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Table of Content

    20 May 2018, Volume 54 Issue 3
    Chinese Text Sentiment Classification by H-RNN-CNN
    LUO Fan, WANG Houfeng
    2018, 54(3):  459-465.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.168
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    The authors present a hierarchical neural network H-RNN-CNN as a general model to represent text in sentiment analysis. Firstly, since information may lose in long text, the authors divide the text by sentence and use them as middle layer. Secondly, recurrent neural network is used to process sequence and relationship across sentences is captured by convolutional neural network. Moreover, the effectiveness of the variants of recurrent neural network and the pre-trained embedding are discussed. Experiment results demonstrate that the approach works well on several datasets.

    Research on Automatic Recognition of Auxiliary “DE”
    LIU Qiuhui, ZHANG Kunli, XU Hongfei, YU Shiwen, ZAN Hongying
    2018, 54(3):  466-474.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.167
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    Based on the triune Chinese function word usage knowledge base (CFKB), the rule-based method, CRF (conditional random field) model and GRU (gated recurrent unit) are adopted to automatically recognize the usages of auxiliary “DE”, and the accuracy rates are 34.4%, 77.5% and 81.3% respectively. In order to improve the accuracy, some usages of auxiliary “DE” are combined and formed coarse-grained usage. The accuracy of CRF achieves 81.8%, and the accuracy of neural network model achieves 84.5%. It is expected that the recognition result of auxiliary “DE” can improve the performance of other NLP task.

    A Method for Semantic Roles Labeling Consistency Calculation Based on Multi-features
    KE Yonghong, ZHU Yongfu, SUI Zhifang, YU Shiwen
    2018, 54(3):  475-480.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.166
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    The authors state an automatic method for semantic role labeling consistency calculation, based on the features of annotated corpus’ format, structure, content and user performances. The expriment shows that the proposed method is fast, stable and has high recall rate, and it can greatly improve the quality and efficiency.

    An Approach of Sentence Similarity on Tree-LSTM
    YANG Meng, LI Peifeng, ZHU Qiaoming
    2018, 54(3):  481-486.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.169
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    Based on the shallow tree and dependency tree, the authors introduce the structural representations, NPST (new phrase-based shallow tree) and NPDT (new phrase-based dependency tree) to Tree-LSTM to compute sentence similarity. Experimental results manifest that the proposed approach achieves a higher performance than the baseline.

    Research and Implementation of Multi-component Seismic Monitoring System AETA
    WANG Xin’an, YONG Shanshan, XU Boxing, LIANG Yiwen, BAI Zhiqiang, AN Huiyao, ZHANG Xing, HUANG Jipan, XIE Zheng, LIN Ke, HE Chunjiu, LI Qiuping
    2018, 54(3):  487-494.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.171
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    The authors introduce the multi-component seismic monitoring system AETA (acoustic & electromagnetic testing all in one system). The results of experiments in Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet, Hebei, Beijing and Guangdong prove that the system AETA has the proper sensitivity with low cost and is easy to be installed. Meanwhile, the raw data and feature data refined from raw data have a good indication of earthquake. More subsequent experiments will be organized in west of China, capital circle of China and Taiwan Strait for deep research on effect of prediction.

    Development of Inductive Magnetic Sensor for Multi-component Seismic Monitoring System AETA
    YONG Shanshan, WANG Xin’an, PANG Ruitao, JIN Xiuru, ZENG Jingwu, HAN Chaoxiang, XU Boxing
    2018, 54(3):  495-501.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.170
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    According to the multi-component seismic monitoring system’s technology requirements, an inductive magnetic sensor is presented and the design analysis and industrial implement are discussed. According to the requirements of electromagnetic disturbance monitoring, the authors define the design parameters and propose a well-considered plan on materials choosing and architecture designing. The covered frequency range is 0.1 Hz – 10 kHz, the temperature range is ?40 – 130°C, the monitoring range of magnetic field strength is 1 – 1000 nT, and the sensitivity requirement is larger than 20 mV/nT@(0.1 Hz – 10 kHz). The final test shows that the performance is achieved. This sensor is applied in multi-component seismic monitoring system which is being installed widely.

