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Table of Content

    20 January 2017, Volume 53 Issue 1
    Orginal Article
    A Feature Analysis Approach in Simplification of 3D Building with Complex Flat Roof
    Lei GE, Fang WU, Jiansheng LI, Zhigang MA
    2017, 53(1):  1-7.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.111
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    A new generalization approach based on feature analysis method is proposed to deal with buildings with complex flat roof. This approach divides features of building roof into three types, which are two-edge feature, three edge feature and component feature. Simplification algorithms are developed to deal with different feature types. By analyzing the relationship of the three algorithms, a detailed process to simplify complex flat roof is developed. The approach is implemented and tested on a number of 3D buildings. Two typical buildings and a building cluster are simplified by the proposed algorithm under different threshold. The experiment results show that the 3D building can be efficiently generalized, while the characteristics of roof structure can be well preserved after simplification.

    Analysis of Meteorological Variables in Dianzhong Region in Recent 51 Years
    Yijia ZHENG, Yucong MIAO, Shuhua LIU, Ping HE, Shu WANG
    2017, 53(1):  8-18.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.098
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    To understand the climate change in Dianzhong region, Yunnan Province, the near-surface observations from 1963 to 2013 in four cities (i.e. Kunming, Chuxiong, Yuxi, and Qujing) were analyzed. Significant warming trend was found in the past 51 years in all the four cites. Comparing the warming trend in different seasons, it was found that the warming rate was fastest in winter. The warming phenomenon was most significant in Kunming, which might be relevant to the urbanization there in the past decades. The annual precipitation presented a slightly decreasing trend. The precipitation increased in the dry seasons (spring and winter), while decreased in the wet seasons (summer and autumn). In the four cities, the decrease of precipitation was most significant in Kunming, while it was slight in Chuxiong. In addition, the decrease of relative humidity was found, and the different between the seasons is not huge. The correlations between different meteorological variables can also be found through the wavelet analysis. It was found that the 36-year cycle of temperature was relevant to that of relative humidity, and the 16?32 years cycle of relative humidity was also related to that of precipitation in Dianzhong region.

    Rayleigh Wave Suppression Using Super-Virtual Interferometry Method
    Yuhang WANG, Shengpei AN, Weizhong WANG, Tianyue HU
    2017, 53(1):  19-25.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.048
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    Conventional Rayleigh wave suppression methods take advantage of differences in frequencies or apparent velocities between surface waves and effective waves to separate Rayleigh waves. However, the suppression may fail when the waves present small differences. To solve this problem, the super-virtual interferometry method is introduced to predict and suppress Rayleigh waves. It is a data-driven method, which is independent of frequencies or apparent velocities, and presents good applicability to complex near surface. Compared with conventional interferometry method which only predicts inter-receiver Rayleigh waves and requires a real shot around the receiver position, the super-virtual interferometry method is able to achieve shot-receiver Rayleigh waves, followed by adaptive subtraction using multichannel L1-norm. The synthetic data examples demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and obtain good results.

    Feasibility Analysis on Practical Application of Virtual Events Method in Predicting Seismic Interbed Multiples
    Lu LIU, Tianyue HU, Shengpei AN, Jing WU
    2017, 53(1):  26-36.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.089
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    There are problems such as efficient match of multiples, influence of other noise and geometry when the virtual events method is used in real data. By studying on model data, an efficient matching method based on high-order and high-resolution Radon transform was presented, which had advantages in matching time and effect. There are also some quantitative analyses and parametric optimization on filter matrix and length of time window of the traditional matching methods. The authors made some quantitative analyses on the anti-noise capacity of virtual events method and discussed its range of application. The results have some referential meaning when the method is used in real data.

