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Table of Content

    20 November 2014, Volume 50 Issue 6
    Comparative Study on Biodiversity Characteristics of Zoobenthos Community in Intertidal Wetlands under Different Environments
    MA Jiupeng,NI Jinren,LIU Tang
    2014, 50(6):  1077-1086. 
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    Comparative study of habitats as well as zoobenthos communities was made using 12 typical intertidal wetlands along Chinese shoreline, and relationship between habitats and biological communities were revealed. As results, zoobenthos communities in intertidal wetlands were spatially differentiated in line with the geographical zones. The environmental factors can interpret the zoobenthos community compositions at the levels of family and genus. On the other hand, tidal difference had great influences on the species number of zoobenthos characterized with its significant positive correlation between them, which was even more significant in the intertidal wetlands of similar natural conditions.
    Wildlife Tourism Experience Based on Internet Text Content Analysis: A Case Study of Chengdu Research Base for Giant Panda Breeding
    CONG Li,WU Bihu
    2014, 50(6):  1087-1094. 
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    Wildlife tourism experiences were examined in a unique place and species combination?giant pandas at the Chengdu Research Base for Giant Panda Breeding (CRBGPB) in Sichuan, China. The thematic analysis qualitative method was adopted in examining tourists’ written reviews of experiences interacting with giant pandas. ROST CM6 and NVivo 8 were used for the content analysis and qualitative coding. A variety of tourist experiences, motivations, and preferences were revealed. Although tourists’ experiences were varied, satisfaction increased with closer encounters and interactions with the giant pandas. The thematic analysis identified three features of the wildlife tourism experiences at CRBGPB: tourists, giant pandas, and settings. Tourists motivation mainly for the panda fan, education and destination feature. The behaviour of tourists mainly embodied in three links “visit”, “take photos” and “interaction”; tourist satisfaction is closely related to the extent interaction with panda, and the influence factors includes the giant panda behaviour, visiting time, tourists order, price, etc.
    Thermal Conductivity of the Crust: Measurement, Result and Geodynamical Significance
    HAN Jiangang,NING Jieyuan,ZHOU Tong
    2014, 50(6):  1107-1013. 
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    For studying partial melting possibly existed in the lower crust of Tibetan Plateau, the principle of the laser flash method (LFM) is analyzed. Result is that thermal conductivity measured by the LFM only includes lattice component. Further computations show that during the uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau the thermal conductivity is not the only controlling factor to produce melting material in the crust. Large-scale magmatism would be the result of a combined action produced by dissipated heat, involvement of water, accumulation of radioactive elements, as well as relatively low thermal conductivity in the crust.
    An Integrated CA-Markov Model for Dynamic Simulation of Land Use Change in Lake Dianchi Watershed
    HE Dan,ZHOU Jing,GAO Wei,GUO Huaicheng,YU Shuxia,LIU Yong
    2014, 50(6):  1095-1105. 
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    Taking Lake Dianchi Watershed as study area, the dynamics change degree of land use types in the watershed was analyzed based on interpretation data from TM image in 1990 and 1999. The direction of land use conversion was quantitatively analyzed by land use transfer matrix based on the Markov model. Meanwhile, land use change tendency of 2008 was simulated and forecasted based on land use conversion rules using multi-criteria evaluation method from GIS and combining with CA-Markov model. Compared with the interpretation data of 2008, Kappa coefficient of the simulated results was 0.7338, indicating that the simulated results were credible. The spatial patterns of land use change in 2017 and 2026 were simulated by using CA-Markov model. The results show that land use change is also active in this watershed and ecological restoration and reconstruction is still confronted with pressure. Farmland, forest, water and unused land will reduce from 2008 to 2026, while the grassland and construction land will continue to increase. Compared with the trend of land use from 1990 to 2008, the simulated result indicate that farmland, forest and construction land from 2008 to 2026 will keep the same change trend while grassland, water and unused land show the opposite change trend. Construction land will expand on the basis of the present and the change of water is little. Although forest resources will decrease in future, it is still the main land use types in watershed. Construction land expansion significantly increases the load of non-point source pollution in Dianchi. Unreasonable land use is one of the major causes of the water quality degradation in Dianchi Lake currently, and it is going to increase the pressure on the water environment and ecology of water basin in the future. Therefore, to maintain enough arable land per capita, lower fertilization strength, improve land utilization levels, keep a sufficient amount of ecological land, use construction land frugally and intensively, are some important measures to reduce the potential of non-point source pollution in the area. The research can provide scientific support for rational planning and management of land use, the policies formulating of ecological restoration and economic development.