    Dimensionless Model and Numerical Solution for 1D Horizontal Spontaneous Imbibition
    ZHAO Guozhong
    2018, 54(3):  502-510.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.183
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    The reservoir parameters affecting imbibition performance are normalized. The dimensionless model for 1D horizontal spontaneous imbibition in consideration of capillary back pressure is derived. In the model, the normalized water saturation and dimensionless water pressure are chosen as the primary unknown variables. The capillary pressure function only appears in one PDE in the model which is convenient to be solved numerically. The numerical solution can be obtained by the fully implicit and conservative difference scheme with the saturation function value between two adjacent points to be set on the value at the arithmetic average saturation for the two points. The solution of this model with relative permeability and capillary pressure curves matching power law is discussed. The assumption used by prior researchers to obtain the analytical solution for 1D incompressible spontaneous imbibition problem is pointed out to be only partially applicable for purely countercurrent case. More numerical results for co-current imbibition cases are also obtained and discussed, and some preliminary cognition about the variation of imbibition performance along with reservoir parameters is concluded.

    Numerical Study on Effects of Lateral Variations of Moon Crustal Thickness on Lunar Seismic Wave Propagation
    CHEN Fei, WANG Yanbin
    2018, 54(3):  511-520.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.092
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    A 2-D staggered grid pseudospectral and finite difference hybrid method is applied to perform numerical simulations of lunar seismic wave propagation in a laterally heterogeneous crustal Moon model. The relief of lunar crust and mantle interface is defined with different height, width and position based on the present lunar structural models. The effects of these factors on lunar records are discussed, respectively. How the lateral variations of Moon crustal thickness affects the strong wave coda of lunar signals is revealed. The results show that the height of the relief dominates the formation of strong wave coda, greatly affects the duration time and amplitude of the coda. The width of the relief has impact on the amplitude. The effect of position of the relief is complex, not only affecting the travel time of P and S waves, but also the duration time and amplitude of the coda.

    Paleomagnetic Inclination Shallowing in Lower Triassic Liujiagou Formation from Qinshui Basin, North China Block
    ZHOU Tinghong, HUANG Baochun, JIA Shufei, LIANG Yalun, ZHANG Donghai, ZHAO Qian, ZHANG Ye, YAN Yonggang
    2018, 54(3):  521-534.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.100
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    A combined paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and magnetic fabrics study is conducted on the redbeds of Early Triassic Liujiagou Formation from Qinshui Basin, North China Block (NCB). The E/I (elongation/inclination) method indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) was significantly affected by inclination shallowing with a flattening factor f=0.6. Rock magnetic analysis indicates that hematite and magnetite are the main magnetic carriers. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) result shows typical depositional fabrics in water. The chRM has been successfully isolated from 15 sites with tilt-corrected mean direction of Ds=318.8°, Is=30.9° (α95=6.9°) and a corresponding paleomagnetic pole at 49.3°N, 5.5°E (A95=6.7°). The pole after E/I correction is 53.5°N, 18.0°E. Combining with published high quality Early Triassic pole (Q≥4) for NCB, the mean Early Triassic pole for NCB before and after inclination shallowing correction is 55.3°N, 357.1°E (A95=5.5°) and 60.8°N, 13.4°E (A95=5.8°), respectively. The paleolatitude of NCB is obviously higher at Early Triassic after inclination shallowing correction with ~10° increase. Furthermore, the corrected Early Triassic paleolatitude of NCB seems to be different from that of South China Block (SCB) at the east, which may result from the inclination shallowing error in Early Triassic limestone rocks of SCB instead of the real separation between the two blocks.

