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Table of Content

    20 May 2015, Volume 51 Issue 3
    Calculation of Equilibrium Material Flows of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycles in Long Term
    ZHOU Chaoran;WANG Yugang
    2015, 51(3):  377-383.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.171
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    Based on the typical standard parameters of thermal reactor and fast reactor, three options in long term (the once-through cycle (OTC) option and the closed fuel cycle (CFC) option which consists of the thermal reactor recycle (TRR) and the fast reactor along with thermal reactor recycle (FRR) are calculated. The natural uranium demand, the separate work demand, the nuclear power demand on alternative style of reactors, the nuclear assemblies demand and the disposal demand of nuclear wastes are obtained. According to these results, the FRR option is the optimal strategy with the highest utility of uranium as well as the minimum accumulation of the nuclear wastes.
    High-Resolution Palmprint Minutiae Extraction Based on Gabor Phase and Image Quality Estimation
    LIU Chongjin;WANG Han;FENG Jufu
    2015, 51(3):  384-390.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.169
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    Extracting minutiae is difficult for high-resolution palmprint because of the strong influence from principal lines, creases and other noises. A novel high-resolution palmprint minutiae extraction method is proposed based on Gabor phase feature and image quality estimation. Firstly, the Gabor amplitude-phase model is introduced for palmprint representation. Based on the obtained Gabor phase, a multi-scale minutiae detection method is proposed. Then with the information from minutiae detection, the authors design Fourier response based quality estimation method and Gabor amplitude based quality estimation method. Finally, the two image quality estimation results are fused for minutiae screening to remove the unreliable minutiae. Experiment results show that the proposed method can extract minutiae effectively from high-resolution palmprint and remove the unreliable ones. Compared with other methods, the proposed method obtains better minutiae extraction results.
    Joint Control Channel and Service Channel Allocation Strategy in LTE Network
    LIU Qiuyan;QIAN Ying;FU Yusun;ZHAO Yuping
    2015, 51(3):  391-397.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.170
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    The authors study the joint channel allocation strategy in consideration of the interaction between control channel allocation and service channel allocation. Both of the joint channel allocation algorithms proposed are based on Minimal Aggregation-Maximal Carrier to Interference algorithm, which aims to achieve maximal network throughput. Users’ service requirement and the constraint between control channel and service channel are both considered in the proposed algorithms. Two strategies designed according to service requirement and control channel efficiency separately are proposed. Compared with the traditional strategies, both of the joint channel allocation strategies suggested are theoretically proved and experimentally verified with performance better than minimal aggregation level-maximal carrier to interference ratio (Min AL-Max C/I) in network capacity and coverage. It is concluded that joint channel allocation based on service requirement achieves best cumulative user throughput performance, while joint channel allocation based on control channel efficiency provides best network throughput with limited control channel constraint.
    ODTrans: Fault Tolerant Transaction Protocols for the Cloud Data Store
    CHENG Xu;LI Hongyan;WANG Tengjiao;YANG Dongqing
    2015, 51(3):  398-408.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.011
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    When it comes to the cloud data store, due to data segmentation, multiple copies of each division and frequent node failures, the problem of atomic commitment of distributed transactions has changed, and the two-phase commitment protocol (2PC) is no longer fit for it. Therefore, the authors describe the typical scene and redefine the problem. A consensus-based approach, called ODTrans, is proposed to deal with distributed commitment and replicas update separately. Compared with the traditional 2PC and the primary-backup scheme, it could make progress all the while in a cluster without the Byzantine Generals Problem. Experimental results demonstrate that proposed method not only could achieve performance close to the state-of-the-art method but also is able to tolerate the faults of both master and slaves.
    Video Object Segmentation via Two-Frame Graph Model
    PU Songtao;ZHA Hongbin
    2015, 51(3):  409-417.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.012
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    The authors present a novel algorithm for object segmentation in monocular video sequences, which is based on proposed two-frame graph model. First, the bi-layer color models can be learnt from the interactive segmentation on the first frame. To sequentially extract the object on the next frame, the two-frame graph model is proposed, in which the color cues and spatio-temporal constraints are combined. Based on the observation that the amount of the object movement is approximate linearly related to the summation of the temporal contrasts between adjacent frames, the motion-adaptive temporal-constraint factor is proposed in order to control the weight of temporal constraints in the graph model. The simplification of the graph model increases the efficiency of the algorithm. Finally, each frame is segmented by binary graph cut and the color models are updated. Experimental results show that the adaptive temporal-constraint factor can improve the accuracy and temporal coherence of the results. Experiments on the public database indicate that the proposed algorithm is more efficient and effective.
