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Table of Content

    20 September 2012, Volume 48 Issue 5
    Study on Geophysical Response Characteristic and Prediction Methodology of Fractured and Cavernous Carbonate Reservoir
    LANG Xiaoling,PENG Shimi,KANG Hongquan
    2012, 48(5):  775-784. 
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    Fractured and cavernous carbonate reservoir is highly heterogeneity and it is a challenge to predict reservoir distribution. Integration core observation, formation image log data and seismic data, geophysical response characteristic and prediction method of fractured and cavernous carbonate reservoir were studied in lower palaeozoic buried hill reservoir of area Z in Bohai Bay basin. Proposal reservoir prediction method is based on fracture response seismic attributes. On basis of the analysis of seismic multi-attributes, spectral decomposition, amplitude and coherence was tested. Optimized eigen coherence method based on improved linear image was applied to predict fracture and cavernous distribution of lower palaeozoic buried hill fractures, indicating the potential area for future well site deployment. Based on results of the study, a fracture and cavernous distribution prediction map and prospects were generated for the block Z area, including of well Z9, well Z37, well Z21 and well Z13 area. The fracture and cavernous are mainly distributed in north-south, north-west and nearly north-south of area Z. Prediction result fits very well with the drilling result. This methodology is a useful guidance for the same type of carbonate reservoir characterization.
    Temporal and Spatial Variation of Land Use Change and Driving Forces Analysis in Qiandongnan Prefecture
    ZHAO Songting,GUO Luo,DU Shihong,Lü Liang
    2012, 48(5):  785-791. 
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    Based on the remote sensing imagery data of 1993,1999 and 2009, spatial and temporal variation of land use change of Qiandongnan Prefecture were analyzed. The results show that farmland and building area increased significantly in the study area from 1993 to 1999, while forest area, grassland and water area had declining trend. There were still increasing trend of building area, a slight increase in water and farmland area, as well as a slight decrease in grassland and forest area from 1999 to 2009. The dynamic change of land use pattern in different counties had significant difference. The farmland and forest were the main land use types in the study area with great intensity of variations and instabilities at the time dimension. The changes of degree of land use from 1993 to 2009 show that the level of land use was in a developing period. With economic growth and population increases, demand for construction land will expand, and the breadth and depth of land use will continue to grow.
    Simplifying the Evaluation of Exponential Sums of Some Binary Quadratic Functions
    YIN Huajun,ZHANG Xiyong
    2012, 48(5):  695-700. 
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    Factorizing the companion polynomials of binary quadratic function into the product of a polynomial and its reciprocal polynomial. With the property of the trace function and the Frobenius permutation, the exponential sums of a large class of quadratic functions with many terms can be converted to the computation of the exponential sums of some quadratic functions that can be explicitly evaluated by present results. A new method is also given to simplify the evaluation of exponential sums of these binary quadratic functions.
    Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by CRH3 High Speed Trains
    SUN Zhenxu,SONG Jingjing,AN Yiran
    2012, 48(5):  701-711. 
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    The nonlinear acoustics solver (NLAS) approach is adopted to study the aerodynamic noise in the near field of the CRH3 high speed train. The method validation is conducted through a two-dimensional backward step case, which shows excellent agreement with experimental results. With the help of acoustic surface around the noise sources, far field aerodynamic noise study is carried out by solving the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawking (FW-H) equation. The aerodynamic noise study on CRH3 high speed trains with a speed of 300 km/h is performed. The feature of the flow field dominates the generation of aerodynamic noise, therefore the flow field obtained by the RANS solution is firstly analyzed, with the head, the rear, and the inter-coach spacing included. By using of probes placed in specific regions on the surface of the train, the contribution of different parts of the train for aerodynamic noise is discussed. Meanwhile, the far field feature of aerodynamic noise is also studied by placing probes in the far field.
    Study on the Criteria of Credibility Evaluation of Academic Information on the Internet
    HU Lei
    2012, 48(5):  712-718. 
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    The author explores the criteria that people use to evaluate the credibility of the online academic information while they seek academic information on the web, with combined application of the methods of observation, think aloud, search logs and content analysis. It finds that users resort to both criteria of information content and external factors such as sources to evaluate the credibility of the online academic information in the process of information behaviour. Furthermore, the motivation can influence what kinds of criteria users will use when they evaluate the credibility of the online academic information, and the criteria used in the high motivation scenario differ from the low motivation scenario. Finally, the conclusions have some practical significances in improving the quality of academic information services, and at the theoretical level, the conclusions can provide guidance for studies of influencing factors of actual evaluation process in future.
