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Table of Content

    20 January 2018, Volume 54 Issue 1
    Static Analysis of Injection Security Vulnerabilities Based on Symbolic Execution
    SUN Jinan, PAN Kefeng, CHEN Xuefeng, ZHANG Junfu
    2018, 54(1):  1-13.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.101
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    This research work receives symbols as input variables, simulates the execution of program, extracts the constraints binding with execution paths, such as security constraints, attack constraints and defense constraints, and constructs the SAT judgment matrix and UNSAT judgment matrix as injection vulnerabilities analysis models. According to the logical reduction results of the matrices, the states of injection vulnerabilities are decided. In the controlled experiments, the false positive and false negative ratios are greatly reduced, and the prototype system can generate correct exploits automatically.

    An Efficient Safe Directory Based File Protection Mechanism
    SHEN Manting, YU Yinyan, TANG Zhi, CUI Xiaoyu
    2018, 54(1):  14-24.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.088
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    Existing file protection approaches and the applications are suitable for the users who own one single device but not the users with multiple devices. A novel mechanism is proposed that provides an efficient and fast cryptographic-based protection approach for files in an appointed directory called safe directory. The highlights are its ability to protect sensitive files automatically in a short time and the support for secure file sharing across devices. All operations in the safe directory are monitored in real time and the files in the directory are protected automatically. Experimental results show that proposed mechanism performs well in performance.

    An Improved Multi-band Loudness Compensation Method Based on Nonlinear Frequency Compression for Digital Hearing Aids
    GUO Zhaoyang, WANG Bo, WANG Xin’an, ZHANG Guoxin
    2018, 54(1):  25-34.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.087
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    A comprehensive method applying a nonlinear frequency compression (FC) as complementary to multiband loudness compensation is proposed, which is able to improve loudness compensation and simultaneously increase high-frequency speech intelligibility for digital hearing aids. First, to avoid the spectral distortions in the sounds, speech intelligibility-based frequency spectrum splitting is introduced. Then a nonlinear FC (NLFC) is also proposed to compress the high-frequency sounds to the lower bands where the audibility is available. Moreover, the introduced NLFC adjusts compression ratio (CR) based on the speech intelligibility percentage in different frequency ranges. Finally, an adaptive wide dynamic range compression (AWDRC) with a time-varying CR is applied to achieve adaptive loudness compensation, and prevent the stationary CR of the typical wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) from generating a negative impact on the speech. The experimental test results show that the mean speech identification is improved at least 20% points in comparison with the typical WDRC or the conventional FC.

    Automatical System to Generate High-Quality Chinese Font Libraries Based on Component Assembling
    LIU Chengdong, LIAN Zhouhui, TANG Yingmin, XIAO Jianguo
    2018, 54(1):  35-41.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.082
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    Current Chinese font library generation systems bear a major drawback that the user is required to write all characters contained in the font library, which is rather boring and time consuming. This paper proposes a system to automatically generate Chinese font libraries of high quality based on component assembling. An input set of a few characters for users is selected to write according to the instructive information of Chinese characters. Then components of each written characters are extracted. Several selected components are combined to construct each unwritten character. Finally the complete Chinese personal font library is obtained, which contains 6763 Chinese characters according to the GB2312 standard. Experimental results show that the proposed system can generate personal Chinese font libraries with dramatically shorter time and still keep excellent quality.

    Fracture Development Characteristics in Tight Sandstone Oil Reservoir and Its Inspiration on Remaining Oil Recovery: A Case Study on the Chang-722 Layer of Yanchang Formation in Xin’anbian Area, Ordos Basin
    LU Xiangwei, DU Shuheng, ZHENG Kui, ZHANG Huanguo, SUN Tong, WANG He
    2018, 54(1):  42-48.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.150
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    Through the core observation, inter-well tracer test and water flooding front test, the fracture development characteristics of Chang-7 tight sandstone reservoir in Xin’anbian area of Ordos Basin are studied. The results show that maximum horizontal principal stress direction of Chang-7 tight sandstone oil reservoir in Xin’anbian area is NE60°?80°. The fracture type is mainly high angle fractures or vertical fracture, and fracture direction is NE75°?85°, the dip angle is 70°?85°. Dynamic monitoring data analysis shows that the micro fracture research area of tight sandstone oil reservoir developed widely and plays an important role in increasing the seepage channel and improving the permeability of matrix, water channeling easily along the fracture formation, resulting in the production of well water is fast. 3D geological modeling results show a high degree between oil saturation of tight sandstone oil reservoir in the study area and the degree of fracture development, which can effectively support the fracture of oil and gas reservoir and accumulation.