    Video Parallel Transport over HTTP Using Multi-server and LT codes
    TANG Kai;ZHOU Chao;ZHANG Xinggong;GUO Zongming
    2015, 51(3):  418-426.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.051
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    The authors propose a multiple server parallel transport approach using Luby-Transform (LT) codes. With LT codes, a client could download the same segment from multiple servers without considering data segmentation and server scheduling issue.Thus, all heterogeneous servers are combined as a virtual server with higher bandwidth. To avoid transmitting redundant data when waiting for ACK messages (ACK overhead) after requesting data from each server, an algorithm based on traffic prediction models is proposed, to be more specific, a stochastic model is constructed to predict the amount of data required from each server for ensuring success of decoding precedure. Compared with existing approaches, the experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains less transmission overhead and fewer number of HTTP requests. Besides, it achieves better video quality and higher robustness to fluctuated bandwidth.
    The Implementation about The Method of Low-bound Velocity Spectrum Reduce Errors in MRR Retrieval
    HE Siyuan;LIU Xiaoyang1;SUN Dali;ZHANG Ke;ZUO Quan
    2015, 51(3):  427-436.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.174
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    Because the vertical air motion has a great impact on MRR (Micro Rain Radar) retrievals (when downdraft exceeds 1 m/s, relative errors exceed more than 40%), the velocity at maximum number density as lowbound of velocity spectrum is taken to calculate the velocity of vertical air motion. The effect on correction of the MRR retrievals by removing the vertical air motion is evaluated, and the measurements of parsivel raindrop spectrometer placed together with MRR is selected as the reference value. The results demonstrate that the relative deviation of correction retrieval reduce by 20% in the large rain rate, and by 10% in medium and small rain rate. The method of low-bound velocity spectrum is suitable for MRR.
    Climatology of Hail in North Korea
    KIM Chol;NI Xiang
    2015, 51(3):  437-443.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.136
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    The hail climatology in North Korea is analyzed according to the station observation from 1981 to 2010 at 95 weather stations. Geographical distribution of annual hail day (AHD), seasonal variation, diurnal variation, and long-term trend of AHD are discussed. The results show that hail occurs most frequently in the northern mountainous areas, middle mountainous areas and western plains in North Korea. The AHD are 4, 1.5 and 1 days above in these regions. The spring hail falls mainly at middle and northern region, its value is 0.4 day. The summer hail events show high frequency at northern mountain region, and its value is 0.8 day. The autumn hail events often display in western plain and some regions of eastern coast area, and its value is 0.4 day. The diurnal cycle of hail events is distinct, the peek value of hail occurrence is at 13:00LT (local time) at Pyongyang station. During the study period, 72 stations experienced significant decrease in AHD frequency, while only 6 stations that mainly located in Rang Kang Province had distinct increase in AHD frequency. Freezing level height (FLH), normalized convective available potential energy (NCAPE), and vertical wind shear (VWS) derived from sounding data at Pyongyang station are also discussed to understand the decrease trend of AHD in Pyongyang region.
    Characters of Spatial Distribution of Ethnic Villages in Qiandongnan Prefecture
    YANG Jingbiao;Lü Liang;DU Shihong
    2015, 51(3):  444-450.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.175
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    Based on statistical material, field survey data and vector map, the characters of spatial distributions of ethnic villages in Qiandongnan prefecture were analyzed. First, 111 ethnic group villages in Qiandongnan were chosen. Second, the elevation, slope and aspect were extracted from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and the distances between villages and water/roads were calculated. Finally, point spatial analysis was completed based on Getis-ord General G statistics to disclose the distributions of villages with respect to elevation, slope, aspect and several distances. The results show that Qiandongnan ethnic group villages range from 244 to 1256 m on elevation, and they are mainly distributed on eastern slope and southern slope. As to slope, the range was 1.14°?40.47°. The distance between the ethnic villages and water is 2?1370 m. From the standpoint of point spatial analysis, the distributions of the ethnic villages on aspect and the distance to water are random, on the elevation and slope are concentrated, and on the distance to roads is low-value.