    Spatial-Temporal Difference of Grain Yield Per Hectare during 1980?2012 at County Level and Its Balanced Increasing Potential in Henan Province
    LIU Yu,GAO Yunbing,GAO Bingbo,REN Yanmin
    2014, 50(6):  1106-1114. 
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    Based on the statistical data of 126 counties in Henan, using mathematical statistics method and spatial autocorrelation analysis, spatial changes and variation character of grain yield per hectare at county level in Henan Province during 1980?2012 are discussed by SPSS, ArcGIS and GeoDa software, and the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale are calculated. The results show that:1) During 1980?2012, grain yield per hectare and its absolute difference at county level take on increasing trend by and large, while the relative difference increases first and then decreases. The distributional pattern of grain yield per hectare changes from positive skewness to negative skewness, and the agglomeration degree of grain yield per hectare increases first and then decreases. 2) Grain yield per hectare at county level in Henan has a strong spatial autocorrelation with evident pattern “high in the eastern while low in the western”. The increment of grain yield per hectare descends from East to West at county level, and counties with higher increment of grain yield per hectare gather in the eastern plain area of Henan. 3) The changes of grain yield per hectare at county level show a positive spatial autocorrelation and the characteristic of spatial clustering of regional high value and low value is significant. The counties with “High-High” and “Low-Low” correlation are the majority. The counties with significant “High-High” correlation are mostly located in the eastern of Huang-Huai plain area and northwestern of the Hebei-Shandong-Henan low-lying plain area, while the counties with significant “Low-Low” correlation are mainly distributed in western Henan mountainous-hilly area and western of Huang-Huai plain area. 4) Henan Province is divided into 5 first-grade regions and 11 second-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of farming system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The potential output per hectare of the 5 first-grade regions could be sorted in descending order as hilly-mountainous region of Hubei-Henan-Anhui, piedmont region of Taihang mountain and Yanshan mountain, western Henan mountainous-hilly region, Huang-Huai plain region, and Hebei-Shandong-Henan low-lying plain region. The total potential output of Henan Province is 1.27×107 tons, and the 5 regions could be sorted as Huang-Huai plain area, hilly-mountainous region of Hubei-Henan-Anhui, piedmont region of Taihang mountain and Yanshan mountain, western Henan mountainous-hilly region, and Hebei-Shandong-Henan low-lying plain region.
    Difference in Post Event Rumination between High-Level and Low-Level Social Anxiety Students
    WANG Wenyu,QIAN Mingyi,DAI Guangnan
    2014, 50(6):  1115-1123. 
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    The research aimed to explore the difference in general processing and special processing of post event rumination between high-level and low-level social anxiety students. There is no coding rule for distinction of general and special post event ruminations, so the first study is prepared for the second study’s coding rule. In the first study, a semi-structured interview was conducted to 8 college students concerning their post event rumination thoughts after they had experienced a social anxiety event. The thoughts were then classified into different categories. In the second study, 45 college students were asked to fill up an open-end questionnaire collecting their post event rumination thoughts after a social anxiety event. The collected thoughts in the questionnaire were then coded. The general and special post event rumination thoughts were compared between high-level and low-level social anxiety students. Two major results and conclusions were: 1) The rate of general post event rumination in high-level social anxiety students was larger than those in low-level social anxiety students, the difference was significant marginally. 2) The rate of general post event rumination was positively correlated with the social anxiety level of students.