    Sedimentary and Geochemical Characteristics of Lacustrine Deposits of Member Ⅲ of the Shahejie Formation in Dongpu Sag
    PANG Dawei, JIANG Feihu, MU Xiaoshui, PENG Yang, DONG Lin
    2018, 54(1):  49-60.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.080
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    The core of well Pu-115 was systematically sampled to investigate the sedimentary and geochemical characteristics of the three types of rocks of the upper section of Mb Ⅲ of the Shahejie Formation: siliciclastics, carbonates and mixed rocks. The result indicates that the carbonate components of the target formation are proven to be authigenic. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates are significantly different from that of the carbonate components of clastic rocks. When siliciclastics are the dominant deposition, δ18O is depleted and does not covariate with δ13C, which suggests a relatively open system with minor evaporation and probably abundant inflow of fresh water. When carbonates deposite, oxygen isotope becomes heavier and carbon isotope excurses negatively. The positive trend of oxygen isotope may indicate a heavy evaporation or less inflow of fresh water, and the depletion of carbon isotope may denote the oxic condition of the bottom water. The frequent change of the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition may reflect a rapid shift of the redox state of the lake bottom, and the decrease of clastic components may indicate a fall of the lake water level and the lake was relatively isolated and closed during the deposition of the target formation.

    Formation Ages, Petrogenesis and Geological Implications of the Archean Granitoid Rocks in the Xinbin-Weiziyu Area, Northern Liaoning Province
    WANG Kang, LIU Shuwen, WANG Maojiang, WANG Wei, YAN Ming
    2018, 54(1):  61-79.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.067
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    The granitoid rocks in the Xinbin-Weiziyu area, northern Liaoning Province, comprise tonalitictrondhjemitic gneisses and monzogranite-syenogranite plutons. To determine their formation ages and petrogenesis, zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic analyses and whole-rock geochemical analyses are conducted on these granitoid rocks. LAICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating data reveal that the tonalitic and trondhjemitic gneisses emplaced at 2588±4 Ma (MSWD=1.3) and 2587±6 Ma (MSWD=1.8), respectively, and the monzogranite-syenogranite intrusions formed at 2555±4 Ma (MSWD=0.51). Whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Lu-Hf isotopes suggest that magmatic precursors of the tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and the magmas were contaminated by the mantle wedge materials during their ascent. Some of the monzogranitesyenogranite plutons were produced by partial melting of metagreywackes, whereas the others were generated by partial melting of a mixed source composed of metabasalts and metasedimentary rocks. Integrated with recent studies, the Neoarchean granitoid rocks in the Xinbin-Weiziyu area may have been generated under an active continental margin.

    Storage of Water in Inorganic Salt Hydrates and the Implications to Latent Heat in Phase Changes
    ZHAN Jia, QIN Shan, GAO Jing
    2018, 54(1):  80-86.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.070
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    The dehydration processes of three selected inorganic salt hydrates, CuSO4·5H2O, Na2HPO4·12H2O and Na2SO4·10H2O, were respectively investigated to obtain the influence of water on the latent heat. Simultaneous DSC (differential scanning calorimetry)-TG (thermogravimetry) combined with Raman spectroscopy were employed to monitored the dehydration processes and the structural variations. The result reveals that for those salt hydrates which dehydrate mainly crystal water at melting point, the role of water in the structure directly influences not merely the thermal effect but the latent heat. For most salt hydrates, the water content exhibits a negative correlation with the latent heat for per mole water. Na2HPO4·12H2O melts to a salt hydrate with fewer moles of water, whereas Na2SO4·10H2O melts to its anhydrous form. Previous studies claim that there exists a quantitative relationship between the latent heat of salt hydrate and the number of crystal water. However, the comparison of the dehydration processes of Na2HPO4·12H2O and Na2SO4·10H2O indicates that whether this conclusion is generally applicable needs further study.