    Evidence in Stratum for Shichahai Becaming Lake from Han-Dynasty to Yuan-Dynasty: A Case of the Southern Section at the Western Side of Building Site in Xiaoshibei Hutong
    MA Yueting;YUE Shengyang;XU Haipeng;ZHANG Pengfei
    2015, 51(3):  451-462.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.177
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    Based on the synthetically analysis to the data of the granularity, the chemical index and the sporopollen of the sectional sediments which belong to the building site located in Xiaoshibeihutong at the north bank of Shichahai, it shows the geomorphic changes of Shichahai from Han-Dynasty to Yuan-Dynasty. The changes can be divided into four parts according to the different periods. From 1930 to 1820 aBP, as the sediment of river form, it owns the branchchannel and sediment of fluvial facies. From 1820 to 1295 aBP, as the sediment of lake form lacustrine facies, especially from the end of Eastern-Han-Dynasty to Three-State-Period, it owns larger aquatorium and deeper water. During this time, the Chexiangqu was being built, thus it may have the man-made impoundment, but then it became lakeshore. From 1295 to 970 aBP, it is the sediment of fluvial facies. From 970 to 580 aBP, as the sediment of lakeshore, it would be the brim of north bank of Shichahai at that time. The series of sporopollen indicate not only the climate changes of this section, but also the characteristics of the vegetation in the carse relating to the local landform. It is found that the distance between the lakeshore in Yuan-Dynasty and Xie- Street in Yuan-Dynasty is about 100 meters, while the distance between the lakeshore in Yuan-Dynasty and the north bank of Shichahai is 80 meters. By analyzing the palaeoenvironment index of this section and the historical documents, the environmental envolution at Shichahai could be revealed, especially at this site, which provides the basic information for researching the environment changes of Shichahai.
    Structural Stress Field Simulation for Upper-Middle-Lower Cambrian in Tazhong Area and Forecast of the Fracture
    ZHANG Peng;HOU Guiting;PAN Wenqing;QI Yingmin
    2015, 51(3):  463-471.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.178
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    Based on the fracture systems interpreted from seismic data, tectonic map of bottom and top surface of upper-lower Cambrian and cores fracture parameters statistics from 6 wells, the Cambrian dolomite reservoirs in Tazhong area were studied from analysis of rock mechanics parameters test. Considering the influence of faults on the fracture forming, 3D finite element method was applied to simulate structural stress field of the Cambrian in Tazhong area, and then match the simulation results with the fractures density of the 6 wells, the distribution of the fractures in the upper-middle-lower Cambrian is obtained. The results show that the effect of faults on fractures is obvious, for example, fractures which sit near faults or at the junction of the faults are relative development, and also that fractures in a dish of fault development, while in another dish less development. Paste layers hinder the spread of the tectonic stress, for example, fractures in the upper Cambrian (over salt) are more development than in the lower Cambrian (below slat) while in the middle Cambrian (between salt) are less development.
    Preliminary Analysis of Environment of Fossils Reservoir of Xingyi Fauna in Guizhou Province
    ZOU Xiaodong;GUO Wen;JIANG Dayong;SUN Zuoyu
    2015, 51(3):  472-484.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.179
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    Based on the field investigation on the Zhuganpo Member of Falang Formation at Wusha of Xingyi, Guizhou Province, lithofacies analysis in the laboratory, and the analysis of values of the δ13C and δ18O were conducted to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental background of the Xingyi Fauna. Five microfacies for this carbonate bed were recognized: homogeneous argillaceous micrite, muddy microcrystalline limestone containing a small amount of bioclastic, muddy microcrystalline limestone containing a mass of broken bioclastic, muddy microcrystalline limestone containing a mass of intact bioclastic, and horizontal laminated micrite. Combined with previous research, three sedimentary facies: restricted sea, open sea and interplatform basin can be reconstructed, which indicates a transgression in Ladinian age in this region. The values of the δ13C and δ18O are generally low in the whole of the carbon and oxygen isotope curves, and δ13C value appears obvious negative drift in the fossil bed. Combined with the features of the microfacies, sedimentary facies and the carbon and oxygen isotope curves, it can be found that the environment where the Xingyi Fauna lived in was restricted sea and relatively high seawater temperature.
