Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Historical Experiences of Cropland Conservation and Land Management in Japan

SUN Qiang, CAI Yunlong   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Research Center for Land Sciences, Peking University; Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871;
  • Received:2007-03-30 Online:2008-03-20 Published:2008-03-20



  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,土地科学中心,地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京100871;

Abstract: The authors rebuilt the cropland change track of Japan from 1880 to 2000, analyzed the relationship between farmland change and social-economic development, and summarized the historical experiences of land management and cropland conservation including farmland management system, land laws, land use planning system and their implementation measures. To solve the conflicts between cropland conservation and economic development, strict cropland conservation laws in Japan were adopted. In the period of rapid urbanization when the trend of cropland loss could not be held back, the government of Japan changed their policy to bring farmland promotion and renewal laws into practice, which made Japan a higher level of agricultural modernization than other areas in Eastern Asia. The way of centralized urbanization, operable village amalgamation and land development in Japan effectively controlled the amount of cropland loss and satisfied the land demand of urban and industry development. The farmland management system and integrated planning system were supplement each other. Strict land laws and land property right system ensured the land use planning's good implementation and made a reasonable relationship among cropland conservation, farmland renewal and urban development. China is facing many land use problems brought by fast economic growth, urbanization and industrialization with fast farmland loss as a core. Chinese policies on cropland conservation, such as “keeping quantity balance”, should be reviewed. It is necessary to learn from historical experiences of land management in Japan to establish appropriate legislation, institutions and mechanisms to avoid illegal occupation on farmland for urban development.

Key words: cropland conservation, land management, Japan, China

摘要: 根据对文献资料的整理、统计,重建了自日本明治维新以来的耕地数量变化轨迹,系统分析了耕地变化与经济社会发展之间的互动规律;从农地制度、相关法律体系以及规划实施保障措施等方面总结了日本耕地保护和土地管理的历史经验。日本在解决耕地保护与经济发展之间矛盾时,一方面采取严格的农地保护制度,另一方面在耕地数量保护面临考验时适时改变策略,通过立法推动农地权利流转和农业规模化经营;集中型的城市化道路和有效的町村合并及土地开发在减少耕地被建设占用的同时,弥补了发展用地的不足。不断完善的农地制度与综合的规划管理体制相互促进,健全的法律体系和土地产权制度保障了农地保护、农业振兴与城市发展之间的协调以及各级土地利用规划的实施。日本在耕地保护和土地管理方面的先进经验可为中国所借鉴。

关键词: 耕地保护, 土地管理, 日本, 中国

CLC Number: