Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis ›› 2019, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (6): 1119-1128.DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2019.114

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Impacts of Spontaneous Migration and Policy-Driven Migration on the Livelihood of Pastoralists: A Case Study in Nangqian County, Yushu#br# Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province

JIN Ying, LI Wenjun   

  1. Department of Environmental Management, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2018-12-12 Revised:2019-02-28 Online:2019-11-20 Published:2019-11-20
  • Contact: LI Wenjun, E-mail: wjlee(at)


金瑛, 李文军   

  1. 北京大学环境科学与工程学院环境管理系, 北京 100871
  • 通讯作者: 李文军, E-mail: wjlee(at)


There are two modes of migration in western pastoral areas: spontaneous migration and policy-driven migration. Comparing these two modes can help to better understand the current situation of migration in pastoral areas. Two villages in Nangqian county, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province were selected as the cases for contrastive study. During field investigation, the research was carried out by using semi-structured interview, questionnaire and key informant interview. The results showed that the scale of policy-driven migration was larger and the time was more concentrated, but the pastoralists who moved spontaneously were more successful in finding alternative livelihoods and had lower willingness to return to pasture. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mechanism behind pastoralists’ decision-making of the two migration modes from the macroscopic, microscopic and mesoscopic perspectives by using the multi-level decision-making framework. The results point out the main influence of urban pulling force and social network on spontaneous migration and the main influence of government subsidy and rural pushing force on policy-driven migration. Accordingly, the corresponding policy suggestions are put forward: transforming the one-time government subsidy into a form that can improve the sustainable livelihood of pastoralists, refusing rigid project arrangement and helping potential immigrants to build social networks.

Key words: migration, urbanization, livelihoods of pastoralists, pastoral area


为了更好地理解牧区移民现状, 对西部牧区普遍存在的自发型和政策型两种移民搬迁模式进行对比研究。选取青海省玉树州囊谦县的两个村为案例地, 通过田野调查, 采用半结构式访谈、问卷调查及关键人物访谈的方法开展研究。结果显示, 政策型移民搬迁的搬迁规模更大, 时间更集中, 但自发型移民搬迁的牧民在寻找替代生计方面更成功, 牧民返乡意愿更低。进一步采用多层次的牧民迁移决策分析框架, 从宏观、微观和中观层次, 分别分析两种模式中牧民决策背后的机理, 指出城市拉力和社会网络是自发型移民搬迁的主要影响因素, 而政策型移民搬迁主要受牧区推力和政府补贴影响。据此提出政策建议: 将政府的一次性补贴转变为能够提高牧民可持续生计能力的形式, 拒绝“一刀切”式规划, 帮助潜在搬迁牧民构建与迁入地的社会网络关系。

关键词: 移民搬迁, 城镇化, 牧民生计, 牧区