    Relationship between Uncertainty Response and Future-oriented Coping: The Mediation of Anticipated Emotion
    FENG Ying;GAN Yiqun;LIU Zhixiao;NIE Hanying;CHEN Weiyi
    2015, 51(3):  485-494.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.025
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    To explore the mediation of anticipated emotion between uncertainty response and future-oriented coping, study 1 was designed to assess the relationship among uncertainty response, anticipated emotion and future-oriented coping, and the influence of uncertainty response to future-oriented behavior (financing) was investigated in study 2. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study, with 204 people included. Uncertainty Response Scale, Questionnaire for Anticipated Emotion and Future-oriented Inventory were used to discover the tendency. Study 2 was a longitudinal research. All scales were sent to subjects in twice and Future-oriented Inventory was replaced by the Intention Scale of Financing, with an interval of 2 months. 113 data were collected in this study. Uncertainty response, anticipated emotion and future-oriented coping were related to each other. Bootstrap was used to confirm the mediation of anticipated emotion. Anticipated emotion was found mediated between emotional uncertainty and future-oriented coping only in study 1, but the mediation of positive emotion between cognitive uncertainty/desire for change and future-oriented coping was found in both studies. Uncertainty response (cognitive uncertainty & desire for change) affects future-oriented coping intention through positive anticipated emotion.
    How Avoidance Goal Orientation Affects Feedback Seeking: Role Conflict as a Moderator
    HOU Yaqiong;LIU Haihua;YAO Xiang;HUANG Zheng
    2015, 51(3):  495-502.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.069
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    The relationship between avoidance goal orientation and feedback-seeking behavior was examined, with role conflict as a moderator of the relationship. Participants were 240 freshmen from Peking University. When the freshmen first enrolled, they reported their avoidance goal orientation. Six months later, they rated their role conflict and feedback seeking. The results revealed that 1) mastery avoidance goal orientation was negatively related to feedback seeking; 2) role conflict was positively related to feedback seeking; 3) role conflict moderated the relationship between mastery avoidance goal orientation and feedback seeking. Specifically, mastery avoidance goal orientation and feedback seeking were more negatively related under higher role conflict. The results suggest a two-factor model of avoidance goal orientation. Applications for freshmen management are discussed.
    An Online Content Analysis on Honeymoon Destination Choice by Chinese Market
    WANG Fei;SONG Meng;XIN Xin;LI Xiaodan;WU Bihu
    2015, 51(3):  503-510.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2014.157
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    Based on a brief analysis on current status of honeymoon travel development in China, the authors choose online travelogues as a data base to conduct a content analysis to define the most important determinants which influence peoples’ destination choice after their wedding ceremonies, and an indicator system for honeymoon destination assessment for consumers’ concerns. The authors then apply this framework to rank the most welcomed honeymoon destinations in the world according to China’s market preferences and their online travelogues. The result provides a potential benefit for both the destination image positioning and consumers’ rational site selection during their travel decision making.
    Value-at-Risk Estimation of Carbon Spot Markets Based on an Integrated GARCH-EVT-VaR Model
    JIANG Jingjing;YE Bin;MA Xiaoming
    2015, 51(3):  511-517.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.018
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    An empirical research was made on the carbon market risk measurement of the European Union emissions trading scheme. Based on the analyses of carbon price volatility, the conditional variance and extreme value theory were incorporated into the VaR framework to develop an integrated GARCH-EVT-VaR model for the carbon market. It is applied to estimate market risks of the EU ETS, and empirical results indicate that the GARCH-EVT-VaR model makes more accurate risk measurement of the carbon market than the traditional model. The EUA (Europe Union Allowance) and CER (Certificated Emission Reduction) are exposed to the same level of market price, in spite of differences in their policy risk, legal risk and credit risk. Market risks of EUA and CER are significant correlated, which can be used to make risk management strategies for the carbon market.