    Self-Other Decision-Making Differences Derived from Construal Level
    ZHANG Hui,LU Jingyi,XIE Xiaofei
    2014, 50(6):  1124-1132. 
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    The authors review the self-other decision-making differences, and propose that such differences are derived from decision makers’ cognitive differences in construal level. The mental construals are low when people make decisions for themselves, whereas the mental construals are high when they decide for others. Theoretically, self-other decision-making differences are illustrations of bounded rationality. Practically, understanding such differences as well as their mechanisms helps to achieve optimal decisions.
    Research Progress on the Environmental-Ecological Impacts of Land Use Change
    WANG Xiaodong,MENG Jijun
    2014, 50(6):  1133-1140. 
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    A review of impacts of the land use change on the single environmental factor as atmosphere, water, soil and organisms is given. The research progress of comprehensive influences of land use change on regional ecological system from the aspects of landscape ecological pattern, material energy flow, and ecological service value is summarized. Aiming at the shortages of the research, the authors put forward the prospects of the enhancement of cross-over study, the integration of multi-scale, the perfection of the blending of 3S technology and stimulation model, and the strengthening of study on environmental effect feedback mechanism.
    Review of PM2.5 Source Apportionment Methods in China
    ZHENG Mei,ZHANG Yanjun,YAN Caiqing,ZHU Xianlei,James J. Schauer,ZHANG Yuanhang
    2014, 50(6):  1141-1154. 
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    For the first time, PM2.5 source apportionment methods and techniques previously and currently applied in China are summarized, including sampling preparation, sampler selection, chemical speciation analysis, and source apportionment tools. The research direction for PM2.5 source apportionment work in China is also suggested. This review is expected to provide a fundamental understanding of PM2.5 source apportionment methods and to serve as an important reference for future source apportionment studies to be widely conducted in China and regulations or law for PM2.5 abatement in China.
    Research Progress in Culture Ecosystem Services (CES) and Its Development Trend
    DONG Liangeng,ZHU Wenbo,GAO Yang,LI Shuangcheng
    2014, 50(6):  1155-1162. 
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    The scale, evaluation index, method, the application in management and decision-making are reviewed through the published achievement of cultural ecosystem services (CES), and the research tendency is predicted. Perfecting the research framework, promoting the development of participatory mapping and strengthening the interaction between services are considered the most important topics in the future.
    Lens Distortion Detection and Quality Analysis for Stereoscopic Videos
    DONG Quanwu,ZHOU Tong,GUO Zongming,XIAO Jianguo
    2014, 50(6):  998-1006. 
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    The authors present a method to detect the stereo lens distortions, such as vertical misalignment, camera rotation, unsynchronized zooming, and color misalignment, which are introduced during the process of video capturing. Based on the result of stereoscopic correspondence, the geometrical errors are calculated for every matched feature point pairs. The overall lens distortion parameters are deduced from the statistical features of all points. Experiments are set on a video database which consists of video clips from an on-air 3DTV channel. Experiment result shows that the method is effective to find out distorted video clips. The subjective quality assessment experiment reveals some relationships between the lens distortions and the perceptual video quality.
    Internal Multiple Attenuation Method Investigation in Inverse Data Domain
    LI Lin,LIU Tao,HU Tianyue
    2014, 50(6):  1014-1020. 
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    The inverse data domain method is discussed to attenuate the internal multiples. This method is developed based on the SRME method, which constructs the internal multiples using the cross-correlation theory. By converting the data into the inverse data domain, the internal multiples can be eliminated easily. Some post-stack data and pre-stack data are introduced to testify the efficiency of the inverse data method, and the results confirm the potential for this method to attenuate the internal multiples.
    Geochronology, Geochemistry, Hf Isotope of Xiaojinggou Pluton in the Northern Margin of North China Craton and Its Tectonic Implications
    MO Nan,GUO Lei,TONG Ying,WANG Tao,LIU Jiang,LI Jianbo
    2014, 50(6):  1021-1034. 