    Similarity-Weighted Super-Virtual Interferometry to Enhance First Breaks
    Lü Xuemei, AN Shengpei, HU Tianyue, CUI Yongfu
    2018, 54(1):  87-93.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.071
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    When strong noise exists on local seismic traces with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), super-virtual interferometry (SVI) method can be used to increase the SNR of first breaks on far-offset traces, but may decrease the SNR of first breaks around the noisy traces. To solve this problem, the similarity-weighted super-virtual interferometry is developed. Correlation and convolution are applied to stack the first arrivals on neighboring traces in common phase, and consequently increase the SNR of first arrivals. The introduction of similarityweighted function improves the ability to suppress strong local abnormal noise. Both the synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to enhance seismic first breaks. At last, a discussion about the applicabilities and the anti-noise abilities of the proposed method is included.

    Climatic and Environmental Changes in More Than the Past 1800 Years as Recorded by Isotopic Carbon and Nitrogen in Organic Matter of Sediments from Western Foye Chi (Buddha Pond) on Taibai Mountain
    GAO Yishen, WANG Hongya, CHENG Ying, LIU Hongyan, ZHU Chenyi
    2018, 54(1):  94-104.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.075
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    A 50-cm core (hereafter referred to as “XFYC12-2”) was retrieved from western Foye Chi (Buddha Pond), a glacier-scour lake on southern slope of Taibai Mountain that is the main massif and peak of Qinling Mountain Range. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating and analyses of isotopic carbon and nitrogen of organic matter were performed on samples from XFYC12-2. Climatic and environmental changes occurring around this alpine during over the past ~1800 years were therefore reconstructed. Climatic and environmental conditions were still fairly cool and arid during 1811−1380 (or 1440) aBP. In 1380 (or 1440)−840 aBP, the climate and environment were warm and humid. This episode is probably corresponding to Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Climatic and environmental conditions deteriorated subsequently and were thus cold and dry over the period of 840?460 (or 520) aBP. This phase may correspond to Little Ice Age (LIA). Climatic and environmental conditions have turned to be warm and wet again during 460 (or 520)−100 aBP. The aforementioned process of climatic and environmental changes appears quite similar to what was reconstructed around another two lakes at the high altitudes of Taibai Mountain, what was generalized for eastern China and what was identified at another four study areas in eastern China.

    A Method for Extraction of Newly-Built Buildings in Road Region Using Morphological Attribute Profiles and One-Class Random Forest
    SHI Zhongkui, LI Peijun, LUO Lun, YANG Ke
    2018, 54(1):  105-114.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.073
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    The authors present a method for extraction of newly-built buildings in road-region using morphological attribute profiles and one-class random forest. The morphological attribute profiles are first obtained from bitemporal high-resolution remote sensing images. The morphological attribute profiles obtained and spectral features are then combined to extract newly-built buildings along road-regions using an improved one-class random forest. Bitemporal images of the Daoxiang Lake area in Beijing are used as experimental data to validate the proposed method, by quantitatively comparing with two conventional change detection methods, i.e., direct bitemporal classification and post-classification comparison methods based on support vector machine. The experimental results show that the accuracy of newly-built building extraction from the proposed method (i.e. using combined spectral features and attribute profiles) is significantly higher than that using only the spectral features, with an increase of 15.11% in Kappa. In addition, the Kappa of the proposed method is 1.78% and 25.15% higher than that of the direct bitemporal classification and that of the post-classification comparison. Therefore, the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Advantages of the one-class random forest include capabilities to effectively deal with high-dimensional data and measure the importance of different features used in one-class classification.

    Simulation of Temporal and Special Land Use Changes in Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration Using CLUE-S Model
    ZHANG Jin, ZHU Wenbo, WU Shuyao, LI Shuangcheng
    2018, 54(1):  115-124.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.137
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    For the land use demands of Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration cooperative development strategies, four kinds of land use policies, i.e. status quo continuation, food security, nature protection and urban expansion were made. A modified Cobb-Douglas utility function was developed to quantify the influence of different policies on various land use demands, and a CLUE-S model was built to simulate the spatial and temporal evolution of Jing-Jin-Ji land use under different policies. Results show that, compared with year 2010, great changes occur on land use areas and patterns in the year 2020 under different policies. “Status quo continuation” is characterized by the continuous expansion of urban groups, increasing the construction land by 2280 km2. “Food Security” significantly increases the arable land by 3611.4 km2, while reducing the ecological land including forest and grassland. “Nature protection” greatly reduces the area of arable land by 3082.13 km2, while increasing forest, grassland and water area by 3726.4 km2. “Urban expansion” substantially increases the construction land by 3375 km2, while decreasing other types of land use. Spatially, every land use policy has its significant regional characteristics in land use conversion. The increase of construction land always comes together with the decrease of arable land, which tends to occur in the existing urban surroundings. The increase of ecological land is more often seen in Bashang plateau, Yanshan Mountains as well as Taihang Mountains. This study has great reference value in designing optimal land use policies, especially in the gradual implementation stage of the Jing-Jin-Ji collaborative development strategies.