    Marine Seismic Data Deghosting With 1.5D Inverse Scattering Series Method
    XIE Yueyue, HU Tianyue
    2018, 54(3):  535-545.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.089
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    In order to solve the problems such as large computation and high requirement of geometry in the traditional 2D ISS (inverse scattering series) method, the 1.5D ISS deghosting method is proposed after dimensionality reduction from 2D ISS method. The examples of data study show that the 1.5D method can save lots of calculation and also degrade the requirement of geometry. 1.5D ISS method does not need any subsurface information and wavelet estimation, and it is suitable for different kinds of complex structure and low signal to noise ratio seismic data. Besides, the 1.5D ISS method can remove the ghosts from marine seismic data effectively and enhance resolution; simultaneously it will expand the frequency band and compensate the null frequencies energy.

    Characteristics and Genesis of Geoheritage Resources of Taihang Mountain
    WANG Hui, LI Jianghai, WU Tongwen
    2018, 54(3):  546-554.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.098
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    Based on field investigation, the previous scientific research and studies of genesis, shapes, scales of geoheritage resources, the authors divided the geoheritage resources of Taihang Mountain into 5 categories, i.e., geological profiles, geological structure, paleontology, geomorphologic landscape and water landscape. The most typical geological heritages are tectonic landform, fluvial landform, rock landform and waterfall landform. Combined with Cenozoic geological background of Taihang Mountain, the interrelationship and genesis of planation surface, canyon landform, waterfall landform and karst landform was studied in detail. The results have great significance in promoting the scientific value of the geological heritage and provide lots of materials for the study of the evolution of Taihang Mountain.

    3-D Seismology Interpretation and Structure Analysis of Early Permian Flood Basalt Volcanic Edifices in Tarim Basin
    GAO Zhongbo, WANG Lei, TIAN Wei, GONG Mingyue
    2018, 54(3):  555-562.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.118
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    The volcano edifices from Tazhong-47 exploring area in the middle of Tarim basin are interpreted by 3-D seismological reflection data coupled with physical drilling well logs. Based on seismic profile interpretation and velocity analysis, the structure of the volcano edifices of continental flood basalt (CFB) are studied. The result shows that reflectors beneath the Tazhong-47 volcanic edifice are corresponding to basaltic intrusions, which have average velocity of 5800 m/s, and the clastic wall rocks have average velocity of 3500 m/s. Based on the calculation of the stratigraphical thickness between the two horizontal markers (Permian-Triassic boundary as named “P-top” and top of bioclastic limestone as named “BL-top”) at drilling well, it is found that the basaltic intrusions make the upper layer relative to the lower layer marks move the 159.1 m upward. This is equal to the uplift extent. By using the “velocity pull-up (VPU)” effect, the total thickness of the basaltic sills is calculated to be 167.7 m, which is similar to the uplift extent. This similarity suggests that the uplift at the volcanic center was the result of “forced folding” caused by the intrusion of the magma. This emplacement style is the same as that of the Karoo large igneous province and the North Atlantic igneous province.

    New Discovery of Macroscopic Algae Fossils from Shibantan Bituminous Limestone of Dengying Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, South China
    YANG Fan, QIN Shujian, DING Weiming, XU Yihe, SHEN Bing
    2018, 54(3):  563-572.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.093
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    The macroscopic algae fossils from Shibantan bituminous limestone of Dengying Formation in the Xiadong area, Hubei province were studied. There are one genus and three species (including two new species) and one new macroscopic algae fossils with monopodial branching character (genus and species are unidentified) from the Sixi section. Monopodial-branching type fossil represents the first macro-algae fossil with the monopodial branching discovered in the terminal Ediacaran Dengying and equivalent formations in South China. Vendotaenia sixiense new species and Vendotaenia pavimentpes new species are the algae fossils with branching and holdfast, respectively. The new discovery suggests that the morphology of macroscopic algae fossils might be more complex than previous think, and has the great significance to the evolution research of the early multicellular macroalgae.

