Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis

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Livelihoods of Farming and Grazing Households and Land Use in Farming-Pastoral Transitional Zone: A Case Study of Uxin Banner in Ordos, Inner-Mongolia

ZHU Likai1, MENG Jijun1, 2, LIU Yang1, 2, ZHOU Ping1, 2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871; 2. Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055;
  • Received:2009-12-16 Online:2011-01-20 Published:2011-01-20



  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871; 2. 北京大学深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055;

Abstract: Based on the methods of questionnaire survey, semi-structured interview and mathematical statistics, 153 farming and grazing households in Uxin Banner, situated in Ordos city, Inner-Mongolia, were inquired systematically, and then livelihood strategies, land use pattern of these households were explored. The results are presented as follows. 1)Differences in livelihood strategies exist among distinctive types of households, and therefore income, the degree of living satisfaction, living pressures confronted and improving approaches vary accordingly. The households, engaging in just farming, encounter higher vulnerability and risk due to relatively simple livelihood strategies. Introduction and expansion of non-agricultural activities, and promoting livelihood diversity is a significant approach to reduce livelihood risk for these households. In contrast, households, living on both farming and grazing, confront lower risk as a result of higher and stable income. However, eco-environment is more vulnerable to their production activities. Therefore, developing economic-efficiently and environmental-friendly agro-pastoral industry is the key to address livelihood issues of these households and to protect eco-environment. Furthermore, transferring rural people in grazing regions scientifically, reasonably and effectively is indispensible to mitigate pressure on pasture and to develop modern agro-pastoral industry. 2) Fastening links exist between livelihood and land use types and intensity. Due to the inclination of labor force allocation to non-agricultural industries and the decrease in economic productivity of cropland, the households, engaging in just farming, invest less labors and capital, and so the land-use intensity become lower. In the pastoral area, the cultivated land derives from the reclamation of marginal land, and land users often adjust their investments according to the variations of net profits. When cropland falls into marginalization, grazing households will cease to cultivate. In addition, unreasonable grazing activities give rise to land degradation.

Key words: farming-pastoral transitional zone, Uxin Banner, participatory rural appraisal (PRA), livelihood, land use

摘要: 基于问卷调查、半结构访谈、数理统计等方法, 对位于农牧交错带的鄂尔多斯市乌审旗 153 户农牧户进行了系统调查, 研究了农牧交错区农牧户的生计策略和土地利用状况。研究结果如下。1) 不同类型农牧户生计策略存在差异, 相应的收入、生活满意度、生活压力和生计状况提高途径也不同。纯农型家庭生计策略单一, 脆弱性和风险较大。引入并扩大非农活动, 促进生计多样化是降低其生计风险的重要途径。半农半牧型家庭中牧业收入是主要收入来源, 生计风险相对较低, 但脆弱的生态环境对其生产活动十分敏感。发展经济效益高、生态环境友好的农牧业是解决此类农牧户生计问题和保护生态环境的有效途径; 科学、合理、有效地转移农村牧区人口是缓解草场压力、发展现代农牧业的有效措施。2)农牧民生计策略与土地利用类型和集约度存在密切关系。在农区, 由于劳动力配置倾向于非农产业和耕地经济生产能力的下降, 纯农型农户在劳动力、资本方面投入减少, 土地集约度下降。在牧区, 耕地主要来 自于边际土地开垦, 并根据耕地纯收益变化来不断调整生产要素投入。当种植业用途处于边际化状态时, 牧户完全停止耕种, 农地利用出现弃耕现象。此外, 过度放牧造成了牧草质量下降和草地退化。

关键词: 农牧交错区, 乌审旗, 参与式农村评估, 生计, 土地利用

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