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Table of Content

    20 November 2015, Volume 51 Issue 6
    Intrinsic Noise in Biological Kinetic Proofreading Processes
    WANG Chao, WANG Hongli
    2015, 51(6):  983-988.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.085
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    By virtue of kinetic proofreading theory, the puzzles of selectivity and specificity common in cellar activities are successfully explained. The chemical master equation is adopted to describe stochastic processes of kinetic proofreading models with two and three middle steps. Stochastic properties around the steady state are analyzed with the linear noise approximation under various parameters. Relations between noise density and parameters are revealed with numerical simulation. The result suggest that noises propagate and escalate as reactions proceed, furthermore multiple reaction rates determine noise intensity.

    Stratospheric Temperature Trends in the 21st Century in CMIP5 Simulations
    DU Yixin, HU Yongyun
    2015, 51(6):  989-998.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.067
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    When studying stratospheric climate change in the 21st century, it is a critically important question that how stratospheric temperatures are changed by the two opposite forcings, which are stratospheric warming due to ozone recovery and stratospheric cooling due to increasing greenhouse gases. To illustrate this, CMIP5 simulations are employed to calculate stratospheric temperature trends over the period of 2006?2100. The results show that the warming effect of stratospheric ozone recovery plays the main role in the lower stratosphere, while the cooling effect of increasing greenhouse gases is more important in middle and upper stratosphere. As a result, the lower stratosphere is dominated by warming trends, whereas the middle and upper stratosphere is dominated by cooling trends. As CMIP5 models are separated into high-top and low-top groups, it is found that high-top models, which have model-top above the stratopause and have more realistic stratospheric physical and dynamic processes, generate stronger warming than low-top models do. It implies that a well-resolved stratosphere likely has a significant effects on simulating temperature trends in the 21st century both in troposphere and stratosphere.

    A Real Time and Effective Method for Hand-Gesture Detection and Tracking
    QUAN Dongbing, CHENG Ruzhong, ZHAO Yong, WEI Jiangyue, LIANG Hao, WEI Yiqun
    2015, 51(6):  999-1007.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.059
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    An algorithm for gesture detection and tracking in HCI (human-computer interaction) is designed to meet real-time and accuracy requirements. An innovative conception, which includes using distinguishing detection methods to detect hand-gesture for different conditions and using searching-box to decrease the searching zone, is proposed. The result shows that the detection rate can reach 97.36% while the missing rate lowers than 5%. It is robust to various external factors. However, it also meets the real-time, as the frame rate can reach 19.42. Compared with TLD, this algorithm has not only magnitude improvement in processing speed but also obvious advantages in accuracy.

    Study on Key Problems for Plane Geometric Diagram Retrieval
    FU Songping, Lü Xiaoqing, LIU Lu; FENG Tianxiao, LI Keqiang, TANG Zhi
    2015, 51(6):  1008-1016.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.086
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    Based on the study of retrieving plane geometric figures (PGFs) in the area of computer aided instruction, a feasible solution for PGF retrieval is proposed. The authors focus on several challenging tasks such as sketch beautification, geometric primitive detection, salience analysis of the overlapped primitives, structural
    relationship description between two geometric primitives, and figure similarity computing. Several algorithms are presented especially on layout description and complex shape matching. The PGFs are applied directly to content retrieval and compensate for the weaknesses in describing the query intentions using keyword-based search. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and significant performance of the proposed retrieval algorithm.

    Footnote Identification within a PDF Document
    LI Sida, GAO Liangcai, TANG Zhi, YU Yinyan
    2015, 51(6):  1017-1021.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.087
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    A robust method of identifying and linking footnote and its reference in the text is proposed to solve the footnote recognition problem. Novel features of the footnote, including page layout, font information, lexical and linguistic features, are utilized for the task. Clustering is adopted to handle the features which vary in different kinds of documents but stable within one document so that the process of identification is adaptive with document types. In addition, this method leverages results from the matching process to provide feedback to the identification process and further improves the algorithm accuracy. The primary experiments in real document sets show that the proposed method is promising to identify footnote in a PDF document.