    A New Type of Tight-Oil and Its Feature in Zhahaquan Area of Qaidam Basin
    Bin ZHOU, Ping GUAN, Hengfei WEI, Yongshu ZHANG, Ling FU, Chuanqi YU
    2017, 53(1):  37-49.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.008
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    Sedimentology, reservoir geology and organic geochemistry are applied to the research of tight-oil found in Zhahaquan area of Qaidam Basin. The sedimentary facies in Zhahaquan area are mainly beach-bar sand, which becomes a good sedimentary background for tight-oil forming. The occurrence of tight-oil in this area is thin oil layer and source rocks interbed, so the tight-oil is a self-generating and self-preserving reservoir near source. Which provides a favorable condition of reservoir and source paragenesis for tight-oil forming. The reservoir is very tight which has pore of micron and nanometer, and has an average porosity of 5.8% and an average permeability of 0.45 mD, so it is a typical tight-oil reservoir. Type of organic matter in Eocene source rocks is mainlyⅠand Ⅱ1. Tmax value is 311-461ºC, which illustrates that the source rocks are between immaturate and maturation stages. Content of organic carbon falls 0.29%-4.42%, mainly less than 1.0%, which is much less than the source rock indicator for tight-oil. The tight-oil in the area should be a new type. It is believed that the conversion efficiency of the organic matter is higher in the lake environment with high salinization in this area, although the abundance of organic matter in source rock of tight-oil in Zhahaquan area of Qaidam Basin is much less than that in other basins. Therefore, the environment here can also support formation of much liquid hydrocarbon, and there is a good potential of tight-oil exploration in Qaidam Basin.

    Transformation Process of Sodium Tungstata and Natural Graphite in Argon Atmosphere at High Temperature
    Linyin WEI, Xiuyun CHUAN, Dubin HUANG, Shuangqing SU, Shiyun JIN
    2017, 53(1):  50-56.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.052
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    Using sodium tungstate as tungsten source, natural soil shaped graphite as carbon source, an experiment is provided for researching the transformation process and rules of them in argon atmosphere at high temperature. The final products are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), etc. The result shows that the mixed samples of sodium tungstate and graphite can generate different tungsten carbon compounds in an argon atmosphere with heat treatment. First, reduction reaction occurs between mixed graphite and sodium tungstate dihydrate at the reaction interface, reducing sodium tungstate dihydrate to α-W2C and β-W2C. Second, when the mass ratio of Na2WO4 : C is less than 1:1, reduction of α-W2C to α-WC occurs, till the mass ratio was 1:5, and α-W2C can be reduced to α-WC completely.

    Uplift-Exhumation History of Daqing Mountain, Inner Mongolia Since Late Mesozoic
    Qinqin XU, Jianqing JI, Wentao ZHAO, Xiangjiang YU
    2017, 53(1):  57-65.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.096
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    Four bedrock samples, collected from the eastern segment of Daqing Mountain, were analyzed using apatite fission-track (AFT) method. This elucidates the uplift-exhumation history of this area since the Late Cretaceous — in particular, when the present geomorphology of Daqing Mountain was shaped. The AFT ages range from 57.7±3.8 Ma to 50.4±3.3 Ma and the track length is between 10.7±0.4 μm and 9.9±0.1 μm. Modeling of the fission track data suggests two stages of rapid uplift and cooling, 100-90 Ma and since 13.5-7 Ma. The second cooling stage (since 13.5-7 Ma) was characterized by the fast uplift-exhumation in this area, resulting in the present geomorphology of Daqing Mountain.

    Sea-Level Fluctuations in the Tremadocian of the Ordovician in the Upper Yangtze Region of South China
    Yongchao SUN, Jianbo LIU
    2017, 53(1):  66-80.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.123
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    Four Tremadocianian sections of the Upper Yangtze Region of South China are intensively studied for biostratigraphical division and correlation. Based on the analysis of lithofacies, lithofacies associations, and facies successions, the detailed sea level curves of Tremadocian are revealed. Ten lithofacies which are grouped into three lithofacies associations deposited in the shallow subtidal, deep subtidal and shale basin zones. At least five major transgression events are recognized from each section in early TS.1a, late TS.1a, early TS.1c, late TS.1c and late TS.1d. The most major transgression event occurred in early TS.1c. Compared with other paleoplates, eustatic sea level changes might be the major controlling factor for the sea level fluctuations of the Upper Yangtze Region of South China.

    The First Discovery of Deinonychosaurian Tracks from Lower Cretaceous of Chabu, Otog Qi, Inner Mongolia and Its Significance
    Baopeng WANG, Jianjun LI, Zhiqiang BAI, Jieqiong CHANG, Yongqiang ZHANG
    2017, 53(1):  81-90.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.099
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    Thousands of footprint fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous of Chabu area in Otog Qi, Ordos city, Inner Mongolia, including theropod, sauropod and bird footprints as well. In 2014, a detailed survey was carried out around the Otog Field Museum of Geological Vestige (Tracksite: 8A and 8B) in Chabu area. Two functionally didactyl tracks attributed to deinonychosaurian theropods were firstly found. These two-toed tracks are assigned to Dromaeosauripus according a number of features. Two other theropod fossil footprints (Asianopodus robustus and Grallator) were found together with the two-toed tracks, which reflected the living habits of deinonychosaurs. The global record of didactyl theropod tracks (Dromaeopodidae) was enlarged by this discovery. It also helps to reveal the paleoecology of Chabu area and compare strata with other area.

