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Table of Content

    20 January 2015, Volume 51 Issue 1
    Surface Brightness Profile of NGC5128 out to 50 kpc
    XU Jun,ERIC Peng
    2015, 51(1):  1-7. 
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    NGC5128 is the nearest, easily observable giant elliptical galaxy, and the only one in which red giant branch (RGB) stars can be resolved from the ground. The only way to derive the surface brightness profile in these outer regions is to resolve and count individual halo stars. The authors derive photometry result of two field image data in the outer stellar halo of NGC5128. CCD imaging data is obtained using the Magellan/IMACS f/4 camera in the V and I bands. The RGB stars candidates are selected by color and magnitude, and 4719 and 980 RGB star candidates are obtained in the inner and outer field respectively. The outer field is used as a control field to measure the level of contamination from unresolved background galaxies. By applying a Sersic law to the surface brightness profile in the inner field, major axis profile is derived with the Sersic parameters: re = 6.21 arcmin, ?μe = 22.05 mag/arcsec2, n = 1.90, with fitting error 0.37 mag for V-band; re = 6.57 arcmin, μe =20.79 mag/arcsec2, n = 1.90, with fitting error 0.41 mag for I-band. The result shows consistent results between the V and I bands within the limits of the data, and no evidence of a break in a profile that would signify a transition to a halo population.
    Magnetic Properties of Bose-Einstein Condensate with Raman Coupling
    HE Li
    2015, 51(1):  8-12. 
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    The author studies the magnetic properties of two-component Bose with interspecies Raman coupling. For the condensate occupying single momentum state, the spin polarization and the spin susceptibility are linear to the condensation momentum and the effective mass respectively. Such universal relations are independent of the coupling strength, Raman detuning and interactions between atoms. With these relations, the dipole oscillation of a Raman coupled condensate in a harmonic trap is described by a classic picture, and the ratios of oscillation amplitudes in momentum space, spin space and coordinate space are obtained analytically in terms of the effective mass and the spin susceptibility. The results about the oscillation amplitudes are also valid for the dipole mode of a meta-stable condensate.
    Contributions of Organic Aerosols to Cloud Condensation Nuclei Numbers in China
    XING Li,FU Tzung-May
    2015, 51(1):  13-23. 
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    The κ-K?hler theory and a simulation of the aerosol mass concentrations in China for the year 2006 were used to calculate the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in China and evaluate the contribution of organic aerosol (OA). The number concentrations of CCN in China show a west-to-east gradient, due to the stronger anthropogenic emissions in eastern China. Assuming that all aerosol chemical components are externally mixed, the number concentrations of CCN are 0.9×103-1.2×103 cm-3 seasonally, and OA contributes 30% to the annual mean. Assuming that OA components are internally mixed, while inorganic aerosols are externally mixed, the number concentrations of CCN are 0.9×103-1.1×103 cm-3, and OA contributes 28% to the annual mean. Though the differernce of annual average contribution of OA to CCN number is small when OA is external and internal mixed, there is large different spatially in summer and winter due to more secondary OA in summer and more primary OA in winter. The results show that OA are important sources of CCN in China.
    Application of Aircraft Wind Data in the Study of Atmospheric Boundary Layer
    WEI Wei,YE Xinxin,WANG Haixia,ZHANG Hongsheng
    2015, 51(1):  24-34. 
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    With the brief view of the application of meteorological data obtained by aircraft, based on the continuous wind data obtained by aircraft and WPR (Wind Profile Radar) from August 2009 to June 2010, in Shanghai, the authors analyze the application of airborne meteorological instrument measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer and puts forwards some possible error resources. Meanwhile, the correction methods are proposed. It is shown that the main difference between two observation methods is attributed to the systematic deviations of the instrument. At vertical levels other than the 300 to 1500 m height and with air temperature less than -8 °C and wind speed less than 1 m/s, the discrepancy between the horizontal wind speed obtained by aircraft and WPR increases significantly, which shows the limitation of airborne instrument measurements under this condition. The corrected aircraft data reveal the general pattern of the wind profile structure of the boundary layer in Shanghai.