    Approaches of Buildings Carbon Mitigation Based on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Civil Building Energy Consumption: A Case Study on Shenzhen, China
    LIU Shuangshuang, WANG Jun, XU Ye, ZENG Hui
    2018, 54(1):  125-136.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.129
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    The DeST model is used to simulate the energy consumption of typical civil buildings in Shenzhen, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of energy consumption of various types of buildings are summarized. The results show that different civil buildings in Shenzhen have different energy consumption characteristics in space and time. Residential buildings with low energy consumption per unit area are most widely distributed, and commercial buildings with limited numbers have the largest volume and high energy intensity, so the total consumption can not be ignored. Meanwhile, office buildings, most sensitive to the parameters change, have great energy saving potential. Combined with the development plan of Shenzhen 13th Five-Year Plan, suggestions on the strategy of building carbon reduction in Shenzhen can be summarized as follows: 1) building a comprehensive smart city, creating an exhaustive monitoring network for measuring energy consumption of various types of buildings, managing energy consumption behavior more scientifically; 2) constructing green buildings in an allround way, implementing green building standards when constructing new buildings, and valuing the reconstruction of old buildings as well, taking appropriate measures (for instants, taking part of the transformation, demolishing and reconstructing, optimizing the room combination and improving energy efficiency) when reconstructing according to the different energy consumption characteristics of the different types of buildings.

    Characteristics of Water Quality Changes in the Futian Mangrove National Natural Reserve
    NIU Zhiyuan, SHEN Xiaoxue, CHAI Minwei, XU Hualin, LI Ruili, QIU Guoyu
    2018, 54(1):  137-145.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.138
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    The research monitored the water quality regularly and analyzed its spatial and temporal changes from 2014 to 2015 in the Futian Mangrove National Nature Reserve. Based on the water quality monitoring results from 2009 to 2014, the annual variation trend of water quality was also studied. The results showed that the DO was generally lower, and the average concentrations of TN, TP, COD and BOD, were 4, 2.6, 1.3 and 1.3 times higher than the class V standards of surface water respectively, the water was in heavy eutrophication status. The pollution level in dry season was significantly higher than in rainy season. From 2009 to 2014, the average concentrations of TN and TP showed a trend of decreasing firstly and then increasing, the BOD values kept rising and the COD values kept falling. Instead of heavy metals pollution, it was the organic pollution, mainly coming from the exogenous input, which have been the key problem of the water pollution, and it needs to take measures to control the pollution immediately.

    On-road Transportation Carbon Emission Characteristics of Main Roads and Low-Carbon Transportation Development Scenarios in Shenzhen, China
    XU Ye, WANG Jun, LIU Shuangshuang, ZENG Hui, HUANG Lian
    2018, 54(1):  146-156.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.136
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    Using the international vehicle emission (IVE) model and on-road vehicle monitoring data, the carbon emission factors of three main types of vehicles in Shenzhen were calculated. Then, the authors estimated carbon emission intensities of several main roads and analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of transportation carbon emissions in Shenzhen. Finally, scenario analysis was used to quantitatively compare three kinds of low-carbon transport development strategies. The results showed that the transportation carbon emissions of the investigated roads were highly spatially heterogeneous, and the intensities of transportation carbon emissions in urban centers and the roads linking urban centers were higher than other roads. The transportation carbon emissions of the investigated roads had apparent daily cycle, and they had four main types: single-peak curve, double-peak curve, fluctuation curve, and stable curve. The transportation carbon emissions were high in morning and evening commuting hours during workdays. The comparative analyses of three low-carbon transportation development scenarios indicated that the mild-constraint carbon mitigation scenario could better meet the targets of socioeconomic development and transportation development of Shenzhen.

    Study of an Optimum Population under the Water Environmental Restriction
    FU Zhenghui, LU Wentao, ZHAO Haojin, GUO Huaicheng
    2018, 54(1):  157-161.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.120
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    Considering per person GDP, water resource and sewage discharge of per capita, an inexact fuzzy linear programming model is applied for regional population management in Xining, China. The result indicated that the Xining’s population would be [282.16×104, 324.00×104], [241.94×104, 282.88×104] and [220.32×104, 261.93×104] under the scenario of low, medium and high degree of satisfaction. Meanwhile, the shortage of available water resource would be the limiting factor on the growth of regional population.

    Survey Research on Residential Building Energy Consumption in Urban and Rural Area of China
    WANG Yue, ZHAO Pengjun
    2018, 54(1):  162-170.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.159
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    Based on the questionnaire of 10 cities and towns in China, this research has found that there are significant differences between urban and rural area in China through the data analyzing. The survey mainly includes five aspects: energy consumption for heating and cooling, lighting energy consumption, household electricity appliances’ energy consumption, and the energy consumption for cooking. The findings show that the main energy resource are electricity, natural gas and coal and the main energy consuming activities are heating, cooking and household electricity appliances’ consumption. In addition, the results of survey reflect the difference in energy source and consumption structure between urban and rural area. Generally, the per capita energy consumption in urban is 3.2 times of rural life. Gas and electricity are the main energy source in urban area while electricity power and coal have a high proportion in rural residents. The survey results provide important reference for China to implement energy saving policy.

    A Study of Ecological Water Requirement and Efficiency of Water Allocation Based on Oasis Irrigation Area Scale: A Case of Middle Reaches of Heihe River
    MENG Jijun, WANG Jiangwei, WANG Ya, ZHOU Zhen, JIANG Song
    2018, 54(1):  171-180.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.142
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    Based on many data sources, such as basic geographic information, land use and cover information and statistic data of irrigation areas, the authors picked agricultural irrigation areas in the middle reaches of Heihe river as a study area and analyzed the spatial-temporal distributions of ecological water requirement with Penman-Monteith equation and NDVI data. Considering the real water diversion and consumption per unit grain yield, the efficiency of water allocation was also analyzed. The results show that the annual potential evapotranspiration is between 800 and 1200 mm and the peak occurs between June and August. Average annual potential evapotranspiration is between 614 and 999 mm while maximum of demand appears from April to August. Ecological water requirement reduces from southeast to northwest gradually which is relatively larger along the Heihe river. Ground water plays major role in water diversion while underground water is minor. The yield of water diversion is the largest in 2008 and irrigation areas which have more water diversions flock around the Heihe river. Overall, water resource allocation overthere is fair good. Water supply-demand rate around Heihe river is generally greater than 1 while it is opposite in Shandan and Minle. Nearly 80% of the irrigation areas can be considered as efficient or relative efficient regions. There are four irrigation districts are inefficient and only one is short of water diversion. Therefore, adjustment of water diversion in some certain regions with promotion of water saving technology can enhance the efficiency of water allocation roundly. The results provide feasible reference to improve the efficiency of water allocation in arid area.

    Research on Land Use Functions Classification and Evaluation System Based on System Theory
    LIU Chao, XU Yueqing, LIU Yanxu, SUN Piling, HUANG An, ZHOU Jian
    2018, 54(1):  181-188.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.132
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    The authors systematically identify and classify land use functions based on the system theory, and then construct the multi-scale and multi-level evaluation index system of land use functions from three aspects of economy, society and ecology from the perspective of patch scale. A preliminary attempt is made to obtain and spatialize index data. The results show that land use functions has multiple levels and regional characteristics, corresponding classification and evaluation index system should be established according to different regional background and research scale. Land use functions are related to land use structures, and its evaluation scale is extended to the micro-scale, which is helpful to expand the scope and enrich content of the study of land use functions.

    Isolation, Identification, and Biodegradation Characteristics of a Benzo[a]pyrene-degrading Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. Bap30
    ZHU Tingting, NI Jinren, PENG Shenghua
    2018, 54(1):  189-196.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.049
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    An enrichment method was used to enrich functional bacteria in continuous fluid using porous carrier, which simulated dynamic environments. This method was developed based on the theory of enrichment culture and medium retain manner technique. Four bacteria strains were isolated from sewer using benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to provide energy and carbon, among them a single strain of bacteria isolated, identified as Acinetobacter sp. Bap30 according to 16S rRNA gene sequence and identification of its physiological and biochemical characteristics, grew in mineral salt medium with 40 mg/L BaP and degraded 28.7% BaP after 20 days of incubation. The BaP-degradation function of Acinetobacter genus has not been previously reported in the literature. Addition of extra carbon sources (in particular sucrose) and phenanthrene (a low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) influenced the degradation rate, which was effectted by the type and concentration. The present study is of practical importance in environmental engineering, given that BaP is a highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) commonly found in petroleum-polluted soil and industrial discharges such as coking wastewater.