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    In order to enhance the understanding of the late Paleozoic tectonic settings of northern margin of the north China craton (NNCC) and closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the zircon U-Pb age, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotope of the Xiaojinggou granite are conducted by LA-MC-ICP-MS, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The zircon U-Pb dating results indicate that the Xiaojinggou pluton was intruded at Permian (275±1 Ma, MSWD=0.93). All the granite have high contents of SiO2 (70.72%?to?72.64%), K2O (4.19% to 4.23%) with moderate A/CNK values (averaged at 1.1), suggesting that Xiaojinggou pluton is slightly peraluminous and belongs to the high-K calc-alkaline series. The concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) varies in the range of 87.67 to 101.51 μg/g. The Xiaojinggou pluton is characterized by enriched LREE patterns with slightly negative Eu anomalies. It is enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g. Rb, Ba, K, Sr), but depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g. Nb, Ta, Y, Yb, Lu), which suggest this plutou may be derived from partial melting of the lower crust. Zircon εHf(t) value varies from -9.56 to -5.00 and TDM2 varies in the range of 1.91 to 1.61 Ga. All these characters indicates that the Xiaojinggou pluton is probably generated by partial melting of Lower Proterozoic crust of the NNCC, accompanied by the possible assimilation of mantle-derived magmas. In view of the evolution of the Permian granitic magmatism in the NNCC, middle Permian Xiaojinggou pluton formes in the transition period from subduction to collision/post-collision, and the Paleo-Asian Ocean should close before late Permian.
    Discussion on Characteristics of Asymmetrical Model of Volcanic Eruption in Fault Basin and Controlling Factors of High-QualityReservoir of Volcanic Rocks
    ZHAO Zehui,XIAO Jianxin,DENG Shouwei,LUO Xia,XU Shujuan,JIANG Xiaohua,CHENG Honggang,CHEN Jun’an
    2014, 50(6):  1035-1043. 
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    Through the research of the drilling and seismic data, the asymmetrical model of volcanic eruption is built. It is proposed that the typical asymmetrical model of volcanic eruption style controlled by faults is characterized by one small-scale side on the higher part of faults and by the other large-scale side in the lower part of faults. Based on the statistics of 257 wells drilled volcanic rocks, the distribution regularities of volcanic rocks of Huoshiling and Yingcheng formation has been known. The comprehensive studies of features of the deep volcanic rocks and their physical properties suggest that the acidic volcanic rock is the best type of reservoir rock. The volcanic lithofacies controls distribution of high-quality reservoirs in every independent volcanic edifice. The acidic explosive facies around asymmetrical volcanic crater is the favorable zone for volcanic reservoirs. Deep fractures, which not only improve filtering conditions of seepage flow, but also impel growth of secondary pores, are important pathways for deep fluids as well as key factors for buildup of gas pool with high production. Besides, the high-angle fractures densely developed are easy to form the favorable reservoir zones with the assemblage of high-angle fractures and corrasive pores. In addition, the constructive diagenesis and super genesis are assignable factors for high quality reservoir forming.
    Sensitivity Experiment of Monte Carlo Tomography Algorithm of Water Vapor Using GPS Data
    WANG Jiuke,LIU Xiaoyang,MAO Jietai,ZHAO Chunsheng
    2014, 50(6):  1044-1052. 
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    The data of the network of 13 GPS are used to perform the sensitivity tests for the important parameters of the Monte Carlo tomography algorithm such as the average distance of the GPS stations, tomography temporal resolution and Monte Carlo random times. The accuracy of tomography rises with the decrease of the average station distance and the increase of the random times. However the decrease of the temporal resolution of the tomography does not help much to the accuracy of the tomography. A new way is also proposed to obtain the final tomography field. The final tomography field is obtained by averaging “sub-optimal” tomography fields instead of the one “optimal”, and it is proved to reduce the error by around 30%.