    The Representation of Three-Dimensional Data Based on GeoSOT-3D
    HU Xiaoguang, CHENG Chengqi, TONG Xiaochong
    2015, 51(6):  1022-1028.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.120
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    Based on GeoSOT-3D, a non-overlapping, orthogonal, latitude-longitude consistent grid in the spheroidal space, a true 3D representation method is proposed. The method includes two steps: subdivision preprocessing and subdivision expressing. The experimental result, obtained from using atmospheric data, verifies the feasibility of the method, and it provides a new idea for the representation of global observation data.

    Prohibition Traffic Signs Detection Based on Visual Cognition
    HU Xiaoguang, CHENG Chengqi, LI Deren
    2015, 51(6):  1029-1034.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.119
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    Considering the design principles that traffic signs is to strongly attract the human visual attention, combining the phenomenon that the retina strongly responds to large contrast visual stimulation, a hierarchy saliency analytic framework based on visual contrast is introduced. The authors propose a multi-cue visual attention model for traffic sign detection in street scene, so traffic sign detection and segmentation problem is converted to saliency object discovery and location problem. Experimental results show that the proposed method is better than typical saliency methods.

    Similarities Analysis on Center of Pressure Trajectories for Healthy Volunteers during Walking and Jogging
    HUANG Hongshi, QIU Jianwei, YU Yuanyuan, YANG Jie, AO Yingfang, LUO Dingsheng
    2015, 51(6):  1035-1039.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.128
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    The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities of Center of Pressure (COP) trajectories during barefoot walking and jogging, based on plantar pressure data collected from 32 healthy volunteers. 32 subjects walk or run on a two-meter footscan® system at a self-selected speed for 5 valid trials respectively. For each trial, a sequence of frames is generated which records the instantaneous pressure value of the reaction between body and the supporting surface. Similarities between COP trajectories are calculated. Results show that similarities between walking and jogging COP trajectories are lower than 0.25, while similarities between left and right COP trajectories during the same motion status (walking or jogging) is higher than 0.91. In addition, intrasubject similarities are significantly higher than those of intersubject. Moreover, similarities between the same sides are significantly higher than those of different sides. COP trajectories similarities between walking and jogging are very low which indicates COP trajectories can distinguish walking from jogging. During the same motion, intersubject similarities are high. In addition, intrasubject similarities are even higher. This study provides a reliable dataset for clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation evaluation, orthosis prescription and sports exercises.

    Scattered Sand Rock Mechanics Field Modeling Based on Seismic Pre-stack Inversion
    FANG Yuanyuan, SHI Yongmin, WANG Lei, DU Shuheng, SHENG Yingshuai
    2015, 51(6):  1040-1046.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.075
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    For the sake of solving the problem in Daqing Fuyang low permeability reservoirs which is scattered distribution, and changes so rapidly in the mechanical properties of rock that restricts the reservoir reconstruction, a new method was presented in this paper. On the basis of lots of rock mass mechanics model of in situ experiments, the relationship between P-wave and S-wave velocities was studied, and P-wave and S-wave velocity bodies from pre-stack elastic parameter inversion were obtained. Besides, the rock mass mechanics parameters according to rock physics equation were gotten and the multiple regression analysis method was used to get well point elastic parameter values. The well points and cross-hole elastic parameter values were combined, and geostatistics method was utilized to establish the heterogeneity of rock mass mechanics field. The geological basis was provided to optimize hydraulic fracturing parameter design to increase production.

