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Table of Content

    20 January 2012, Volume 48 Issue 1
    Modeling the Activation of T Cell Receptors
    2012, 48(1):  7-12. 
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    The authors use the strategy of kinetic proofreading model to simulate the process of T-cell receptor (TCR) activation and phosphorylation, and modify the original kinetic proofrading model to explain the multi-phosphorylation process of T-cell receptors as proofreading steps which can amplify the tiny difference in the peptide-TCR binding affinity. The new model expands the previous kinetic proofreading models, and removes the two important assumptions in those models. One is that the dephosphorylation rate constant β is assumed to be very large; the other is that the kinetic mechanism of multi-phosphorylation is sequential phosphorylation mechanism. Based on the more general model, besides the specificity of T cell activation, the results successfully interpret other important characteristics of T cell activation, such as the sensitivity and transition time of activation.
    A New Insight into the High-Angle Deformation Bands in the Central Region of Basin
    ZHANG Bo,ZHANG Zhongpei,ZHANG Jinjiang,YAN Shuyu,WANG Xiaoxian ZHENG Yadong
    2012, 48(1):  79-91. 
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    Based on the review of rock mechanics theory and recent simulated experiment results, as well as sand-box simulation and seismic profile interpretation, the new interpretation explains that some uplifts/folds with high-angle deformation bands in the Tarim basin to be composed of folds flanked by megascopic-scale kink bands. The low-reflectivity, low-signal-tonoise zones seen in seismic profiles across the Bachu fold belt are poorly imaged sections of the folds that result from steeply dipping bedding in the kink bands. These fuzzy seismic zones show a substantial width in the seismic profile. According to the Maximum Effective of Moment Criterion (MEMC), the substantial width of these low reflectivity zones, their subparallel edges in cross section, and their orientation at a high angle to layering, as well as their organized spacing and the obtuse angle in the contraction direction of conjugate kink-bands, indicate that there are kink-band structures and kink-related folds in the Bachu uplift.
    Geometric and Tectonophysical Simulate of the Bachu Fold Belt: Central Region of Tarim Basin
    ZHANG Bo,YAN Shuyu,ZHANG Zhongpei,ZHANG Jinjiang,ZHENG Yadong,WANG Xiaoxian,WANG Meng,WANG Jiamin
    2012, 48(1):  92-104. 
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    Based on structural geometries, kinematic observations, and sand-box simulation results, the new interpretation explains that the Bachu fold belt in the Tarim basin is composed of detachment folds flanked by various-scale kink bands primarily unassociated with faulting. The Bachu antiform belt is characterized by the detachment fold. The detachment fold crests are bounded by kink bands, which are narrow zones of angularly folded strata. The substantial width of these kink bands, their sub-parallel edges in the outcrop cross-sections, and their orientation at a high angle to layering, as well as their organized spacing and conjugate geometry, support a kink-band interpretation. Application of sandbox models for tectonic simulate modeling regenerates kink-band development and evolution: wide-gentle detachment folding → tight detachment folding → fold pop-up → fault adjusting. The analog results strongly support that the kink-band is one of the structure types to form the Bachu fold zone.
    Kink-Band Structure and Its Geophysical Forward Modeling
    ZHANG Bo,ZHANG Zhongpei,ZHENG Yadong,ZHANG Jinjiang,YAN Shuyu
    2012, 48(1):  105-115. 
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    Finite-difference method-single-shot record method is applied to forward-model kink-band models. Based on the analysis of forward modeling results and the features of seismic images response to the various kink-band belt models, the conclusions are summarized as follow. 1) In the seismic profile, kink-band belt is characterized by the substantial width of low-reflectivity, low-signal-to-noise zone and their sub-parallel edges in cross section, which are different from the features of the fault structure. 2) Their orientations at a high angle to layering can impact on the seismic imaging efforts. 3) Steeply or nearly vertical dipping bedding in the kink-band belt often misguide the reflection interface tracking by some overvalued and other false information. These results can provide first references for interpretation of the seismic profiles, such as identifying structural type, and distinguishing the fault from the kink-band.
    An ANN-CA Modeling Method for Land Cover Change in the Karst Area of China: A Case Study of Maotiao River Basin
    WANG Lei,WANG Yang,CAI Yunlong
    2012, 48(1):  116-122. 