    An On-board Embedded Driver Fatigue Warning System Based on Adaboost Method
    CHENG Ruzhong,ZHAO Yong,DAI Yong,CHEN Wei,SUI Bo,WANG Lang,WANG Xin’an
    2012, 48(5):  719-726. 
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    The authors proposed a real time driver fatigue detection algorithm based on Adaboost. The algorithm is applied in an on-board embedded system to monitor driver’s status with infrared camera and active IR lamps. Face detection method is used to localize the eyes of the driver and the eye region is extracted to monitor the movement of eyelids. An alarm rule is designed based on the PERCLOS standard to detect drowsy driving. The algorithm is transplanted from PC to embedded platform and optimized by experiments. Several versions of on-board embedded system are designed and manufactured to test the algorithm, it can provide above 92% accuracy and under 1.5 s reaction time in real driving scenarios. The experiments show that the system is stable and it is available for commercial use.
    Multiclass Kernel Polarization and Its Application to Parameter Selection of RBF Kernel with Multiple Widths
    WANG Tinghua,ZHAO Dongyan,ZHANG Qiong
    2012, 48(5):  727-731. 
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    For the model selection issue of multiclass support vector machine (SVM), the authors presented a kernel evaluation criterion named multiclass kernel polarization (MKP) which was suitable for the multiclass classification scenario. Furthermore, an algorithm was proposed for selecting the parameters of the RBF kernel with multiple widths based on the optimization of the MKP criterion. Compared with the conventional exhaustive search method based on k-fold cross-validation, the proposed algorithm can automatically implement model selection procedure by using the gradient-based search technique, and hence overcome the disadvantages, such as strongly empirical and heavy computational burden. Experimental results on some UCI machine learning benchmark examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the multiclass kernel polarization and related algorithm for model selection with multiple parameters.
    The Position Deviation of Geostationary Satellite Image and the Geometric Correction
    LI Wusheng,WANG Hongqing,WU Qiong,WANG Yu,WANG Yefang
    2012, 48(5):  732-736. 
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    Cloud-top height is calculated by using the TBB of cloud image and the temperature profile. The formula of observed deviation is derived according to the geometric relationship, and the conclusion is drawn that observed deviation is generally between 5 km and 20 km in China for the convective cloud with high cloud-top. The latitude and longitude of true cloud is calculated by using the latitude and longitude of observed cloud and cloud-top height. On this basis, a test of cloud image correcting is carried out, and the error of the test is less than 2 km. The validity of the correction method is verified by comparing the observed cloud image and corrected cloud image with radar image. Finally, the error caused by calculation error of the cloud-top height is analyzed.
    Analysis on Grain Size and Magnetic Susceptibility of the Sediment Profile in the South of Erlitou Site, Luoyang
    ZHANG Junna,XIA Zhengkai
    2012, 48(5):  737-743. 
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    A fluvial sediment profile was found in the south of Erlitou Site, Luoyang Basin, locating in the frontier lines of terraceⅡ. The OSL dating, magnetic susceptibility analysis and grain size analysis were taken. It is showed that the depositional age of the profile is between 2000?5000 aBP. The profile can be divided into three sections: the lower section (113?123 cm) is with fine grain size and high magnetic susceptibility, and the grain size curves indicated flood plain environment, showing floodplain deposits; the middle section (90?113 cm) is with coarse grain size and low magnetic susceptibility, and the grain size curves indicated boundary beach-flood plain environment, showing riverbed-boundary beach deposits; the middle section (0?90 cm) is with fine grain size and high magnetic susceptibility, and the grain size curves indicated flood plain environment, showing floodplain deposits. It is found that the middle riverbed-boundary beach deposits covered on the Longshan ash pit of the terraceⅡ, which records a great flood spreading over the river terrace. This flood is significantly correlated with the pollen analysis result. The 4000 aBP abnormal flood and the changes of the river might be regional responses of the 4200 aBP global abnormal climate event. The location of Erlitou city site might be greatly influenced by the flood event.
    Analysis of Particle Characteristics and Differentiation Processes of Glacial Sediment in Tianshan and Eolian Sediment in the Taklimakan Desert
    PAN Renyi,LI Chuanchuan,ZHANG Mei,SUN Caiqi,LIU Gengnian
    2012, 48(5):  744-756. 