    Study on the Development Law of Structural Fractures of Yanchang Formation in Longdong Area, Ordos Basin
    ZHAO Wentao, HOU Guiting, ZHANG Juzeng, FENG Shengbin, JU Wei, YOU Yuan, YU Xuan, ZHAN Yan
    2015, 51(6):  1047-1058.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.064
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    In order to study the distribution of fracture controlled by layer thickness and lithology, clastic rock of 6-7th Member, Yanchang Formation in Longdong area is selected as investigated subject, and the areal density of their structural fractures is meassured. Measured fracture densities show that the layer thickness of clastic sequence has an effect on fracture density. Compared with thicker layer, it is easier for thinner layer to develop structural fracture, which is related to the different stress concentration near fracture tip in different layer thickness. Within a certain thickness range, fracture density has an exponential relationship with layer thickness, while the fracture density remains mostly unchanged when thickness exceeds 250 cm. Under the condition of same layer thickness and different lithology, the value of fracture densities from small to large follow the order of medium sandstone, fine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone, which means that in the same tectonic setting and layer thickness, the smaller the size range is, the larger the fracture density will be. Besides, there is an exponential relationship
    between fracture density and grain size, which may be caused by the different stress between grains of different size. By multivariate statistics and mechanism analysis, layer thickness is the key factor in controlling fractures’ development compared with lithology.

    Influence of Layer Curvature on the Fracture Growth of Clastic Rock in East Kuqa
    ZHAO Wentao, HOU Guiting, JU Wei, REN Kangxu
    2015, 51(6):  1059-1068.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.066
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    In order to study the distribution of fractures controlled by layer curvature, fold and fault-related folds in East Kuqa, including one anticline (Biyoulebaoguzi Anticline profile), one fault-bent fold (Kezilenuergou Faultbent Fold profile) and one drag fold (Yangxia Coal-mine Drag-fold profile), are selected as investigating profile, and density of their structural factures and the layer curvature of middle-lower Jurassic and Triassic are measured. The result shows that the layer curvature has an effect on the fracture density; structural fractures are easier to be developed in the layers with larger curvature compared with those with smaller one within the same stratum. Besides, there is a positive linear relationship between fracture density and layer curvature. The mechanics of layer curvature’s effect on structural fracture from angle of solid mechanics is discussed: fracture density is tightly related to stress distribution, and stress is proportional to curvature in bent beam model; hence, a positive linear relationship exists between the fracture density and layer curvature, which is applied to both elastic and plastic folds.

    Study on Early Cretaceous Stress Fields and Geological Significance of Lingshan Island
    LI Jie, JIN Aiwen, HOU Guiting, FU Wenzhao, YANG Zhiqiang2
    2015, 51(6):  1069-1077.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.076
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    Four periods of structural stress fields can be recognized during Early Creraceous in Lingshan Island and adjacent areas based on field geological investigation and summary of the previous data, which is derived from the occurrence data of the stress response structures, i.e., X-type shear jointing, dykes and folds. They are the tectonic stress period of extension in the direction of NW formed the offshore basins during the Laiyang stage, followed extrusion in the direction of NW in the late Laiyang stage, during the Qingshan stage further extension in the direction of NW turned the offshore basins into rift basins, and followed basin inversion in the direction of NW in the late Early Cretaceous. It is concluded that the two extensional phases in Early Cretaceous were dynamically associated with either gravity collapse or lithospheric delamination of the thicked crust or lithosphere in North China and the NW-SE extrusion records the effect by the transmission of the NW-directed subduction of Izanaqi plate to the NW-directed subduction of paleo Pacific plate towards the bottom of the Asian continent.

    Strain and Kinematic Vorticity Analysis of the Liaonan Metamorphic Core Complex Ductile Detachment Zone
    LI Jianbo, GUO Lei, OUYANG Zhixia, ZENG Tao, DING Yuanjun, ZHANG Ying
    2015, 51(6):  1078-1090.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.111
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    The Liaonan metamorphic core complex (MCC) developed a NNE trend, NWW-dipped, low-angle detachment fault. Ductile shear zone occurred in the lower part and mainly consists of mylonitic granitic gneisses, which indicated a top-to-NWW shearing. Finite strain measurement of feldspar strain markers were estimated by the Rf /φ method. It suggested that strain intensities of mylonites (Es) changed from 0.36 to 1.0 with an average of 0.75. Fulin and Hossack diagrams indicated strain types were close to flattening strain (lod parameter υ=0.11-0.98). Kinematic vorticity of mylonitic foliations and stretching lineations were estimated by Mohr diagram method and long and short axis method. The results indicated that kinematic vorticity ranged from 0.74 to 0.96 with an average of 0.85, which suggested that the foliations and lineations of mylonites recorded a bulk simple-dominated general shearing. The Kinematic vorticity during formation of extensional crenulation cleavage estimated by C′ method ranged from 0.10 to 0.84 with 0.58 on average. It recorded a later bulk pure-dominated general shearing. Based on the strain measurement, kinematic vorticity and thickness of the detachment fault, the quantification of thinning for the ductile shearing were calculated, which ranged from 130 to 705 m. All results suggested that the deformation mechanism of the Liaonan MCC was represented by earlier simple-dominated shearing and later pure-dominated shearing.

