Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis

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Study on Relationship between Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Strategy of Farming and Grazing Households: A Case of Uxin Banner in Ordos

MENG Jijun, Amrulla, LIU Yang, XIANG Yunyun   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes MOE, Beijing 100871;
  • Received:2012-03-19 Online:2013-03-20 Published:2013-03-20



  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京100871;

Abstract: Based on the questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics, quantitative evaluation of the livelihood assets in Uxin Banner was made, revealing the relationship between livelihood assets and livelihood strategies and analyzing the influences of de-farming and anti-grazing policy on the local livelihood. The main research results are as follows. Firstly, pasture area, credit conditions, family income and livestock quantity are important livelihood assets for the local households, while the stocks of social assets and human assets are relatively lower, indicating rich natural resources, adequate financial inventory assets but less ability and quality of people, so that the configuration of livelihood assets couldn’t be optimized properly. Secondly, households possessing rich human, financial and social assets tend to non-agricultural activities, while those with abundant material and natural assets are more willing to agricultural activities. Thirdly, the implementation of de-farming policy leads to the changes in cultivated land amount and planting structure, mainly presenting the phenomenon of “farming for support” and the transfer of agricultural labor forces to non-agricultural activities. And the implementation of anti-gazing policy results in the changes of husbandry management into agricultural management modes, that is a tendency to yard feeding sheep and pigs and developing large-scale and specialty farming, leading to the issue of role-change and needs of vocational training. Fourthly, the implementation of these policies still has several problems, especially in the livelihoods guidance on immigration, protection on basic life, a reasonable determination of subsidies amount and guarantees of follow-up ones, transfer and absorption of surplus labors. Given the above aspects, suggestions on how to improve the local livelihoods strategies while promote the de-farming and anti-grazing policies at the same time have been put forward from the perspective of sustainable livelihood.

Key words: livelihood assets, livelihood strategy, land use, participatory rural appraisal, Uxin Banner

摘要: 基于问卷调查和数理统计等方法, 对鄂尔多斯市乌审旗农牧户生计资产进行定量评估, 揭示了生计资产与生计策略之间的关系, 探讨退耕禁牧政策对生计的影响。结果表明: 1) 草场面积、信贷情况、家庭收入、牲畜数量是重要的农牧民生计资产, 但研究区社会资产和人力资产存量较低, 使得丰富的自然资产和较充足的金融资产, 因人的能力和素质相对较低, 不能形成最佳的生计策略; 2) 人力资产、金融资产和社会资产丰富的农户往往倾向于非农活动, 而物质和自然资产丰富的农户往往更愿意从事农业活动; 3) 退耕政策的实施导致耕地数量和种植结构发生变化, 主要表现为“为养而种”, 农业劳动力逐步往非农转移; 禁牧政策的实施导致牧业经营转变为以农业方式来经营, 倾向圈舍饲养羊和猪, 发展规模化养殖和特色养殖; 部分移民存在角色转变和职业培训问题; 4) 退耕与禁牧政策的实施仍然存在一些问题, 尤其表现在对移民的生计指导、 部分 农牧民基本生活的保障、补贴金额的合理厘定及后续补贴的保障、剩余劳动力的转移和吸纳力等方面。基于此, 从可持续生计的角度提出提高研究区农牧民生计策略的途径及推进退耕禁牧政策实施的建议。

关键词: 生计资产, 生计策略, 土地利用, 参与式农村评估, 乌审旗

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