On Future Development of Geographic Science(GS)
- MA Ainai
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The crisis-ridden has done in the geography recently. For example, some Universities had renamed their Department of Geography which named Urban and Environmental Science, Land and Ocean Science, Resource and Environmental Science and so on. To be sure, Meteorology, Hydrology, Pedology, Qnaternary Geology, Land Science, Ecology, Environmemtal Science, Regional Economics and Sustainable Development Work have made parts or overall to cover Geography once by once. Even Historical Geography has been belonged to History. Geography has faced to disintegration. In the world, Europe and America, their geography leid particular stress on humanities. Some Universities close down the Department of Geography in the United States. The Preceding USSR, geography leid particular stress on nature which had influenced in our country deeply.
Recently, Russian geography is going to find new way. For example, it is called constructional geography. Author deem to recognize an object of geographical science again with recent half century geographic developmental history to be necessary. The crisis- ridden also has brought an opportunity for us. This paper put forward a system of geographic science. The core of geographic science is “Man and Earth” relationship that is the“Man and Earth”System. An outline for this system is:
1.An object of GS and it's threshold of time and space
This paragraph put forward a “Man and Earth”system which is an megalocomplex variations and open system. And separate geography three parts:ancient geography, historical geography and modern geographic science.
Human was controlled by nature phenomena. There is an ancient physical geographical system which including ancient geomorphology, Quaternary sedimentary, ancient pedologic geography, ancient biologic geography, ancient hydrologic geography, ancient climatology and ancient humanity.
Since human was controlled by nature phenomena to become that human has contred nature phenomena. There is a historic geographic system which including historical synthetic geography, historical partial geography and historical regional geography and so on.
4.Modern geographical science system
There are three levels. In the top is geographical basic science which including theoretical geography, partial and regional geography. The second level is geographical technology which including observational geography, surveying geography, experimental geography, metrological geography and geographic information science. In the bottom level is geographic engineering which including environment engineering, ecosystem, land management, population controlled, urbans and towns construction, regional development, disasters monitoring and the globe change monitoring.
5.Sustainable development(SD) system for flourshing together of “Man and Earth"
There are agriculture and mariculture, light and heavy industry, and the third and information industry in the sustainable development.