    Research on the Premium Effects of Visible Water Volume on Residential Land Price: A Case Study in Shenzhen
    WU Jiansheng, ZHU Jie, LIAO Xing
    2018, 54(1):  197-206.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.144
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    It is necessary to explore the influence of water visibility on land price under the mechanism of Bid Invitation, Auction and Listing in order to provide a reference both for the government to stabilize the market and for the market participants to make rational purchasing decisions. This research selects Shenzhen as the study area and collects the residential land transaction data released by Shenzhen Land Real Estate Trading Center and multiple POI data from Google earth and Baidu map, as well as Landsat data. The study quantitatively analyzes the influence of water visibility on residential land price and discusses the spatial differences of visual water premium effects on the basis of GWR model. The result shows that, the residential land price premium on every 10000 m2’s increase of visual sea area ranged between 0.4 to 0.79 yuan/m2, increasing 0.005%–0.009%, besides, the contribution of per level’s visual reservoir area promotion ranges between 1176 yuan/m2 to 1991 yuan/m2, increasing 13.490%–22.838%, and the visual length of the secondary river network increased every 100 m producing the premium ranges between 122 to 503 yuan/m2, increasing 1.399%–5.770%. The volume of visual water showes obvious spatial heterogeneity on the distribution of Shenzhen’s residential land price. It could be seen that visible lengths of the secondary river network gradually declined from the east to the west. The premium peaks of visible sea area distributed in Futian, Luohu and Yantian districts, and declined from those areas both eastwards and westwards. The premium peaks of reservoir visible level on the land price was mainly located in Futian, Luohu and Longgang districts, which also showed a decline trend on the direction of east-west. This study is expected to enrich the theory of factors that influence land price location and meanwhile offers a detailed instruction for quantitative analysis of landscape visibility.

    Community-Based Tool for Sustainable Transition: Reflection on a Garbage Sorting Experiment in Beijing
    TONG Xin, TAO Dongyan, FENG Ling, WEN Bufan
    2018, 54(1):  207-217.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.102
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    With a review on the community-based tool developed from common resource management in three perspectives: behavior studies, governance evolution, as well as the scale issue when addressing broader impacts of local collective actions, this paper presents an experimental garbage-sorting initiative in Hongfuyuan (H community), a residential community in northern suburb Beijing. Firstly, the behavior change of the participating households was studied as response to the continuous promotions for three years. The finding is that constant onsite communications were important in shaping people’s attitudes and behaviors, while economic incentives could be effective only in short term. Second, the evolution of the governance structure among all stakeholders in this program was reflected and compared with other communities using the same technology. The result shows that the difference in key enablers in the program could have significant impact on the sorting behavior in practice. Third, the discussion was extended from the community action to the urban waste management system in large, and suggested that the emerging scheme of Extended Producer Responsibility could be helpful to make this kind of programs into sustainable business model by including critical external players into the governance structure. In conclusion, the implications of this research were proposed to apply the participatory approaches in community planning by bridging the scientific research of material flow analysis to the social actions towards sustainable production and consumption.

    Key Processes and Mechanisms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Lakes
    WU Zhen, WU Sifeng, LIU Yong, ZHANG Yuyu, XIE Shuguang, GUO Huaicheng
    2018, 54(1):  218-228.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.143
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    Special attention has been paid to three types of processes, that is, source process, removal process and internal cycling. Through the summary of literatures, the mechanisms of typical cycling processes, such as sediment release and denitrification, were discussed. The comparison of contributions of different cycling processes was listed as well. Moreover, the main research approaches of experiment and modeling in this field were well summarized and compared, raising a general framework for the study of nutrients cycling in lakes. With the purpose of looking into the cycling of nutrients, different approaches should be combined together. For example, mechanism models and observation for the mass balance of nutrients, then the microcosmic experiments for the impact factors of cycling processes. It is an efficient way to explore the cycling of nutrients in lakes.