    Application of Levy-Lindeberg Theorem in the Planning of Raingauge Network
    SUN Dali,WANG Jiuke,LIU Xiaoyang,HE Siyuan
    2015, 51(1):  35-42. 
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    By introducing levy-lindeberg theorem to raingauge networks planning, the authors obtain a linear relationship between the measurement precision of areal rainfall (relative error or permissible error) and raingauge networks density (average station spacing). The slope of relative error growing is directly proportional to the mean square error of random observation error, inversely proportional to square root of the areal rainfall and region area. Based on simulated rainfall fields and highdensity rainfall data during Mei-yu season in Anhui Province, conclusion above is validated by the statistic analysis reducing the raingauge stations method. The slope of the linear relationship is also investigated. This research is significant to provide certain reference for optimization of raingauge networks location planning. Based on the relationship, the authors calculate 2005-2008 rainfall data during Mei-yu season in Anhui Province and conclude that correlation coefficient between the measurement precision of areal rainfall and raingauge networks density in Huaibei Plain is 0.49 to 0.80, in the mountains of Southern Anhui Province is 0.70 to 1.41. Assuming that permissible error is 20%, the minimum average station spacing (the maximum Raingauge networks density) in Huaibei Plain is 25 km and in the mountains of Southern Anhui Province is 14 km.
    Velocity Model Inversion for Microseismic Monitoring Based on Occam Inversion Algorithm
    ZHAO Zhong,TAN Yuyang,ZHANG Hongliang,HE Chuan
    2015, 51(1):  43-49. 
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    In order to accurately locate the microseism sources, a thorough knowledge of the velocity model between the treatment well and monitoring well is essential. A new method is developed to invert the velocity model based on Occam inversion algorithm. Instead of the travel times, this method adopts the moveouts of the first arrivals to invert the velocity models, so it can overcome the limitation of conventional approaches when the perforation origin times are unavailable or measured inaccurately. The feasibility of this method is examined on synthetic datasets. The results demonstrate that although the velocity models obtained using this method show some discrepancies, which are caused by the picking errors, they can locate the perforation shots back to their expected positions, so the inverted velocity models can be used to locate the microseism sources.
    Zircon U-Pb-Hf Isotopic Characteristics from Felsic Volcanic Rocks of Baoligaomiao Formation, the Middle Segment of Inner Mongolia: Implications for Geological Evolution
    HE Shusai,LI Qiugen,WANG Zongqi,XU Xueyi,LIU Shuwen,CHEN Junlu,LI Zhipei,HU Zhaochu
    2015, 51(1):  50-64. 
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    Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and LA-MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of a rhyolite sample and a tuff sample of Baoligaomiao Formation from Baiyinwula region and Qinggelebaolage region respectively in the middle Inner Mongolia were determined. Zircon U-Pb dating gives the eruption age of rhyolite from the Baiyinwula region as 300.0±2.9 Ma, indicating that the volcanic member of Baoligaomiao Formation formed during the Late Carboniferous. The Qinggelebaolage tuff, which was considered as a part of Baoligaomiao Formation, has a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 159.6±1.4 Ma, belonging to Late Jurassic Manketouebo Formation, with three ages of captured zircons (291.8±3.4, 304.0±3.3 and 734.7±9.2 Ma, respectively). In-situ zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS Hf analyses show that magmatic zircons from Baiyinwula rhyolite and Qinggelebaolage tuff have εHf(t) values of +10.5?+12.9 and +10.1?+13.1, with TDMC of 493?645 Ma and 369?563 Ma, respectively. Thus, the Baiyinwula rhyolite should be derived from partial melting of Late Paleozoic juvenile crust with involvement of ancient crustal materials whereas the Qinggelebaolage tuff should be generated by partial melting of Late Paleozoic crust. Integrating previous studies, the results review that the Mesozoic and Paleozoic volcanic rocks in the Uliastai continental margin might be derived from similar sources, revealing that there was an important crustal accretion event in Late Paleozoic. Moreover, two Paleozoic captured zircon grains in Qinggelebaolage tuff, which have U-Pb ages of ca. 300 Ma, are similar in Hf isotopic features to the magmatic zircons from both the Baiyinwula rhyolite and the Qinggelebaolage tuff, signifying significant crust reworking during formation of the Late Jurassic Qinggelebaolage tuff. These results, together with previous data from the literature, indicate that in the Inner Mongolia Orogenic Belt, a transition from island arc to post-collision extension related to evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred at ca. 300 Ma, whereas the influence of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime was responsible for the Mesozoic volcanism (ca. 160 Ma).