    Climatic and Environmental Changes Occurring during the Last 5520 Years on Alpine Belt of Taibai Mountain: the Records of a Few Proxies of Sediments from Foye Chi and Their Interpretations
    ZHANG Caina, WANG Hongya, LIU Hongyan, CHENG Ying, SONG Yaqiong, LUO Yao, DENG Lei
    2015, 51(6):  1091-1101.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.078
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    Foye Chi is a small lake developing in a cirque in the alpine belt of southern slope of Taibai Mountain which is the peak of the Qinling Mountain Range. A 70 cm deep pit was excavated on the desiccated floor of this lake and sediments were sampled from the pit’s wall. AMS 14C dating was performed for three samples from this sediment profile. For all the 56 samples, analysis of total organic carbon content (TOC) and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and measurements of low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) were undertaken. So were analyses of particle-size and pollen. ARM/χlf was further calculated as well. A chronological framework was developed based on the dating results. Variations in TOC, C/N, χlf, ARM, ARM/χlf, mean particle-size and percentage of Quercus pollen of this sequence were interpreted and climatic and environmental changes occurring around Foye Chi since 5520 aBP were so preliminarily inferred. The climate and environment were generally cold and arid during 5520-3800 aBP and the coldest and driest during 5100-4300 aBP. During 3800-2300 aBP, the climate and environment have turned to be warm and humid. The climate and environment were even wetter during 2300-1300 aBP and warmer during 1300-700 aBP which might be the warmest phase of the last ~5500 years. During 700-500 aBP, the climate and environment tended to be cool and arid again. These climate-environment changes happening during the middle and late Holocene in alpine belt of Taibai Mountain are generally similar to the changes at some sites in the region influenced by the East Asian monsoon in China since these sites are all under the influence of East Asian monsoon.

    Research of the Desertification in Hetao Area Based on MODIS Inversion Data
    MAO Zhichun, SONG Yu, Li Mengmeng
    2015, 51(6):  1102-1110.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.081
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    Based on the MODIS remote sensing inversion data from 2001-2013, this paper studied the desertification and characteristics of its seasonal variation in Hetao area through analyzing the land cover types, leaf area index (LAI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). The results showed that from 2001 to 2013, the overall land cover of vegetation in Hetao area was getting better with cultivated land area increasing from 4218 km2 in 2001 to 20470 km2 in 2013, the average LAI increasing from 0.130-0.335 in 2003 to 0.182-0.405 in 2013, and the overall trend of average NDVI and EVI were increasing year by year, from 0.142 and 0.095 in 2001 to 0.193 and 0.116 in 2013 respectively. Moreover, the quality of vegetation growth per unit area was increasing as well. In addition, according to the characteristics of the seasonal distribution of NDVI, food crops with two harvests a year began to be largely planted in Bayannur League, northern Hetao area around the year of 2013. However, the study also found that the vegetation cover index in Hetao area was still low and the desertification in northern and southwestern Hetao area had deteriorated. Therefore, the ecological environment problems will easily appear without effective measures.