    Visible and Invisible Transfer of Pollution-Intensive Industry in China
    Qi WANG, Qiaoling LIU, Peng LI
    2017, 53(1):  91-100.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.110
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    From the perspective of both production and consumption, this paper constructed an index of environmental resources occupation changes to assess the industrial transfer, and divided it into visible transfer based on the traditional changes of production share and invisible transfer based on the changes of consumption. The transfer among China’s 30 provinces for three major water pollution-intensive industries was analyzed. Results in the period of 2002-2007 show that paper products industry transfers out to the eastern region, and visible transfer is dominant; chemicals industry transfers out to the eastern region as well, but invisible transfer is dominant; while agro-food processing industry transfers out to the central and western regions, and both visible and invisible transfer are significant. Given the different transfer characteristics, policies on industry transfer for different industries should be made discriminatingly in the future.

    Spatial-Temporal Pattern and Causes for Agricultural Labor Productivity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
    Yu LIU, Yandong ZHENG, Yangfen CHEN
    2017, 53(1):  101-110.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.001
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    Taking 171 counties of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as research units, adopting GIS spatial analysis methods, it is revealed that spatial difference of agricultural labor productivity in 1994, 2000, 2006 and 2012. With geographically weighted regression model, the causes for the spatial difference of labor productivity in 2000 and 2012 are revealed. The results indicate that the agricultural labor productivity at county level shows unbalanced development with remarkable special differentiation. The counties in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region possess higher agricultural labor productivity, however, there is a slow increase in labor productivity for the counties in Beijing, obvious decrease in number of agglomeration unit. The agricultural labor productivity of the counties in Shijiazhuang surrounding area sees high-level agglomeration; Agricultural labor productivity of the counties in Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Baoding and Xingtai is situated at a relatively low level. During the research period, agricultural labor productivity has a rapid increase, with no obvious polarization trend. In four research years, agricultural labor productivity at county level shows positive correlation but with weakened agglomerating level, so agricultural labor productivity at county level shows a decentralized sign. Simulation result of geographically weighted regression model is significantly better than ordinary least squares. Parameter estimation results for regression coefficients of controlled variables of 171 countries are different. Driving factors of labor productivity of agricultural work are featured as localization other than unbalanced linkage, and effects of agricultural labor productivity in previous stage are most obvious. Therefore, current status of agricultural labor productivity and driving factor should be combined to optimize agricultural labor productivity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Correlation Analysis between PM2.5 Concentration and Meteorological Factors in Beijing Area
    Yimin ZHOU, Xinyi ZHAO
    2017, 53(1):  111-124.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.002
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    The concentration monitoring of the Embassy of the United States in China since 2009, the aerosol optical depth of MODIS and the planetary boundary layer data of NCEP were used to analyze the meteorological conditions in the planetary boundary layer of Beijing in recent years. The results show that from 2009 to the summer of 2011 and the summer and winter of 2012, the pollution status of Beijing is serious. In 2013 and 2014, pollution is slightly better. The north wind is benefit to the diffusion of pollutants, and the greater the north wind, the better the diffusion effect. The south wind is benefit to the accumulation of pollutants, and the greater the south wind, the better the accumulation effect. Higher planetary boundary layer results in better diffusion. Greater humidity results in more accumulation. Precipitation has obvious effect on the diffusion of pollutant. Since twenty-first century, these meteorological conditions of Beijing have no obvious interannual variation except the planetary boundary layer height, which is obviously reduced from 2500 m to 1500 m.