    Late Quaternary Slip Rate of the Yushu Batang Fault and Its Tectonic Significance
    HUANG Xuemeng,TIAN Kun,DU Yi,HE Zhongtai,LEI Jinghao,MA Baoqi,XIE Furen
    2015, 51(1):  65-78. 
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    The Yushu Batang Fault, which controls the development of Quaternary Batang Basin, Boluo tan Basin and Dangyong tan Basin along it, is a major branch fault of the Yushu segment within Ganzi-Yushu Fault system. Based on morphotectonic mapping, interpretation of remote sensing images, fault profile analysis, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon (14C) dating, it is found that a series of fluvial terraces and alluvial fans are systematically offset by the Yushu Batang Fault and this fault is a Holocene left-lateral strike-slip fault along with some reverse component. The time of the latest activity of this fault is after 2.72 ka. Average left-lateral slip rate of this fault is about 2.3?3.7 mm/a and vertical slip rate is about 0.2?0.6 mm/a since Late Pleistocene. The Yushu Batang Fault plays an important role in accommodating strike slip deformation in Yushu segment and partitioned about a third of the strike slip deformation within Yushu segment. This study provides insight into the reasons of why the slip rate of Yushu fault is relatively low compared with other segments within Ganzi-Yushu Fault system and these results are essential to the seismic hazard assessment in Yushu area.
    Research and Application of the Three-Dimensional Complex Fault Network Modeling
    LI Zhaoliang,PAN Mao,YANG Yang,CAO Kai,WU Gengyu
    2015, 51(1):  79-85. 
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    For complex fault network, a new path cut algorithm was proposed, by which all types of complicated fault intersection can be dealt with, such as Y, λ, X, half-Y, half-λ contact relations. This fault modeling method not only avoids the limitation of the Pillar method and binary tree method, but also greatly improves the flexibility and accuracy of fault modeling. The method improves semi-automatic processing of the contact relationship between faults and quick updating of fault models. Through the validation of practical model, the modeling of complex fault network can be successfully and quickly solved, and the efficiency of modeling was also greatly improved.
    Shortest Time Path Algorithm Based on Shared Location Data
    ZHU Han,LI Huaiyu,XIAO Han,CHEN Xiuwan,WANG Tingting
    2015, 51(1):  86-92. 
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    In order to meet the need of reaching destination through a shortest time, while distributing flow reasonably, using public resources plenty, easing urban traffic jam during work peak period, the authors propose a shortest time target optimal path algorithm based on LBPSS (location based participatory sensing service) data. The algorithm is supposed to solve the lack of traffic information, road network coverage shortage, hysteresis traffic data update and data inconformity with reality. Then the goal of route navigation combining real-time traffic information can be achieved. Finally combining the ArcGIS and Android platform, using great methods of database as quick query, indexes and collections, the authors bring about an application example of shortest time path algorithm based on LBPSS data. Compared with recently popular algorithms, the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed algorithm are verified. The result shows that the algorithm proposed has more practical value in distributing traffic flow reasonably, in easing urban traffic jam during work peak period effectively and saving travel time wisely.
    Elevation Applicability Study of the Zenith Hydrostatic Delay Models
    CAO Yanfeng,CHEN Xiuwan,LI Wei,XIAO Han,LI Huayu
    2015, 51(1):  93-98. 