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    The land use of Karst areas in Southwest China changed drastically due to its fragile eco-environment properties and the disturbance from human activities. Modeling and analyzing these changes is impeded by its complex surface features and the intensive human-environment interaction. In order to solve this problem, a combined ANN-CA modeling method is used on Maotiao River Basin in Guizhou Province by the modeling results compared with the actual land use map. The results show 87.62% accuracy with confusion matrix, 57.36% with figure of merit, and all of the selected landscape indexes are similar between them, proving this method a good option for the land use change analysis in Karst and other similar areas.
    Properties Analysis of Geospatial Subdivision Grid Framework for Spatial Data Organization
    GUAN Li,Xuefeng
    2012, 48(1):  123-132. 
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    In order to effectively organize and manage massive spatial data, a set of multi-level geospatial framework is designed , namely global subdivision model based on extended mapping division (EMD), which sets spatial data organization and spatial object expression in a whole integration based on the integration of advantages of various global subdivision model in the world. EMD framework is mathematically defined on the basis of specifying the construction and encoding methods of EMD model. And the geometric properties and geometric accuracy are analyzed in details so that the application field and range of EMD model are determined. Finally, the experiment of spatial object expression is finished by means of GeoID coding, and the superiority of this geospatial grid framework is validated as the expression framework of spatial objects.
    Effect of Chlorine-Containing Compounds on Evaporation of Heavy Metals in Secondary Gasification of Fly Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator
    Lü Xiaolei,WEI Lin,LIU Yangsheng,ZENG Hui
    2012, 48(1):  133-138. 
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    The experiment aims to investigate the influence of chlorination agents (NaCl, CaCl2, and FeCl3) on volatilization of heavy metals in fly ash from a Shenzhen municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) during thermal treatment by using a tube furnace. The results indicate that these three chlorination agents could promote the evaporation of heavy metal in fly ash with different performance. However, these chlorination agents had different effects on the volatilization of heavy metals. All of Pb and Cr could be almost volatilized without addition of chlorination agents, while chlorination agents addition produced significant effect on the volatilization of Zn and Cu: FeCl3≈ CaCl2> NaCl. The optimal parameters for vaporization were obtained as follows: fly ash with addition of 15% CaCl2 was treated at 1000℃ for 2 hours under the condition of N2 as carrier gas (0.6 L/min).
    Heavy Metal Contamination in Paddy Soils around a Pb-Zn Mining and Smelting Area and Its Relation with Soil Physicochemical Properties
    SUN Rui,SHU Fan,SUN Weiling,HAO Wei,LI Li
    2012, 48(1):  139-146. 
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    The heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Hg) concentrations in paddy soils, collected from the Pb-Zn mining and smelting area of Shuikoushan in Hunan, China, were investigated. Enrichment factor and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the pollution level and ecological risk of heavy metals in soil. Compared with the soils in surrounding area, the soils in central area (the mining and smelting area) exhibited elevated heavy metal concentrations. The maximum heavy metal contents of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Hg in paddy soils were up to 4330.63, 4451.25, 153.75, 315.69, 34.94, and 2.379 mg/kg, respectively. The contamination degree for different heavy metals were in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn> Cu > Cr = Hg, while the monomial potential ecological risk factor for different heavy metals followed the order of Cd > Hg > Pb > Cu > Zn > Cr. The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that about 50%, 22%, 17%, and 11% of the total sampling sites in the central area were low risk, moderate risk, considerable risk, and very high risk, while the corresponding percentages were 75%, 18%, 5%, and 2% in the surrounding area, respectively. The heavy metal contamination inhibited the dehydrogenase activity significantly, and the soil pH was relatively lower for soil samples with higher metal concentrations.
    Calculation Method on the Reference Wind Pressure Accounting for the Terrain Variations
    CHEN Kai,JIN Xinyang,QIAN Jihong
    2012, 48(1):  13-19. 