    Natural Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals onto Common Edible Macrofungi and Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies on Biosorption of Pb(Ⅱ) to Them
    Yuan JIANG, Ruixia HAO, Shiqin YANG
    2017, 53(1):  125-134.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.003
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    Natural bioaccumulation of heavy metals and biosorption of Pb (Ⅱ) in some common edible macro-fungi was studied. They include the following species: Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholomagambosum, Auricularia auricular, and Hypsizygus marmoreus Bigelow. The present analysis of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Fe, Cd, V, and Cu) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. The concentrations of the metals have not reached a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. The biosorption experiment by edible-macro-fungi shows that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp of Auricularia auricular and the homogenate of all the species follow well the Langmuir model; living sporocarp of Pleurotus ostreatus exhibites better fit to the Freundlich model. The maximum lead removal capacity of Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholomagambosum, Auricularia auricular, Hypsizygus marmoreus Bigelow show a higher lead removal capacity than other biosorbents, reaching 91.7, 123, 58.5 and 120 mg/g respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model best fits the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macro-fungi as a potential biosorbent for Pb(Ⅱ) is confirmed.

    Solid Electrodes with Cu(Ⅱ) Applied in Free-membrane Bioelectrochemical System
    Huchun TAO, Taian YU, Xiao ZHANG, Gang SHI, Jinbo LI
    2017, 53(1):  135-141.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.109
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    A solid electrode with Cu(Ⅱ) was prepared by utilizing chitosan modified electrode to adsorb Cu(Ⅱ) in the solution, which was used as the cathode of microbial anode and chitosan modified cathode based battery (MACMCB). Different Cu(Ⅱ) masses and external loadings were tested to study the discharge property of MACMCB system. Results indicate that better discharge process relies on a larger amount of Cu(Ⅱ) or a higher external loading in this work. The highest cell voltage is 0.6346 V. The Cu(Ⅱ) reduction efficiency of MACMCB system is higher than 92.75%, indicating a nearly complete reduction of Cu(Ⅱ). The comparison between MACMCB and MFC indicates that MACMCB showes better performance than MFC on substrate consume and electricity output within a period of time. Changing the solid electrode within 10 - 30 hours is recommended. CuSO4 is directly adsorbed inside the solid electrode. The major reduction product is copper, while the left included Cu2O, phosphide of copper and chloride of copper.

    Soil Microbial Community Composition and Environmental Controls in Northern Temperate Steppe of China
    Yuan FANG, Wei WANG, Xiaodong YAO, Xiaoqian PENG
    2017, 53(1):  142-150.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2017.017
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    This study chose meadow steppe, typical steppe, desert steppe, three types of steppes, a total of 13 sampling sites in northern temperate steppe of China, and determined phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) composition of soil microbes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling method was used to analyze the soil microbial community composition. The results showed that microbial community structure significantly differed among three types of steppes. Then, the soil microbial community composition data with 10 kinds of environmental factors were combined to conduct redundancy analysis. 79.87% of the variation of soil microbial community composition was explained. Soil moisture content, soil total carbon, soil total nitrogen could affect the soil microbial community composition of meadow steppe. Soil microbial community composition of typical steppe was closely related to light carbon and nitrogen component of soil. Mean average temperature and soil pH value significantly influenced the soil microbial community composition of desert steppe.

    The Measurement of China’s Provincial Green Total Factor Productivity Based on DEA Method: Does the Choice of DEA Model Make Difference
    Jie FENG, Shiqiu ZHANG
    2017, 53(1):  151-159.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.119
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    Based on the empirical study of total provincial green factor productivity in China, it is found that the use of different DEA models will significantly affect the temporal and spatial distribution of provincial green total factor productivity, and the choice of efficiency measures affects less than the choice of production frontier Assumption. Further analysis shows that SBM model is more consistent with the real meaning of green total factor productivity. The results of SBM model show that China’s green total factor productivity (TFP) shows a decreasing trend from the eastern coastal regions to the western regions. Although the provincial total green factor productivity has improved during the period from 2005 to 2013, the difference among provinces has become bigger and bigger.

    Effects of Land Use and Urban Landscape Pattern on PM2.5 Concentration: A Shenzhen Case Study
    Wudan XIE, Jiansheng WU
    2017, 53(1):  160-170.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.120
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    This study took Shenzhen as study area. PM2.5 concentration in air quality monitoring stations was used and five kinds of landscape metrics including PLAND (percentage of landscape), ED (edge density) at class-level, and CONTAG (contagion), NP (number of patches), AREA_MN (mean patch area) at landscape-level were applied. Further, other data, such as street length, catering number, elevation and land use types considered as factors influencing PM2.5, were also obtained. By means of correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression, the effects of land use and landscape pattern on PM2.5 concentration were explored. The results showed that among land use as sink landscape for PM2.5, vegetation had the most obvious influence on PM2.5 concentration; at class-level metrics, both composition metric (PLAND) and configuration metric (ED) were significantly related with PM2.5 concentration; at landscape-level, fragment (CONTAG and AREA_MN) of the whole landscape had a significant relationship with PM2.5 pollution. This study could widen the understanding on relationship between landscape and process in landscape ecology and offer advice for air pollution control and landscape planning. Furthermore, it would also provide an effective method to estimate PM2.5 concentration in case of no measurement.