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    In order to study the three general models of ZHD, i.e. Saastamoinen model, Hopfield model and Black model, a Radiosonde method based on the radiosonde data is constructed to calculate the true value of ZHD. The elevation applicability of the three general models is studied by comparing the ZHD calculated by the Radiosonde method and three general models in the real and standard summer atmospheric conditions respectively at mid-northern latitudes of North American. It was found that three general models are all applicable to the height of 0-30 km; Black model and Saastamoinen model are in the same high precision level and Hopfield model has the worst accuracy. Finally, a localized ZHD-P model in high pressure range is discovered and constructed.
    A Characteristic Study of Crop Canopy Direct and Diffuse Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Based on SAIL Model Simulation
    LI Li,FAN Wenjie,DU Yongming,TANG Yong,XIN Xiaozhou,ZHANG Hailong,LIU Qinhuo
    2015, 51(1):  99-108. 
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    In order to discriminate the canopy’s absorption of direct solar radiation and scattered radiation and the influence to total FPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation), the SAIL (scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves) model is used to simulate the direct FPAR, scattering of FPAR and total FPAR under different weather condition. The main factors influencing the change of total FPAR and the difference between direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR are analysised. The results show that with the change of LAI, FPAR also has the saturation phenomenon. When the visibility is set as 5, 15 and 30 km, the contribution of scattering of FPAR on the total FPAR is 52.6%, 29.3% and 21.7%. The error between total FPAR and direct FPAR is reduced with the increasing of visibility and increased with the reducing of LAI. The maximum relative error is 13.2%. With the change of the solar zenith, the maximum relative error is 10.29% between direct FPAR and total FPAR. From the simulation analyses, it can be see that direct and diffuse FPAR are different with the changes of environment variables. So when modeling of FPAR, the diffuse part can not be ignored. Direct FPAR and diffuse FPAR must be modeled respectively. The total FPAR need to be calculated by the proportion of scattered radiation which is determined by the weather condition.
    Assessment of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils from the Lead-Zinc Mine by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
    YUE Cong,WANG Qunhui,YUAN Li,LIU Yangsheng
    2015, 51(1):  109-115. 
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    The contents of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr and Cd) in soils samples taken from the Laiyuan lead-zinc mine in Hebei Province were analyzed. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) developed by US EPA was employed to evaluate the pollution status and assess the environmental risk. Extraction reagents used in the TCLP experiments were investigated, and the relationship was examined between the concentrations of heavy metals by TCLP extraction and those of their chemical different speciation. The experimental results indicate that TCLP agent B (17.25 mL of glacial acetic acid is diluted to 1 L with distilled water, and the solution pH was 2.64 ± 0.05) is more effective than method TCLP agent A (5.7 mL of glacial acetic acid and 64.3 mL sodium hydroxide were diluted to 1 L with distilled water, and the solution pH was 4.93±0.05) in extracting heavy metals from the polluted soils. A positive correlation has been found between the concentrations of heavy metals extracted by TCLP agent A and those by TCLP agent B. The contents of available heavy metals by agent B are correlated with the total contents of enchangeable and carbonate-bound species.
    Relation Analysis of Land Use and River Water Quality in Plain City: A Case Study of Tianjin Coastal Region
    MENG Xiangwei,XU Xuegong
    2015, 51(1):  116-122. 
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    The authors use drainage area to substitute the urban river basin and better illustrate the relationship between water quality and urban land use by taking full consideration of plain urban specificity. Based on 11 rivers’ pollutants in Tianjin Costal region and RS image, GIS is used to analyze the qualitative correlation between land use data in drainage area and urban river water quality, hoping to provide method and theories support to analysis the rivers’ pollutants in plain urban area. The results show that the urban construction land use will increase the water pollutant such as Pb and Hg; the arable land will increase the organic pollutants level; the grass land and water body will serve as the cleaner of the pollutants and help to improve the water quality.