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    A new method is proposed to correct the wind speed data in the non-standard terrain on the basis of daily records. The reference wind speeds of Beijing and Dalian are calculated based on the original and corrected wind data, respectively. The corrected data are more close to the stationary process because the terrain variations of the meteorological station have been taken into consideration by the correction coefficient. It’s concluded through likelihood ratio tests that the Gumbel distribution is a valid model for the statistics of annual maximum wind speed and the corrected wind data shows better statistical characteristic. It is suggested that the wind records in the non-standard terrain should be corrected in advance to obtain the reliable reference wind pressure.
    EmBIOS: A BIOS Design for Embedded System Supporting MS Windows
    LI Hao,ZHENG Yansong,PANG Jiufeng,TONG Dong,CHENG Xu
    2012, 48(1):  20-28. 
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    The authors present EmBIOS, a compatible BIOS design for embedded system to support desktop OS such as MS Windows. To effectively achieve OS compatiblity, a simulator BIOS which could boot desktop OS in simulator environment is divided into multiple interrupt service routines. Then by extending and transplanting interrupt service routines to traditional embedded firmware environment, EmBIOS enables initialization of embedded system with existing firmware, and provides BIOS compatibility required by desktop OS. The functional correctness and OS compatibility are guaranteed through running windows and its typical applications on PKUnity86 FPGA and silicon. Experimental results demonstrate that the portability of EmBIOS design and its acceptable boot up performance compared with a commercial embedded BIOS.
    Study on Journal Database Retrieve Behavior of University Users Based on Log Mining
    WANG Jiandong,WANG Jimin
    2012, 48(1):  29-36. 
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    Based on a large Chinese journals database query log, this paper analyzed the basic features of academic database using behavior, including user access time distribution, special retrieval using proportion, as well as key words length distribution. Furthermore, the search strategy of different universities users was also analyzed. It is found that, according to users from different types of universities (science and engineering, normal, agriculture and forestry, medicine), there is a corresponding difference in search strategy; but as to users from universities of different educational levels (985 project, 211 project, etc), the differences in search strategies do not exist. Finally, by judging the IP address, the paper extracted users’ gender, profession, education level and other demographic variables. The authors analyzed the influence of these variables on their search behaviors, and proposed a factor model of university users’ search strategies.
    Forecasting Convective Initiation of a Convective Weather Event in Beijing-Tianjin Region
    LIU Jinghua,WANG Bin,HAN Lei,WANG Hongqing
    2012, 48(1):  42-46. 
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    Using a scoring method presented by Mecikalski et al, which uses eight indicators to forecast convective initiation (CI), a convective weather event in Beijing-Tianjin region was analyzed in the experiment based on the MTSAT satellite data. The experiment results show that after necessary modifications of the indicator thresholds, the above method is feasible to forecast CI ~30 min in advance in Beijing-Tianjin region. The principle component analysis (PCA) method also verifies that every indicator among the eight indicators plays an important role in forecasting CI.
    Improvements to the Peking University Model of Atmospheric Environment (PUMA) and Its Application over Shenyang, China
    ZHANG Bihui,LIU Shuhua,MA Yanjun,LIU Heping
    2012, 48(1):  47-53. 
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    Two improvements were introduced to the Peking University model of atmospheric environment (PUMA) to expand its utility. First, a new generation of mesoscale meteorological model WRF was adopted to provide meteorological fields for PUMA; second, Grisogono scheme, a non-local vertical turbulent mixing parameterization, was introduced into PUMA. Both WRF and PUMA were evaluated with observed data over Shenyang China in winter. Under convective boundary layer at noon, PUMA was improved by Grisogono scheme. The diurnal cycle of SO2, with low values during daytime and high values during nighttime, was negatively related to the cycle of boundary layer height according to the simulation. The improved PUMA can be applied to atmospheric environment forecasting and warning.
    Distribution Characteristic and Migration Behavior of Fe in Large-Scale Anaerobic Landfill
    ZHU Yong,DUAN Zhenhan,LU Wenjing,LONG Yuyang,WANG Hongtao,WU Huayong,REN Lulu
    2012, 48(1):  147-152. 