    Characteristics of the Three-Dimensional GPS Tomography Water Vapor Field during the Rainstorm
    WANG Jiuke,HAN Suqin,BIAN Hai,LIU Xiaoyang,SUN Dali,ZHAO Chunsheng
    2014, 50(6):  1053-1064. 
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    The three-dimensional water vapor field is obtained using Monte Carlo tomography algorithm based on the small-scale network of ground-based GPS. After the proof of the accuracy of the tomography water vapor field through the comparison between the profiles from the radiosonde and tomography field, the three-dimensional water vapor field and the data of Weather Radar are used to study the variation of the water vapor in the strong convection and heavy precipitation processes which took place on July 29, 2011. For the first time, the authors propose the continuous change and fine structure of the small-scale water vapor field during the convective processes. For local convection process, the tomography vapor field can capture the water vapor enrichment phenomenon and provide its location 20 minutes ahead the precipitation and it is an indication to the precipitation forecast. For rainstorm process, the water vapor field can explicitly show the position and intensity of the vapor transport source which meet well with the conclusion from the analysis of weather radar and meteorological situation.
    Methodology and Case Study of Sea Level Prediction Based on Secular Tide Gauge Data
    DUAN Xiaofeng,XU Xuegong,CHEN Manchun,LI Xiang
    2014, 50(6):  1065-1070. 
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    Based on the periodic, trending, and stochasticcharacteristics of secular tide gauge data, a predictive methodology using stochastic-dynamic model was present to the sea level change research. The periodic term was resolved by wavelet and spectrum analysis. Stepwise regression was applied to the trending term analysis. The residual sequence was fitted by autoregression moving average model. Least-squares iteration method was applied for parameter estimation ofthe superposition model, which was composed of significant period model, trending term model and the residual sequenceautoregression moving average model. The stochasticdynamic model is applied to 57 years’monthly mean sea level data from Tanggu tide gauge for case study. The results show that the predictive methodology based on stochastic-dynamic model is feasible and efficient in sea level change prediction. Considering the high accuracy of modeling and predicting, this methodology can be used as a reference for future studies in sea level change.
    Land Subsidence and Its Influencing Factors in Tianjin Coastal Area
    DUAN Xiaofeng,XU Xuegong,WANG Ruobai
    2014, 50(6):  1071-1076. 
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    Using the geodetic surveying data from 1980 to 2005, temporal and spatial distribution of land subsidence in the city area of Tianjin is implemented based on GIS tool. The results show that holistic subsidence rate reduces during 26 years and is increasing from shoreline to inland. Over-exploitation of groundwater is the most important anthropogenic influencing factor, and the secondary consolidation of soft clay is the main natural influencing factor. Restricting groundwater exploitation strictly is an effective measure to control land subsidence.
    Interconnections between Fibers and Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides
    FENG Wei
    2014, 50(6):  985-990. 
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    The author proposes a two-dimensional grating structure on the gold film to achieve optical interconnects between quadruple optical fibers and waveguides of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The structure is composed of four two-dimensional arc gratings of alignment. When the light strikes different structures, SPPs will be excited, focused and coupled to different waveguides, achieving optical interconnects between quadruple optical fibers and waveguides in the form of Equal, Butterfly and Perfect Shuffle Transformation respectively. The field distribution near the focal point is investigated with a simulation method based on Huygens-Fresnel principle and the experiment agrees well with the numerical simulation.
    On the Instability of Engineering Rock-Like Materials
    YIN Youquan,DI Yuan
    2014, 50(6):  991-997. 
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    Based on non-associative flow theory and elasto-plastic coupling theory, the instability of engineering rock-like materials was investigated. Due to the stiffness deterioration properties of engineering rock-like materials, material instabilities may occur in softening plastic, perfectly plastic and low hardening plastic phases. For the elasto-plastic coupling theory, positive definiteness of the elasto-plastic coupling constitutive matrix was discussed, and the condition of material instability was obtained. For the plastic potential theory, symmetric part of the constitutive matrix was used for material stability analysis and same results could be obtained.