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    To study the transportation, deposition and differentiation of till and outwash in Allah valley area of Tianshan and dune sand in Tazhong area, the characteristics of particles in the two areas were comparatively analyzed. Results show that in the glacial sediments, the content of the silt grain was the largest, followed by sand grain, and clay grain was the least, besides there were lots of more-angulars, worn ridges, large conchoidal fractures, impact pits on the surface of quartz sands, which indicated the strong crushing and grinding force at the bottom of the glacier. The particle characteristics of outwash sediments were similar to that of glacial sediments’, and silt grain was still the dominant component, but the features of quartz sand surface showed that it was slightly reformed by water. In the eolian sediments, sand grain was the main component, and the surface of those grains had lots of subround-round edges, dished pits and irregular small pockmarked pits which were caused by wind action. In addition, there were some large conchoidal fractures, cracks and worn ridges that reflected glaciation and a few V-shaped pits that indicated fluviation. It could be concluded that till is the dominant source of the sand in the Taklimakan Desert, and the silt of till is the main supply for the loess in the edge of Tarim Basin.
    Age and Tectonic Setting of the Aoyougou-Erzhihaladaban Ophiolite in the Western North Qilian Mountains, NW China
    XIA Xiaohong,SUN Nan,SONG Shuguang,XIAO Xuchang
    2012, 48(5):  757-769. 
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    The Aoyougou-Erzhihaladaban ophiolite is one of the representative ophiolite fragments in the west sector of the North Qilian orogenic belt. Using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), two samples from this area were dated. A fine-grained gabbro sample from the Aoyougou section has consistent apparent 206Pb/238U ages in the range of 490 to 508 Ma with a weighted mean age of 501 ± 4 Ma (MSWD=1.09), whereas a dolerite sample from the Erzhihaladaban section has a relatively younger 206Pb/238U age of 495±4 Ma (MSWD=0.98). Combined with detailed field examination, mineral and whole-rock chemical study, we conclude that the exposed Aoyougou-Erzhihaladaban ophiolite represents a part of the dismembered North Qianlian oceanic crust of the era. In addition, the authors propose that the voluminous basalts interstratified with carbonates and mudstones of the Neo-Proterozoic Zhulongguan group do not belong to the Aoyougou-Erzhihaladaban ophiolite. Instead, they may be continental flood basalts formed as a result of break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent.
    Pore-Throat Structure Evaluation of Artificial Cores with Rate-Controlled Porosimetry
    CHAI Zhi,SHI Yongmin,XU Changsheng,ZHANG Yuguang,LI Hong,WU Wenjuan,XU Hongbo,WANG Lei
    2012, 48(5):  770-774. 
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    The pore-throat structure properties of artificial cores made with three different methods are compared with the approach of rate-controlled porosimetry. The feasibility of the artificial cores to replace real cores in micro-structure experiments of reservoirs is evaluated. Pore size distribution of the artificial cores exhibits similar trait as the real core sample, while the throat size is slightly smaller, and the range is narrower compared to the real core. Meanwhile, larger pore-throat ratio may exist in real cores rather than in artificial cores, therefore the displ- acement efficiency of artificial cores is slightly higher and the residual oil saturation is lower than that of real cores.
    Study on the Technology Progress Impact on Pollutant Generation Based on Malmquist Index: Take Industry SO2 as an Example
    LI Mingquan,WANG Qi
    2012, 48(5):  817-823. 
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    This paper identified that there were two aspects of the effects on industrial pollution production by technological progress: the scale effect which promotes economic scale and the intensity effect which reduces pollution generation intensity. Based on the Malmquist index, a theoretical model was built to analyze the two effects, and an empirical study on the industrial SO2 production changes during 2006 and 2009 due to the technical progress was carried out. The results indicate that technical progress reduced the amount of industrial SO2 production. Technical progress reduced the amount of industrial SO2 production in 2006?2007 and 2008?2009, while it was the opposite situation in 2007?2008. The scale effect was more significant in the eastern region, while the intensity effect was more significant in the central region.
    Removal of DBP and DEHP with DOM in Combined Landfill Leachate Biotreatment Process
    CUI Feng,LU Li,LIU Wen,XU Shuo,XU Nan
    2012, 48(5):  792-800. 