    Spatiotemporal Variability in Water Cycle of Cropland in the North Part of Northern China Plain from 2002 to 2011
    LI Pengfei, FENG Yao, ZHAO Xinyi
    2015, 51(6):  1112-1118.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.121
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    Based on the observed temperature, precipitation, wind speed, soil moisture and other basic meteorological data in the north part of Northern China Plain from China Meteorological Administration, three major variables of water cycle: precipitation, soil moisture and water requirement on cropland are calculated. Besides, the water cycle model of cropland in the study area is built together with designed water shortage index to analyze the temporal and spatial variability in water shortage of cropland in the study area by ten-day intervals. Results suggest that the water shortage of cropland in the study area is serious through all growth period. The study area witnesses droughts in most months with sufficient moisture only in the mid July. Spring is the most serious period of droughts on cropland, and the droughts are more severe in central and southern of Hebei Province than that in other areas. Furthermore, the stress of water shortage on cropland in autumn is much relieved compared with that in spring. However, droughts in the northwest part of study area are extremely serious in autumn. Meanwhile, droughts in Hengshui area and western Beijing are the most serious through the whole crop growth stage. Relevant conclusions can provide references to regional water management and irrigation of cropland.

    Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Forces of Urban Sprawl for Major Cities of the Pearl River Delta Region in Recent 40 Years
    XU Jinyong, ZHANG Zengxiang, ZHAO Xiaoli, LIU Bin, YI Ling
    2015, 51(6):  1119-1131.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.122
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    The authors studied the spatial distribution of built-up area for 5 major cities in the Pearl River Delta Region in recent 40 years, based on multi-source and long-series satellite images and GIS technique, and the 5 major cities are: Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Hong Kong and Macao. Spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics and driving factors for the built-up sprawl are analyzed. The speed of built-up sprawl for the 5 major cities overall is relatively faster in the 8th “5 Year Plan” period (1991–1995) and the 10th “5 Year Plan” period (2001–2005). The spatial pattern of Guangzhou and Shenzhen’s built-up characterizes with axial and zonal group, while for Zhuhai, Hong Kong, Macao are abundant of islands, the built-up is sprawled by leaps and forms multi urban centers. Urban expansion in the Pearl River Delta Region has the largest influence on farmland, followed by the forestland, and again the construction land for rural residential or industrial use. Because of reclamation projection, the sea area supplies more land resource for built-up expansion in Hong Kong and Macao. Terrain conditions, transportation development, policy making, population and economic growth are important driving factors for urban expansion in the Pearl River Delta Region. The sequence of built-up area’s expansion ratio is coincidence with the population increase rate and GDP increase rate for the 5 major cities, of which the values of Shenzhen are the largest of all, and then followed by values of Zhuhai, Guangzhou, Macao, and Hong Kong in sequence.

    Case Study of Wuhan Dust Pollution in May 2014
    WANG Fenjuan, ZHONG Zhangxiong, WU Shuting, ZHANG Wanchun, LI Qijie, HU Shixiang, WANG Jianmin
    2015, 51(6):  1132-1140.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.106
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    The dust event on May 25–26, 2014 in Wuhan Hubei province was studied by integrating multiplex information including mass concentration, metal element contents of atmospheric particle, vertical particle extinction, backward trajectory, surface meteorological parameters and synoptic analysis. The results show that the dust came from the sandstorm occurred in southern Xinjiang Taklamakan desert and Inner Mongolia Badan Jaran desert and Teng Ko Erh desert and then transported to east and south of China with cold air blowing. The PM10 mass concentration decried along the trajectory, with hourly average exceeding 2000 μg/m3, 1000 μg/m3 and 500 μg/m3 in Lanzhou, Yinchuan and Wuhan respectively. During the dust event, coarse particle was dominant, PM10 concentration increasing rapidly, and proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 decreased to about 35%. The concentrations of dust trace element Ca, V, Ba and Fe increased by about 4 times, percentages of the total element concentration doubled and the concentrations of As, Se, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb from local anthropogenic sources were 1/5–2/5 of previous levels, percentages of the total element concentration decreasing significantly. Two evident dust deposition processes were recorded by Lidar, and the maximum area of extinction appeared near surface around 500 m with the max value at 0.086 km-1. This paper pilots the analysis method of transporting air pollution using combination of meteorological and environmental measurements.

