Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis

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Effects of Divided Attention on Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Short-term Memory

BAO Yan   

  1. Department of Psychology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871
  • Received:2000-12-19 Online:2002-01-20 Published:2002-01-20


包 燕   

  1. 北京大学心理学系,北京,100871

Abstract: College students were tested to investigate attentional resources demanded by encoding and retrieval processes in short term memory with a divided attention paradigm. Tone monitoring task was used as a secondary task during encoding, retrieval or both. Results of free recall and serial recall experiments consistently showed that memory performance was significantly impaired while divided attention at encoding, but unaffected while divided attention at retrieval, compared wtih that of full attention condition. The data suggested that encoding processes of short-term memory demand relatively large attentional resources, while retrieval processes in short-term memory demand little of them.

Key words: attentional resources, divided attention, short-term memory, encoding, retrieval

摘要: 以大学生为被试,采用分配注意范式探讨了短时记忆编码和提取所需的注意资源。研究发现:与集中注意相比,编码阶段进行第二作业导致记忆成绩显著降低,而提取阶段进行第二作业则对记忆成绩没有影响。自由回忆和顺序回忆的结果一致。本研究表明,短时记忆编码是需要较多注意资源的控制加工,而短时记忆提取则是相对无需注意资源的自动加工。这与当前关于长时记忆的研究结果类似,而与早期以第二作业成绩为测量指标的短时记忆研究结果有所不同。

关键词: 注意资源, 分配注意, 短时记忆, 编码, 提取

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