    Stress Criterion of Effective Development on Yanchang Formation Reservoir in Jing’an Area, Ordos Basin
    LU Xiangwei, DU Shuheng, ZHENG Kui, ZHANG Huanguo,WANG He, SUN Tong
    2018, 54(3):  573-578.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.178
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    Through the analysis of casting thin sections, 3D geological modeling, special logging series and micro seismic monitoring, reservoir stress characteristics of Jing’an area were studied. The results show that: 1) the distribution of the direction of micro pore and throat would cause the stress anisotropy; 2) differences in each layer of Chang 4+52 sandstone are big, the lateral superposition characteristics of multi-periods channels have the major influence on stress distribution; 3) the stress difference in the study area is generally not large with the value of 3?6 MPa, with the development of water flooding development, the variation of the two main stress varies in the reservoir, resulting in the multi-directional development of fractures in the process of repeated fracturing. The results can provide a scientific basis for improving oil recovery in the middle and late development of low permeability reservoirs.

    Oxidation Modification of Natural Molybdenite Using Concentrated Sulfuric Acid and Its Electrocatalytic Properties
    QIANG Jingya, CHUAN Xiuyun
    2018, 54(3):  579-584.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.083
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    The purified molybdenite were obtained using concentrated sulfuric acid and heating oxidation method, and the samples before and after oxidation were characterized systematically based on X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, its electrocatalytic properties were tested and analyzed. The results show that the average grain size of MoS2 (002) crystal plane direction decreases by 14% and interlayer spacing increases 0.04Å after concentrated sulfuric acid oxidation, and S2− is oxidized into S6+, indicating that layers of Molybdenite can be stripped through oxidation. The reductive peak of potential move forward after oxidation, implying reduction enhancement on p-nitrophenol.

    Properties and Mechanism of Different Species of Tourmaline Material on Formaldehyde Purification
    WANG Ling, JU Xuecheng, HU Min, LIAO Yingming
    2018, 54(3):  585-592.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.180
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    Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the chemical and structural differences of a series of natural tourmaline crystals including six species respectively from Xinjiang (XJF, XJ and XJZ), Yunnan (YN), Guangxi (GX) and Brazil (BXL). The results indicated that the species XJ, YN and GX are schorl, XJZ is dravite, XJF is elbaite, and BXL is tsilaisit. The FeO contents of the three species XJ, YN and GX are in an order of XJXJ>XJZ>BXL>YN>GX. The result may be caused by polyhedron distortions of YO6 octahedron. It can be concluded that the ability of formaldehyde purification will increase along with the increased mesh number.

    Comparison of Different Ecosystem Respiration Models and Its Application in Carbon Cycle Research over Semi-arid Grassland during Growing Season
    JIANG Haimei, ZHANG Deguang, WANG Ruojing, HE Xusheng, CAO Le, WANG Chenggang
    2018, 54(3):  593-604.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.001
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    The turbulence data observed by eddy covariance system combined with soil temperature and soil volumetric water content (VWC) data from Xilinhot National Climate Observatory were used to analyze respiration process and its key climatic influencing factors of the semi-arid stipa grassland ecosystem in Xilin Gol during the growing season from 2010 to 2012. The applicability of four different ecosystem respiration models over this ecosystem was compared, including three multiplication models and a Q10 model. Based on this research, the interannual variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary productivity (GPP) were discussed. The respiration was affected by soil temperature and soil water content, in which soil water content was an important limiting factor. The precipitation in 2010 and 2011 was less than normal, so this ecosystem suffered from different degrees of drought stress. The respiration rate increased significantly with soil water content in the range of 12%?20%, while it was not sensitive to the change of soil water content in the range of <12% and >20%. In 2012, when the precipitation was abundant, respiration rate was more correlated with the trend of soil temperature. The fitting results indicated that Q10 model had better performance (R2 = 0.64) than other three models, and the cumulative total ecosystem respiration during growing season in these three years simulated by the Q10 model was 157.32, 138.75 and 246.32 gC/m2. The total amount of NEE was −110.28, −68.79 and −310.05 gC/m2, while the total amount of GPP was 267.52, 207.57 and 555.85 gC/m2. The effect of drought stress on photosynthesis was greater than that of respiration. Therefore, the inter-annual difference of net carbon exchange due to drought stress was more obvious than that of total primary productivity and respiration.