    Comprehensive Benefit Assessment of Efficient Ecological Fishery in the Yellow River Delta (Dongying City)
    ZHOU Xin;XU Xuegong
    2015, 51(3):  518-524.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.021
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    According to the principles of sustainable development, the index system for comprehensive evaluation of the benefits of efficient ecology fishery is established and applied to assess the time sequence (1992–2011) and spatial variation (five districts) of Dongying City. The index system is constructed by 3 criterion layers and 21 factors. The score of each factor was calculated, by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert scoring method to determine the weight. Results show that the comprehensive benefits present a rising trend on the whole, and can be divided into 3 stages: 1992–1998, fluctuating at a low level; 1998–2006, rapid promotion; 2006 till now, stable and coordinated development. The total benefit has the same variation trend with economic benefit, while has a negative correlation with ecological benefit in some years. For the regional comparison, Kenli leads all other districts in every benefit. Hekou takes the second place, and Dongying and Guangrao districts perform poor. The research is an important support for further planning of fishery policy in Dongying City.
    Comparison of Two Biodegradable Polymer Blends as Biofilm Carrier and Carbon Source for Nitrogen Removal
    ZHU Qing;YANG Feifei;ZHAO Lan;WU Weizhong
    2015, 51(3):  525-530.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.022
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    Two kinds of biodegradable polymers (BDPs), PHBV/PLA and PHBV/Methyl Cellulose blends, were used as biofilm carrier and carbon source in batch and continuous packed-bed reactors for nitrogen removal. Results of batch test indicated that denitrification with PHBV/Methyl Cellulose blends had a shorter start-up period in comparison to that with PHBV/PLA, but there was no significant difference on the nitrogen removal efficiency after 24 hours and denitrification rates were found to be 0.10 and 0.12 mg N/(L·h·g) respectively. The NO3 ?-N removal loads of 13.95 and 14.02 mg/(L·h) for PHBV/PLA and PHBV/Methyl Cellulose blends were achieved in the continuous packed-bed reactor while their removal efficiencies exceeded 90%。Further DOC analysis showed that PHBV/PLA had a better profile of controlled carbon release for desired denitrification. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images suggested that difference between internal structures of both blends affected nitrogen removal and controlled carbon release.
    Affordances of Urban Neighborhood Environment for Children’s Outdoor Physical Activities: A Case Study in Yandongyuan, Beijing
    QU Chen;HAN Xili
    2015, 51(3):  531-538.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.023
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    Cognitive maps drawing and interview are used as main methods and 94 children aged 6–12 are investigated to reveal the affordances of the present and children’s ideal urban neighborhood environment in Yandongyuan, Beijing for children’s outdoor physical activities. Based on 188 valid cognitive maps, the results are analyzed and compared with international related researches. It shows that, 1) the structure of present environment affordances in Yandongyuan neighborhood is that used affordance>perceived affordance>shaped affordance, the specific proportion is 15:12:1; 2) the largest contribution of environmental elements to the total neighborhood environment affordances is “ground” and “plants”, they provide a relatively most used affordance; 3) in children’s ideal neighborhood outdoor activity environment, “building structures/garden sketches”, “weather/microclimate” and “water” are improved most in perceived affordance; the environmental elements significantly improved in used affordance are “sports/recreation facilities” and “environmental protection/service facilities”; 4) “science fiction facilities” and “multimedia facilities” have been proposed as children’s ideal neighborhood environmental elements, but their affordances are limited to perceived and used aspects , and the number of affordance is limited as well.
    Influence of Bacteria on the Transport Behaviors of Lead and Chromium in Porous Media
    YUAN Ye;CAI Li;TONG Meiping
    2015, 51(3):  539-546.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.024
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    Escherichia coli C3000 was selected as model bacteria to evaluate the influence of bacteria on the transport of lead and chromium in two types of porous media (bare quartz sand and iron-oxide coated quartz sand (IOCS)). Experimental results showed that the retardation factors of lead and chromium in iron oxide-coated sand (4.793 for lead and 1.212 for chromium) are much greater than those in bare quartz sand (1.145 for lead and 0.427 for chromium), indicating that the transport of lead and chromium was lower in IOCS than that in bare quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the retardation factors of lead and chromium in the absence of bacteria (1.145 for lead and 0.427 for chromium) are similar as those in the presence of bacteria (1.230 for lead and 0.369 for chromium), demonstrating that the transport of lead and chromium were not affected by the presence of bacteria; however, in IOCS, the retardation factor of lead in the presence of bacteria (6.360) is much larger than that in the absence of bacteria (4.793), whereas, the retardation factor of chromium in the presence of bacteria (1.212) is similar as that in the absence of bacteria (1.037). The results indicated that the presence of bacteria inhibited the transport of lead, whereas, the transport of chromium was yet not affected by the presence of bacteria in IOCS. These findings will help to predict the transport of heavy metals in variable soils and subsurface environment.