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    The removal of di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was studied in laboratory scale combined biotreatment process for landfill leachate {UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed) +BAF (Biological Aerated Filter) +ANO (Anoxic) +MBR (Membrane bioreactor)}. The removal rate was up to 92.9% for DBP and 95.2% for DEHP, which was related to humification of DOM, i.e. the aromaticity and molecular weight (MW) of humic substances in landfill leachate. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was mostly humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in the fraction of 1 to 100 kDa MW, showing strong aromaticity and high DBP/DEHP concentration. With the perfect removal of the fraction, the removal rate of DBP/DEHP was also high. The positive correlation of DOC and DBP/DEHP concentration in raw leachate and in effluents from each reactor showed that the interaction between DOM and DBP/DEHP facilitated the removal of organic pollutants.
    Plant-Soil Relationship and Plant Niche in the Yellow River Delta National Natural Reserve, China
    MA Zongwen,XIE Zhenglei,DUAN Xiaofeng,ZHOU Xin,Timothy R. ROSEN,XU Xuegong
    2012, 48(5):  801-811. 
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    Based on 22 species’ Important Value (IV) at 36 sampling sites in the Yellow River Delta National Natural Reserve (YRDNNR), using Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) method, this research categorized the plant communities in YRDNNR into 6 groups, Ass. Suaeda salsa, Ass. Tamarix chinensis-Suaeda salsa, Ass. Tamarix chinensis-Phragmites australis + Suaeda heteroptera, Ass. Phragmites australis, Ass. Salix matsudana-Phragmites australis, and plantation community. At the gradient of succession, the soil pH increased gradually, the soil salinity decreased, the soils containing the most and the least moisture appear in the Ass. Phragmites australis and plantation community respectively, the total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the soils increased, and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen decreased. The key soil environmental factors detected by Canonical Corresponding Analysis (CCA) that influenced the distribution of plants in YRDNNR were soil salinity and pH. The plant species diversity had a significant negative correlation with soil salinity, but a positive correlation with soil pH. Investigation of niche using the formulae described by Levins and Pianka at soil pH and salinity gradients showed that the dominant plant species such as Tamarix chinensis, Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa, had a wide niche breadth; the niche overlaps between species were relatively smaller, indicating that niche differentiated under soil pH and salinity gradients, which was an essential adaptation to the stresses of soil alkalinity and salinity in YRDNNR.
    Comparative Study on the Performance of Cordierite-Mullite and Industrial Paraffin Wax in Low-Temperature Energy Recovery
    REN Chunrui,LIU Yangsheng,ZENG Hui
    2012, 48(5):  812-816. 
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    Comparison experiment for low temperature waste heat recovery was conducted between two thermal storage materials, namely cordierite-mullite honeycomb regenerator and industrial paraffin wax. The results show that the reasonable cycle time is five minutes. Both of heat charge and discharge characteristics of cordierite-mullite honeycomb regenerator are better than those of industrial paraffin wax. The process of heat charge is faster than heat discharge for the two materials. The temperature efficiencies of cordierite-mullite honeycomb regenerator and industrial paraffin wax are 42.45% and 35%, respectively. Both materials are cheap and easy to transport and store. They will have a good application prospect in the field of low-grade waste heat recovery.
    Study on Dynamic Changes of Sustainability for Counties and Cities in China
    SUN Liying,NI Jinren,CAI Qiangguo,MAO Xiaoling
    2012, 48(5):  824-832. 
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    Sustainability dynamics of 2339 counties and cities were investigated based on rapid assessment method with a four-layer sustainable development indicator system. The evaluation results show that the area averaged sustainable development index of China increased from 0.38 in 1990 to 0.50 in 2005, with an up trend in general. Grades of sustainability are compared in different regions. The results show that the average grades of sustainability are changed from low level to high level in eastern, central and western regions of China during period of 1990?2005. And, the levels of sustainability of eastern regions are higher than that of central and western regions. Values of sustainable development index in 52 major cities are much higher than those in other cities and counties, which suggests that city groups could improve sustainable development in China.
    Adjustment of Haikou City Ecosystem Services Value Based on Habitat Quality and Ecological Location
    GAO Ling,ZHAO Zhijie,ZHANG Hao,GUAN Xuebin,XIAO Ming
    2012, 48(5):  833-840. 