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    As a variable valent metal, the environmental behavior of Fe has significant effect on the migration of metal and degradation of organic matter in landfill. In the study, the total amount, valence conversion and speciation of Fe in different deposit age waste from a large scale anaerobic landfill in southern Beijing were analyzed. The result shows that 1) the total amount of Fe was 18532.8?26897.2 mg/kg in 3 to 10-year waste; 2) Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) continuously and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio rises from 0.51 to 1.01 by dissimilatory iron reduction; 3) the form distribution of Fe in different deposit age waste is generally identical: the highest content is residual fraction, following the reducible and oxidable fraction, and the acid soluble fraction is of the least. Reducible fraction is the most easily affected by environmental conditions, and sulfide has the most notable impact on the form distribution of Fe.
    Analysis of Predominant Factors of Volcanic Reservoirs in Carboniferous of Junggar Basin
    QIN Xiaoshuang,SHI Yongmin,WU Wenjuan,KOU Yu,WANG Lei,LI Xiaomin,CHAI Zhi
    2012, 48(1):  54-60. 
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    According to the core observation and statistics of physical properties, it is found that weathering, tectonism, lithology and litho-facies are the predominant factors of volcanic reservoirs in Carboniferous of Junggar Basin. The reservoir space includes primary fractures, primary porosity, secondary porosity and secondary fractures. The permeability is mostly controlled by fractures. Weathering crust is the main reservoir of volcanic rock in Carboniferous. High quality reservoirs are mainly located 250 m from the top of weathering crust. Among all the high quality reservoirs, the paleohigh around the depression is the better position. As the distance from the top of weathering crust increases, the filling degree of fractures as well as porosity becomes higher and this degrades the reservoir quality.
    Geochronology and Geochemistry of Granite Pluton in the North of Qiaowan, Beishan Mountain, Gansu Province, China, and Its Geological Significance
    FENG Jicheng,ZHANG Wen,WU Tairan,ZHENG Rongguo,LUO Hongling,HE Yuankai
    2012, 48(1):  61-70. 
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    To deepen the understanding on tectonic evolution of Beishan Moutain, granite pluton which lies in the north of Qiaowan, northern margin of Dunhuang block (south belt of Beishan Mountain), Gansu province, is studied in geochronology and geochemistry. The hornblende granite contains a LA-ICP MS zircon U-Pb aged at 303.7±2.4 Ma. Its εHf(t) value varies from -1.2 to 5.8, εNd(t) value is high (-0.40 to -0.06), and (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.704524 to 0.705062) is relatively low. The pluton apparently belongs to sub-alkline and high-K cal-alkaline series (K2O is 4.09% to 5.58%, K2O/Na2O is 1.34 to 2.07) and shows as I-type granite with metaluminous-peraluminous characteristics for A/CNK is between 0.92 and 1.04. The hornblende granite pluton has LILE enrichment, especially rich in Pb, Rb, Th, and U, depleted in HFSE (Nb, Ta) obviously in spidergram. It also has a rich LREE and flat HREE in REE patterns with no or extremely weak Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.67 to 1.17). From the εHf(t), εNd(t) values and geochemical characteristics, it can be concluded that the pluton is a mixture of crustal and mantle derived magma. The mantle derived magma may be directly from anatexis magma in deep mantle and then underplate below the continental crust. Based on regional geology and the geochemical characteristics, the hornblende granite pluton in the north of Qiaowan was formed during post-collision period, which suggests the collision of Beishan Mountain is already finished in late Carboniforous.
    A Novel Algorithm of Fingerprint Thinning Based on Gabor Phase
    GAO Xin,LIU Chongjin,FENG Jufu
    2012, 48(1):  37-41. 
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    The authors propose a novel method of fingerprint thinning based on the Gabor-phase image. The Gabor-phase image is an intermediate result of fingerprint enhancing, and the ridge center can be located at the discontinuities of the phase image. The authors utilize an edge-detect-like method to extract the thinned ridges from the phase image. This strategy is different from most existing algorithm which requires extra steps of image binarization so that it can improve both the efficiency and accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm yields better thinning result in much less time.
    Study on Fluorescence Enhancement of Single Molecules near the Resonant Plasmonic Nanoantenna
    REN Pan,GU Ying
    2012, 48(1):  1-6. 