    Feasibility of Measuring Nitrite with Semiconductor Laser
    WU Feng;HAO Ruixia;JIANG Yuan;YANG Shiqin;LU Anhuai
    2015, 51(3):  547-552.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.068
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    Based on the principle of laser absorption spectrum and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, a nitrite tester was built which takes use of the characteristics that the purple dye generated by the reaction of nitrite, amino benzene sulfonic acid and N-1-naphthyl ethylenediamine hydrochloride, specifically absorbs the 532 nm light produced by the semiconductor laser diode. It has been verified by the experiment that the absorption of the light beam by the purple dye had good linear relationship with the concentration of sodium nitrite within 0 to 1.4 ng/μL. Compared with the Griess reagent colorimetric method, the tester can obtain accurate results when it measures nitrite concentration in the natural water samples.
    Assessing Water Quality of the Yellow River with Benthic Macro-invertebrate Indices
    HUANG Xulei;LI Tianhong;JIANG Xiaohui
    2015, 51(3):  553-561.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.070
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    Different benthic macro-invetebrate indices tend to produce different results of river water quality. Finding out appropriate evaluation indices aimed at specific rivers is the premise of biological assessment. This paper compared two sets of macro-invetebrate survey datasets of the main stream of the Yellow River between 1980s, and 2008. Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, Margalef Diversity Index, Simpson Diversity Index and Pielou Evenness Index, Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT), Goodnight- Whitley Modified Index (GBI), Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Pollution Index (BPI) were calculated and compared to evaluate the water quality in the Yellow River. The results showed that the number of macroinvertebrate species sharply reduced due to the water quality deterioration. A clear difference occurred among assessment results of nine macro-invertebrate evaluation indices, with relatively high correlations among part of the indices. Simpson diversity index and Pielou evenness index, ASPT, GBI and BPI shows high correlation with the natural environment factors, which suggested they are not suitable as evaluation indices for water quality assessment in the Yellow River. Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index, Margalef Diversity Index, BMWP and FBI can be used as the assessment indices for biological evaluation of water quality in the Yellow River.
    Research Progress and Unsolved Problems of Triassic Nothosaurus
    YIN Chao;HAO Weicheng;JIANG Dayong;SUN Zuoyu;SUN Yuanlin
    2015, 51(3):  562-570.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.001
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    Recently, with the discovery of many complete materials, some progress has been made among the researches of Nothosaurus. Based on the detailed analyses of the present progress in taxonomic, paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic occurrences, the history of Nothosaurus has been confirmed: first appeared in the early Ainsian, flourished from late Ainsian to early Ladinian, and extincted in early Carnian. Furthermore, from the recent phylogenetic analyses, a possible immigration pathway of Nothosaurus is suggested: from the Netherlands to Germany and Israel in Europe, but it is uncertain whether the genus originated from the western or eastern Tethys.
    Effect of Interdisciplinary Academic Exchange on Research Collaboration and Graduate Cultivation: A Case Study on Biomedical Interdisciplinary Lecture of Peking University
    LIU Xiaopeng;WEI Peng
    2015, 51(3):  571-576.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2015.026
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    Focused on the problem of intersecting and integration between different campus or disciplines in comprehensive universities, the authors introduce the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Lecture and interdisciplinary academic seminars organized in Peking University, including the background, location, form, content and influence. The interdisciplinary academic exchange play a role in promoting research collaboration and organizing research projects, as well as enhancing culturing graduate students with interdisciplinary background. It is suggested that the interdisciplinary academic exchange activities in the future should further take advantage of platform and multiple disciplines, enhance the interactive communication between outstanding scholars and graduate students, and combine closely between scientific research and talent cultivation.