    Haihe Conservancy and Temporal-Spatial Variation of the Channel in Modern Times
    WANG Changsong, CHEN Ran
    2015, 51(6):  1141-1148.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.104
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    The emporal-spatial variation of the channel was studied on the basis of Haihe Conservancy Board’s hydrological observation data in 1892-1943. It was found that the Haihe suffered influence by human activities, and the tidal range and runoff was the main factors influencing the channel depth. This was important historical significance of man-land relationship, what showed a transformation phase from traditional water conservancy to contemporary water conservancy.

    Response of Ecosystem Service Value to Land Use Change in Zhangjiakou
    CHANG Shang, LI Shanshan, SONG Yuqin
    2015, 51(6):  1149-1156.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.105
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    Based on land use data in 1990, 2000 and 2008, and previous theoretical research on land use and ecosystem service value, the authors estimated the ecosystem service value of this three years in Zhangjiakou City and examined the effects of land use change on ecosystem services value, in order to provide useful references for city development planning. Results indicated that the main land use types of Zhangjiakou are farmland, grassland and woodland, grassland decreased and construction land increased significantly. Ecosystem service value of different land use types are sorted in a descending order: woodland, farmland, grassland, water body and wetland; woodland, farmland and grassland contributed about 90% of the total service value. The total ecosystem service value of land use from 1990 to 2008 was on a declining curve, which was mainly due to the decrease in grassland and wetland. As for the service value of single service function, from 1990 to 2000, climate regulation decreased obviously, while raw material and water supply increased significantly; from 2000 to 2008, only climate regulation and food production’s service value increased.

    Spatial-Temporal Features of Hydrological Effects Caused by Land Use Changes in Middle Reaches of Heihe River Based on InVEST Model
    WANG Ya, MENG Jijun
    2015, 51(6):  1157-1165.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.107
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    Based on the land use data (1986, 1995, 2000 and 2010) and InVEST model, this paper analyzes the land-use change of the middle reaches of Heihe River in the recent 25 years and simulates the water yield of the study area under different land use patterns. Multiple linear regression model is used to explore the influence on the water yield caused by different land use types. The results show that 1) the main types of land use in the middle reaches of Heihe river are bare ground, grass land and farmland. The structure of land use has been changed a lot since 2000. A large number of farmland has transformed into construction land meanwhile water area starts a substantial reduction. 2) 7.3 is considered as the suitable Z value for the study area. From the perspective of subwatershed, the water depth is diminishing from southeast to northwest. 3) The increase of woodland may restrain the water yield. On the contrary, grassland, construction land and bare ground may promote the water yield. Farmland will cause positive or negative hydrological effects due to the different patterns of utility. These results can provide reference for the balance of oasis’ land and water resources.

    Dynamic Change and Measures Analysis of Carbon Footprint of Energy Consumption in Xingtai City
    ZHU Chen, ZHANG Luxuan, LI Yuping
    2015, 51(6):  1166-1170.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.099
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    Using the carbon footprint model, the carbon footprint of energy consumption and the ecological pressure of carbon footprint were analyzed from 2003 to 2013 in Xingtai City, Hebei Province, China. The results show that, in Xingtai City, the energy consumption was increasing during the past 10 years, with the consumption of fossil energy resources accounting for around 50% of total consumed energy. In the consumption of fossil energy, coal was primary energy. This is an inevitable result from the policies of coal supply. The per capita carbon footprint from total energy consumption and the per capita carbon footprint from coal consumption increased in a fluctuation way. The per capita carbon footprint from petroleum consumption changed slightly. The change of per capita carbon footprint from gas consumption showed a fluctuation stage, and then followed a sharp increase stage. The ecological pressure of carbon footprint show an increasing tendency, suggesting that CO2 production from the energy utilization has been far beyond the absorptivity of woodland. Therefore, the paper proposes feasible means and corresponding countermeasures on energy utilization and industrial structure in the future, which would provide the strategy-making reference for the continual development in optimization energy structure and establishment the low-carbon economic development model in Xingtai City.