    Estimate of Anthropogenic HCFC-142b Emission from China in 2012 by Interspecies Correlation
    HAN Jiarui,LI Li,FANG Xuekun,WU Jing,SU Shen,WEN Xinyuan,WU Yusheng,HU Jianxin
    2015, 51(1):  123-130. 
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    The high-time-resolution atmospheric mixing ratio data were sampled at Peking University. The data was analyzed and led to the conclusion that HCFC-22 was the proper reference substance; CO, the idiomatic reference, was not suitable for interspecies correlation analysis when dealing with data from urban districts. Based on the observation data of HCFC-142b and HCFC-22 gained from four representative cities (Beijing, Hangzhou, Lanzhou and Guangzhou) in four seasons, China’s HCFC-142b emission in 2012 was calculated by interspecies correlation. The result was 16.24 (13.90?18.58) kt, equivalent to 1.06 kt ODP and 37 Tg CO2-eq, taking up 9.78% (ODP) of total HCFCs emission in China or 30.5% of global HCFC-142b emission. Therefore, China’s HCFC-142b control would play an important role in phasing out HCFCs domestically and globally.
    Space Differential Evaluation and Promotion Strategy of Ecotourism Carrying Capacity of Upper Reaches of Lijiang River Based on theMulti-level State Space Approach
    YANG Qian,MENG Jijun,WANG Xiaodong
    2015, 51(1):  131-140. 
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    An evaluation indicator system of the ecotourism carrying capacity of the upper reaches of Lijiang River, a hotpot of ecotourism was constructed. The evaluation was carried out on the dimensions of ecological environment, social economic and tourism resources by means of GIS spatial analysis techniques and multi-level state space approach, on the basis of remote sensing data, GIS data, and socio-economic statistical data. After that, the space differential evaluation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of the upper reaches of Lijiang River was carried out. The results show that the overall ecological environment carrying capacity of this region is comparatively high. Specifically, the ecological carrying capacity in the western, northern and northeastern parts are relatively high. The overall social economic carrying capacity is lower, which presents relatively high in Guilin, moderate in Lingchuan County, and low in Xing’an County. The overall tourism resources carrying capacity is comparatively moderate in the region, while the northern Guilin, Xing’an County, the northern mountainous area, and the southern Lingchuan are higher. The area of ecotourism carrying capacity which achieves or is superior to the ideal state accounts is for only 29.28%. The spatial distribution of ecotourism carrying capacity is uneven, which means high in the southwest and northeast while low in the northern and southeastern parts. Finally, corresponding suggestions on the basis of evaluation are put forward, providing guidance for the development and protection of the upper reaches of Lijiang River region.
    Control Studies of Peak Flow and Non-point Source Pollution for Urbanized Area Based on SWMM
    WANG Rong,QIN Huapeng,ZHAO Zhijie
    2015, 51(1):  141-150. 
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    To avoid urban waterlogging and control non-point source pollution, the characters and controls of non-point source pollution for urbanized area by field monitoring and simulating with SWMM were studied, and the effect with LID or BMPs in impermeable area was assessed. Results show that, as a discrete control device for rainfall runoff, LID could decrease the runoff coefficient, peak flow and non-point source pollution effectively. BMPs also could decrease peak flow and non-point source pollution for area studied but it had no effect on runoff volume control. Finally, it could decrease peak flow and non-point source pollution more efficient with the two measures combined utilization and minish the runoff coefficient at the same time.
    Temporal and Spatial Change of Land Use/Cover and Quantitative Analysis on the Driving Forces in the Yellow River Delta
    ZHANG Chengyang,ZHAO Zhijie
    2015, 51(1):  151-158. 
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    Remote sensing images of 2000, 2004 and 2010 are interpreted for analysis of temporal and spatial change of land use/cover. The result reveals that the total area is in dynamic change and the main land use/cover type has been changed from saline to cultivated land in the Yellow River Delta. There has been a rapid growth in urban land and rural residential land during 2000?2010. By using Logistic regression, conclusion is drawn that six geographical factors including elevation, slope, distance to the nearest reservoir, town, river and major road and 4 social and economic factors including population density, gross domestic product, fiscal revenue, and total industrial output are the main driving factors of land use/cover change in the Yellow River Delta. In addition, regional planning has a significant impact on land use/cover change by designating prohibited development areas.
