrichment mechanism is still debate, i.e. liquid immiscibility of carbonate-silicate magmas, fractional crystallization of carbonate minerals from carbonatite magma, extraction of carbonatitic liquids, and hydrothermal alteration of carbonatites. Note carbonatites normally show light REE enrichment and mineralization, and absent heavy REE minerals. Therefore, high temperature and pressure experiments on REE partition coefficients between volatile-rich carbonate and alkaline silicate melts or fluids, and REE partition behavior between carbonate and co-precipitating minerals during carbonatite magma evolution, will be a key to reveal the REE mineralization mechanism.