    Case Studies: Simulation on Characteristics of Wind Turbine Wake Effect in a Lake-Side Wind Farm with WRF-Fitch
    WANG Shu, LIU Shuhua, CHEN Jianzhou, HU Ju, FENG Shuanglei, MA Yulong, MIAO Yucong
    2018, 54(3):  605-615.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.187
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    Meso-scale meteorological numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) and the Fitch Wake model are adopted to reveal the intension and patch range of TWE (turbine wake effect) in various atmospheric stability, as well as the impact of different turbine configuration on utilization efficiency of wind energy. Case studies are conducted over Poyang Lake region. The results are as followed. Horizontally, the patch range of a single wind turbine’s TWE can reach 4 to 10 km downward, with a reduction in wind speed ranging from −0.2 to −1.2 m/s under different atmospheric instability. The reduction in wind speed is more severe with more turbines on the stream track. Among the five cases with different turbine location configuration, the wind speed reducing effect in square case (intensively distributed) is much more apparent than others, while the wind speed in TWE patch tends to recover quickly in hollow diamond case (sparsely distributed). Compared with unstable atmospheric stratification, the TWE under stable atmospheric stratification has a longer patch range, because the turbulent exchange of momentum is intenser in unstable stratification than that in stable stratification. Vertically, the QKE (twice of turbulent kinetic energy) at the wind turbine spot peaks in the core. QKE increases to its maximum value of 19 m2/s2 and then decreases to around zero. The maximum QKE appears at the level of about 90 m above ground level, while the vertical impact of TWE can be traced to a height of 1.1 km.

    Identification of Potential Land Use Conflict in Desertification Area at the County Level
    LI Qiao, WU Xiuqin, WANG Manman
    2018, 54(3):  616-624.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.174
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    In order to alleviate land use conflict and manage land efficiently, the authors select the typical area of Yanchi County of Ningxia Province as a case, use the LUCIS conflict identification model based on TM data and social economic data, and build a land use tendency evaluation system of construction, agricultural and ecological land. By means of the conflict discrimination matrix, the potential land use conflict types are recognized and potential land use conflict zone in Yanchi County can be divided into 4 types, including dominant area, weak conflict area, moderate conflict area and intense conflict area. Then it is divided into 12 types of conflict zone according to the combination of land use tendency. The result show that 58.90% of the total area faces a risk of potential land use conflict, mostly of moderate conflict, and mainly for the conflict between construction and agricultural land, agricultural and ecological land and conflict among the three types of land use; 6.82% of the total area faces a high risk of potential land use conflict, mainly for the conflict between construction and agricultural land, agricultural and ecological land; 40.88% of the total area belongs to dominant land use area. According to the actual field survey and nearly ten years of policy and system files, driving factors of the conflict are analyzed, and based on the stakeholder analysis, balance strategies for different types of land use conflicts and land use management suggestions in recent and long-term of the county are proposed. This research explores the mutual influence and potential conflict areas of construction, agricultural and ecological land in desertification area, and the contents and methods are as complementary to land use conflict identification, not only having a breakthrough in the research methods of land use related issues, but also of practical significance for the maintenance of ecological security and sustainable social and economic development in desertification area.

    Analysis on Microbial Diversity in the Sediments and Its Relationship with Environmental Factors in a Reservoir
    ZHU Tingting, TIAN Congkui
    2018, 54(3):  625-632.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.163
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    In order to reveal the correlation between microbial diversity and the pollution degrees of the source water in a reservoir in Guangdong Province, for better understanding the ecological functions of this region, the environmental factors and microbial community were analyzed based on the characterization of the data from six sampling sites. The microbial diversity of different points was analysed, using PCR amplification technology and T-RFLP technology. Generally, the physical and chemical properties of each sampling point in the interstitial water in the reservoir showed obvious difference. Different forms of nitrogen concentrations and organic carbon concentrations in the reservoir were lower than those of the external diversion and the tributary. The concentrations of the enviromental factors were in the orders of wet season>dry season>normal season. The result showed that bacterial community structures varied considerably between the upstream and the downstream. The source water behaved the higher level of bacterial community diversity and richer degree in dry season than that in normal season and wet season. The dominant bacteria were Family1_uncultured, Bacteroidetes_uncultured, Sphingobacteriales_uncultured, Anaerolineaceae in normal season, Peptostreptococcaceae_incertae_sedis, Anaerolineaceae, SC-I-84, Xanthomonadales, and Clostridium in wet season, Rhodocyclaceae, Fusobacteriales, BSV26_norank, Comamonadaceae, Anaerolineaceae in dry season. Bacterial diversity was rich in the sediments in the reservoir. Correlation analysis showed that the microbial community structure was different at different sites, effected by environmental factors, among which the effects of different forms of nitrogen concentration were most obvious.

