Taking Betula platyphylla forest and Quercus wutaishanica forest, two main vegetation types in Mt. Dongling, Beijing as study object, we sampled paired rhizosphere and bulk soils in spring (May), summer (July), autumn (September) and winter (December) in 2017, and measured soil physiochemical properties, microbial biomass, functional traits of plant leaves and fine roots, activities of three hydrolases (BG, NAG, AP) and two oxidases (POX, PER) as well as their temperature sensitivities and vector characteristics. The results showed that EEA, Q10 and vector angle of soil in both forests had significant seasonal variation trends, and the seasonal variation trends of hydrolase activity and temperature sensitivity were opposite to those of oxidase. EEA, Q10 and vector characteristics of rhizosphere soil and bulk soil were different, but their seasonal variation trends were similar. Temperature was an important driving factor of the seasonal dynamics of soil EEA, Q10, and vector characteristics. Soil pH, soil nutrient content, leaf nutrient content, fine root biomass and fine root density showed significant effects on soil EEA, Q10, and vector characteristics.