    Warming Enhances Soil Freezing and Thawing Circles in the Non-growing Season in a Tibetan Alpine Grassland
    Li LIN, Qibing WANG, Zhenhua ZHANG, Jinsheng HE
    2017, 53(1):  171-178.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.121
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    Seasonal freezing and thawing process occurs in the non-growing season in the alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau. However, it is still unclear that how warming would affect this process in the alpine zone. From October 2013 to April 2014, the research used minirhizotron directily and soil temperature indirectly to investigate the effects of warming on the freezing and thawing process. The results showed that, warming significently increased soil temperature at the depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm, and soil temperatue in the winter warming plots was 0.01-0.18oC higher than that in the annual warming plots. Wamrming significantly decreased the depth of soil frozen layer in the frozen period and thawing period of winter spring, but had no effect on the the depth of soil frozen layer in the thawing period of fall-winter. It is due to warming-induced redution on soil miosture. Warming significantly reduced lasting days of frozen period and increased lasting days thawing period of winter-spring, and did not affect the lasting days of freezing period of fall-winter. Effects of winter warming on frozen soil depths and lasting days were much greater than annual warming. The reults suggest that the enhanced freezing and thawing circles with a warming trend may subsequently affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in this region.

    Risk Perception of Interaction with Dolphin in Bunbury, West Australia
    Li CONG, Bihu WU, Yujun ZHANG, Newsome David
    2017, 53(1):  179-188.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.040
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    This research aims to analyze the risk perception of tourists in Dolphin Discovery Center (DDC) Bunbury, West Australia and serves for the destination a management and marketing. Factor analysis, K-Means cluster analysis and variance analysis were combined to examine the extent of risk perception for DDC and demographic differences. The main conclusions were as following: three factors that tourism experience quality, physical safety, and amenity were extracted based on the exploring factor analysis; according to the extent of risk perception, wildlife tourists had been divided into three categories: weak risk awareness, medium risk perception, and strong risk perception. Wildlife tourists perceived experience quality risk as the strongest factor and physical safety as the weakest factor, and amenity risk was in an intermediate position. Independent-sample t test and variance analysis were used to examine the demographic difference in risk perception and the results showed that different age, income and family status all had significant difference in risk perception except gender; tourism experience, travelling companion, expenditure and staying time and other tourism behavior all had significant difference in risk perception as well as satisfaction and willingness to revisit, except for information source.

    Application and Researches for Trees Volume Estimation Based on Cusp Catastrophe Theory Model
    Wei LI, Xiuwan CHEN, Haiying MAO, Fei LI
    2017, 53(1):  189-196.  DOI: 10.13209/j.0479-8023.2016.092
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    In order to study whether the growth of trees existence mutations problems, measurement and calculation of the mutation based on the cusp model theory is applied to 10 common species single tree volume in Wang Ye Dian forest farm which is located in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia, China. 10 northern common tree species were selected to carry out the experiment, the tree height (H), DBH (D), volume (V), diameter (D0) were measured which as the true value. To test the Internal and external accord accuracy of the “V-H-D” model by using the improved differential evolution algorithm and edge species and then compare the difference between model calculation value and instrument measuring. After a certain iteration, the results showed that the overall relative error (RS) of the model is in the range of [0.001, 0.05], the average relative error (E) is in the range of [-0.11, 0.02], and the overall prediction accuracy (P) is greater than 80%. The outcome had shown the good fitness of the model, namely the cusp catastrophe theory model applies to northern China 10 single species tree volume. With the growing of trees, when the height of the tree reaches a certain height, the volume will follow the theory model of cusp catastrophe theory. This is the cusp catastrophe theory model was first applied to the determination of single tree volume and got a better fitting result. Meanwhile, a low-dimensional model of mutation was established in the discontinuous measurement, which provides a theoretical and practical basis for the study of tree volume and various species of spatial competition.