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    The authors theoretically investigated the fluorescence enhancement of single molecules near the resonant silver nano-antenna. The optimal fluorescence effect occurs at the large optimal coefficient, defined by the ratio between the normalized near field and decay rate. It shows that when the polarization of dipoles is parallel to the polarization of incident field and the dipoles are located within the specific nanoregion of 30-100 nm away from the metallic surface, a large fluorescence enhancement is achieved. For the different polarazition of dipoles, the enhancement effects of emission are also discussed at different location of dipoles and different incident wavelength. The results are helpful in the experiment design of single molecular fluorescence near the plasmonic nano-antenna.
    Accurate Array Geometry Inversion of Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic System
    KONG Fanda,HE Tao
    2012, 48(1):  71-78. 
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    An advanced technique to accurately invert the array geometry of the high resolution deep-towed multichannel seismic system DTAGS (deep-towed acoustics and geophysics system) was developed for each shot based on previous studies. This technique used picked arrival times of direct wave and sea-surface reflecting wave as constrain conditions, brought the systematic error of the array nodes’ depths and the fluctuation of the seawater velocity into the inversion process, and employed genetic algorithm to simultaneously invert the whole controlling parameters and to achieve globally optimistic DTAGS array geometry. In the application of exploring marine gas hydrate at the North Cascadia margin, the advanced array geometry inversion technique improved the DTAGS imaging quality dramatically, and thus provided full and accurate details of gas-hydrate-related sedimentary and structural features.
    Effect of Urbanization on River Hydrological Process in Shenzhen River Basin
    GAO Xiaowei,LIU Jiahong
    2012, 48(1):  153-159. 
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    Shenzhen River Basin is a typical area with high speed of development and high degree of urbanization. Based on the rainfall data from 1988?2006, the relationship between rainfall and natural runoff was simulated by the Soil Conservation Service model with RS and GIS technology. Furthermore, the natural runoff, runoff coefficient and annual runoff were analyzed including the effluent of wastewater produced by the permanent people living in the basin. Results show that agricultural land was quickly converted into built areas and the volume of wastewater was increased more than two times. The natural runoff was increasing year by year, which was closely related to the rainfall with the break point in 1993 calculated by Mann-Kendall method. The runoff coefficient was also rising influenced by the conversion of land use patterns, which effect on the runoff was weakened by the heavy rain. Finally, the annual runoff was enlarged. The Principal Component Analysis showed that rainfall was the most important factor of runoff volume, but the influence of the urbanization of land use and population can’t be ignored.
    Explicit Memory or Implicit Memory: An ERP Study on Memory Bias toward Female Facial Attractiveness
    ZHANG Yan,KONG Fanchang,GUO Ying,REN Jun,CHEN Hong
    2012, 48(1):  160-168. 
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    The event-related potentials (ERPs) technology was used to examine the neural basis of recognition memory toward female facial attractiveness based on a study-recognition experiment paradigm. Data from 38 participants (21 male, 17 female) were included in the analysis. Gender differences indicated that attractive female faces elicited more enhanced early ERP components (N90, N220, N300) for male than female participants during recognition memory task. This suggested that female differed from male in gene, sex hormone levels, brain structure and functions. For males, implicit memory has significant effect on N80 and LPC (300?600 ms) components, while explicit memory has significant effect on P170 and LPC (400?600 ms) components. The strongest effect of implicit memory appeared in the central and parietal electrodes, and so did in the prefrontal and frontal electrodes for explicit memory. The results suggest that male showed a stronger effect of memory bias toward female facial attractiveness than female, and the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory have been dissociated within a single recognition task.
    Orthogonal Design of Xilinhaote Lignite Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide in Aqueous Alkali with Microwave-Assisted
    LANG Yuqi,FENG Bo,QIN Chunmei,WANG Jian,QI Lu
    2012, 48(1):  169-172. 
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    Microwave-assisted Xilinhaote lignite oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous alkali were studied by using orthogonal test. Taking the yield of succinic acid as index, the reaction time, reaction temperature, the concentration of H2O2 and the alkali/coal mass ratio were investigated. The highest yield of succinic acid under the optimum reaction conditions was 20.4% (daf). The optimum conditions include reaction temperature 180°C, reaction time 1 hour, alkali/coal mass ratio 1.5:1 and the concentration of H2O2 0.026 mol/L.