    Diurnal Dynamics of Soil Respiration: Relationship with Temperature and the Most Suitable Measuring Time
    WANG Jiahui,FANG Yuan,WANG Wei,ZHANG Xinyue,YANG Yan
    2015, 51(1):  159-170. 
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    Soil respiration is very important for global carbon budget, while the measurements once a day may cause biases in results. For detecting the deviations, and determining the best time for measuring soil respiration rates, simultaneous determinations of the diurnal dynamics of soil respiration, soil temperature and air temperature of four vegetation types (forest, shrub, grassland, meadow) and 13 community composition types in the Saihanba Forestry Center, Hebei Province, north China were made from June to August, 2011. It was found that soil respiration rates deviate -26%~68% from the average when measured at different times. Soil respiration rate was less affected by time of day in the forest, while 7:30?10:30 and 17:00?19:00 may be the best time for measurements in grassland and meadow (average deviation < 10%). The daily variations in soil respiration rates were closely correlated to that of soil and air temperature. This study suggests that soil respiration rates are affected by daily changes that cannot be ignored.
    Soil Erosion Change in the Water Source Region of the Middle-Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP)
    LIU Yuanshu,LIU Yu,ZENG Yuan,WANG Honglei
    2015, 51(1):  171-179. 
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    In order to protect the regional ecological environment of water source region of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) and maintain the water quality security of Danjiangkou Reservoir, based on remote sensing and geographic information system, this study used Landsat TM and HJ-1A/B as data source to analyze the dynamic tendency of soil erosion in 2000 and 2011 in the water supplying area. The findings are as follows: in the past 12 years, gross area of soil erosion has decreased 234.72×104hm2 (42.15%), 46 in all 47 counties shows a trend of decrease, from 13.23% to 75.92% concretely; soil erosion intensity is mainly light, moderate, strong, the areas of light, moderate, strong, ultra strong, intense have dropped 24.81%, 50.34%, 47.41%, 48.24%, and 49.15%, respectively. The finding demonstrates that soil erosion problem in this area has been improved considerably, and remarkable achievements have been made in ecological construction and environmental protection.
    Organizational Justice and Employees’ Work Behaviors:Mediating Role of Psychological Safety
    ZHANG Yan,XIE Yunhui,WANG Lu
    2015, 51(1):  180-186. 
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    The mediating role of psychological safety was investigated in the relationship between organizational justice and employees’ work behaviors. Data was collected from 247 employees at two different time points in three Chinese technology service companies, and then was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results show that both employees’ distributive justice and procedural justice are positively related with psycholo-gical safety, and psychological safety plays a mediating role in the relationship of procedural justice and employ-ees’ outcomes including task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. The results provid a new perspective of inner psychological state to view the influences of organizational justice on employees’ behaviors.
    Causes of the Conflict between Mother and Daughter-in-law: Using a Mixed-Methods Analysis Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Approach
    ZOU Xin,MEI Yonghan,WU Yanhong
    2015, 51(1):  187-194. 
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    The purpose of current study was to determine causes of the conflict between mother and daughter-in-law, as well as to investigate factors (e.g., education background, residence and income level) that may have influenced their responses. 150 mothers-in-law and 156 daughters-in-law participated in investigate. A sequential mixed-methods analysis was conducted including qualitative analysis, constant comparison analysis, descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and ANOVA. The results revealed that the main factors affecting the causes of the conflict: 1) scrambling for power and resource (89.1%), 2) differences in attitude and behavior (83.2%), 3) distinctions between zijiren and wairen (64.4%). In addition, role of mother-in-law or daughter-in-law, residence, income level, education background, and status in family affected participants’ responses. The relation between mother and daughter-in-law is a main kind of family relation. To verify causes of the conflict between mother and daughter-in-law makes an instructive contribution to promote family and social harmony.