    Removal Features of DOM in Bio-Treated Effluents by Enhanced Coagulation Process
    WANG Jingbo, ZHANG Linnan, LI Zhenshan
    2018, 54(3):  633-643.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.175
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    Three advanced flocculants were used to treat the biochemical treatment samples extracted from the landfill leachate. In order to explore the transformation characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the process of coagulation, all the samples’ DOM from three stages were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-Vis), three dimensional fluorescence spectra (EEM) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). UV-Vis spectra showed that the ratio of small molecules increased in water while both the humification degree and condensation degree reduced after coagulation. EEM suggested that the removal efficiency of protein and humic acid substances were very high after coagulation. FT-ICR MS indicated that there was a strong selectivity of flocculants for the removable DOM in different stages of coagulation. DOM in the final residual water was mainly smaller molecular weight, containing impurity atoms with low unsaturation, O/C<0.3, and H/C>1.5.

    Characteristics of Pollutants Flush on Different Types of Underlying Surface in Changzhou
    ZHANG Xiangli, ZHAO Zhijie, QIN Huapeng, JIANG Yan
    2018, 54(3):  644-654.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.176
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    The purpose of the study is flush characteristics of urban runoff pollutant on different underlying surface. Select 5 typical hardened surfaces in Changzhou City and monitor the change process of rainfall runoff pollutant from March to August in 2015. The results showed that event mean concentrations (EMC) of pollutants in road runoff were higher than that of roof runoff. For road runoff, SS concentration was higher than the water quality standards by 1.34 times; COD concentration was higher than the water quality standards by 2.59 times. For the roof runoff, COD concentration was higher than the water quality standards by 1.8 times; and TN concentration was higher than the water quality standards by 2.6 times. For the roof runoff, the dissolved-bound fraction was 72.78% for COD, 57.99% for TN. For road runoff, the dissolved-bound fraction was 61.59% for TN. The pollutant concentrations were commonly higher at the initial stage, while decreased with prolonging of the rainfall time and gradually became stable at the later stage. The initial concentrations of pollutants from the underlying surface were as follows: concrete ground, asphalt ground, paved ground, flat roof and slope roof. During the rain flush, the concentration of pollutants on the underlying surface increases with the increase of the intensity of the rain which was fluctuated. The intensity of the first flush intensity varied by surface and was most intense for the flat roof, followed by the slope roof, then the asphalt road and finally the concrete road. Rainfall in pre-period was intensive and pollutant concentration was exponentially attenuated. When rainfall changes smoothly, the concentration of pollutants was stable firstly and then attenuation. When the rainfall was sparse in pre-period and intensive in the late-period, the curves of pollutant change type was multi-peak type. The index flush model had good effect to pollutant runoff simulation, the flush coefficients of COD on the slope roof, flat roof, and concrete road were 0.871, 0.765, and 0.025 mm−1, the roof flush intensity was much larger than the ground. The flush coefficient of dissolved-bound of COD and granular-bound of COD was similar on the slope roof. The flush coefficient of granular-bound of COD was greater than the dissolved-bound of COD on the flat roof and the concrete road.

    Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Gross Primary Productivity of Ecosystems in Temperate Northern China
    FENG Yao, ZHAO Xinyi
    2018, 54(3):  655-664.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2018.004
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    Observed daily temperature and precipitation from 121 meteorological stations and satellite-based 8-day average gross primary productivity (GPP) from MOD17A2 are utilized to develop the linear correlation models between 8-day accumulated average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation and accumulated GPP in the monsoon zone in Northern China during 2000–2013. Based on the derived thresholds and coefficients of these models, variability in the starting date of GPP accumulation, length of GPP accumulating period, ending date of GPP accumulation as well as GPP accumulation rate on forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems are investigated under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the Regional Spectral Model (RSM). Finally, the substantial impacts of climate changes including maximum, average, minimum temperature and precipitation on ecosystem productivity are evaluated. Results suggest that average and minimum temperature can predict GPP more accurately than maximum temperature and precipitation. Besides, the starting and ending dates of GPP accumulation are sensitive to the variability in four climatic factors whereas the GPP accumulation period and rate are more sensitive to the variability in average and maximum temperature. Additionally, future climate changes tend to prolong the GPP accumulation period and increase the GPP accumulation rate, thus increasing GPP.

    Source Apportionment and Transport Characteristics of Ozone in Baoding during Summer Time
    HUANG Zhengchao, HONG Linan, YIN Peiling, WANG Xuesong, ZHANG Yuanhang
    2018, 54(3):  665-672.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.189
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    Models-3/CMAQ and Brute Force method were applied to simulate the ozone pollution and to analyze how meteorological condition influenced the pollution characteristic and the source apportionment of ozone during July 2014 in Baoding. The distribution of ozone concentration in Baoding gradually increased from west to east. In July, the high ozone episode mainly occurred when southern air mass, southeastern air mass and eastern air mass arrived, and the percentages of polluted days were about 28%, 39% and 17%, respectively. During the maximum eight hours of ozone, background and cross regional transmission contributed about half of concentration of surface ozone. As for the regional contribution, Hebei contributed about 2/5 of the surface ozone. Henan contributed about 1/10 as well as Shandong and Jiangsu. The rapid increasing contribution from central Hebei and influences of vertical transportation from Henan and Shandong province leaded to rapid increasing of surface ozone concentration during the daytime in Baoding; most regional contribution changed gently except for central Hebei area, which resulted in high ozone concentration and long duration in the afternoon as well as the single peak diurnal variation.

    A System Dynamic Forewarning Model of Watershed Dual Water Resources Carrying Capacity
    GAO Wei, LIU Yong, HE Shuzhuang
    2018, 54(3):  673-679.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.177
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    The paper defined the concept of dual water carrying capacity based on water balance of different water quality and addressed a new method of determining forewarning classification according to timing of water shortage. A forewarning model of dual water carrying capacity was established based on system dynamics model. Taking the upstream of Niulanjiang watershed as a case study, the dual water carrying capacity was assessed and predicted by the model. Results show that under business as usual scenario, water resources of high quality will reach blue early warning and that of ordinary quality will reach yellow early warning. To meet the requirement of water diversion in the area, only low rate of socioeconomic development can be sustained in the area while environment protection measures has to be made at medium or above level.

    Study of Quit Willingness of Farmer’s Rural Residential Land from the Prospective of Human Capital: Case of Xinxiang in Henan Province
    SHEN Haojing, FENG Changchun, CHEN Chun
    2018, 54(3):  680-686.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.182
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    In order to explore the influence factors of farmers’ quit willingness of their rural residential land from the perspective of human capital theory, the authors report a survey from Xinxiang, a traditional agricultural area in Central China, and research the quit willingness of farmer’s rural residential land through interview and questionnaire survey. The authors build explanatory variable index system from three aspects: human capital, economic capital and land assets. A method of Logit model is applied to explore the main influence factors of farmers’ willingness to quit the right of farmer’s rural residential land. The results indicate that farmers don’t want to transfer their rural residential land in traditional agricultural area. Human capital is the important factor to affect the transfer of farmers’ rural residential land. Farmers’ knowledge and experience is important and significant for their quit willingness, rather than farmers’ education level. In addition, the impact of economic capital and land assets on farmer’s quit willingness is not significant. The research suggests that the government should raise farmers’ human capital from the aspects of enriching farmer’s knowledge and experience.