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    This paper consulted basic ecosystem services value research of natural ecosystem, agricultural ecosystem and city ecosystem with market value method, opportunity cost approach and shadow engineering method, and then adjusted ecosystem services value of Haikou in 1998, 2004 and 2008 based on habitat quality and ecological location in space, obtained the spatial distribution of ecosystem services value. The result turned out that the adjusted unit area value of ecosystem functions in Haikou was increasing in the three periods, except for coniferous forests, mangrove wetlands and rubber plantation ecosystem decreased in 2008 compared to 1998. The total economic value of the ecosystem in the three periods was estimated as 58.09×108 RMB yuan, 83.40×108 RMB yuan and 106.02×108 RMB yuan respectively, increased by ?2.82%, 21.62% and 30.59% compared to the corresponding benchmark value of total ecosystem services. The ecosystem services value of agricultural ecosystem dominated the whole ecosystem services value with the proportion of 78.60%, 80.07% and 81.89% in 1998, 2004 and 2008 respectively, the growth of natural ecosystem and city ecosystem slowed down relatively.
    Children’s Outdoor Physical Activities in Beijing “Urban-Village” Neighborhood Subjected to Environmental Factors: A Case Study on Dayouzhuang and Saoziying Neighborhood
    WANG Dong,HAN Xili
    2012, 48(5):  841-847. 
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    In recent years, lacking of children involvement in new district planning or old district renovation, and lacking of understanding of children’s environmental preferences of residential neighborhood made most of the residential neighborhoods not attractive enough for children to be engaged in physical activities. This leads to a series of children’s health problems. This study explored 6?12 years old children’s perception of opportunities for outdoor physical activities in two urban-village neighborhoods in Beijing to promote understanding of the environmental impact on children’s physical activities. Cognitive Mapping reveals that children’s perception of the structure of neighborhood environment includes three models, “activity places & activity path ”, “path” , and “scene”, in which the first model is corresponding to higher level of children’s outdoor physical activities than the others. Poor sanitation and motorvehicles are negative environmental factors which weaken children’s perception of the opportunities for outdoor physical activity. Play and sports facilities, water landscape, flowers and trees, natural pavement and benches are positive environmental factors which promote children’s perception of the opportunity for outdoor physical activity. This research can provide useful information for urban-villages renovation in Beijing and other cities in the future.
    Ecological Conservation Networks and Conservation Priority Evaluation: Green Infrastructure as a Smart Conservation Stratege
    PEI Dan
    2012, 48(5):  848-854. 
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    Green infrastructure (GI), as a smart conservation strategy, has been successful in balancing ecological conservation and land development. Except for its flexible structure of ecological networks, identifying conservation priority is an important step to make the conservation plan more feasible. The author summarizes the advantages of GI network as well as the criteria and method of priority setting in GI practices. The priority evaluation gives consideration to ecological benefit as well as social and economical influence. The criteria can be concluded as effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility. The experiences from GI practices including conservation-development-balanced strategy, the conservation network and its priority evaluation could provide reference for other conservation planning.
    Research Advances on Economic Impacts of EU Aviation Carbon Trading
    XU Xiaohu,MA Xiaoming,ZHANG Wen,WU Lingxiao
    2012, 48(5):  855-861. 
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    Directive was passed through in 2009, and it is scheduled that in 2012 aviation would be included into EU ETS. The authors introduce the EU aviation carbon trading policy, including policy time and scope, total quota and allocation system, MRV system, transactions and punishment mechanism. After summarizing the research home and abroad from 2005, the authors systematically analyze the possible economic impacts on costs and profits, demand and supply of aviation industry as well as impacts on tourism trading and other related industries, as well as the possible impacts on competitiveness and carbon emission. Above on, associating with the status of aviation industry in China, policy recommendations were raised for China to deal with EU aviation carbon trading.
    A Feasibility Study on the Development of Large-Scale Nuclear Power Plant Clusters in Western Deserts of China
    GAO Xiang,LIU Xiaochen,MA Xiao,WANG Gan,LIU Zhe,NIE Xuhui,ZHOU Zhenyu,PAN Ruizhi,LIANG Shiyu,YANG Tianhe,ZHU Jinhua,XU Shengyong
    2012, 48(5):  862-872. 
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    Although the design, construction, operation and management of modern nuclear power plants (NPPs) are approaching perfect, accidental malfunctions and/or mistakes on safety issues cannot be absolutely excluded. Considering China’s conditions, the authors provide a new practical proposal, i.e., to construct underground, semi-underground and/or mountain-tunnel structured NPP clusters in the western deserts of China. The advantages and feasibility of this proposal are carefully discussed. This study offers a constructive roadmap on developing a safer and more reliable energy strategy for the future of China.